Chapter 2 Notes
Chapter 2 Notes BSC 215
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This 4 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by Alyssa Haney on Monday January 26, 2015. The One Day of Notes belongs to BSC 215 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Jason Pienaar in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 151 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology in Biological Sciences at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 01/26/15
Chapter 2 Chemistry of Life Matter anything that occupies space and has mass 0 Mass vs weight 0 Mass doesn t change 0 Weight changes gravity 0 States of matter 0 Solid I Defined shape and volume 0 Liquid I Undefined shape defined volume 0 Gas I Undefined shape and volume Energy capacity to do work put matter into motion 0 No mass 0 Takes up no space 0 Only tangible in its effects on matter 0 Potential energy 0 Stored energy 0 Kinetic energy 0 Movement of energy Law of energy conservation energy cannot be created or destroyed ony converted between different forms 0 Potential orkinetic 0 Chemical 0 Electric 0 Kinetic o Electromagnetic 0 Mechanical Elements simplest form of matter to have unique chemical properties 0 eg water molecule has unique chemical properties but consists of hydrogen and oxygen that can have unique properties 0 atoms of H and O consist of protons neutrons and electrons o proton in O is no different than a proton in H o H and O are therefore elements Major Elements 0 Carbon 18 body mass 0 Oxygen 65 body mass 0 Hydrogen 10 body mass 0 Nitrogen 3 body mass 0 Calcium 15 body mass 0 Phosphorus 1 body mass 0 Lesser elements S K Na Cl Mg Fe 08 0 Trace elements Cr Co Cu F I Mn Mo Se Si V Zn 07 0 Minerals inorganic elements extracted from soil and plants passed up from food chain 0 eg Ca P Cl Na Mg S and most trace elements Atoms o Consist of o Protons neutrons and electrons 0 Atomic number proton number 0 Atoms hve mass 0 Proton and neutrons each weigh 1 AMU Electrons are negligible 0 Atomic mass number of protons number of neutrons o Atoms are electrically neutral 0 Number protons number electrons H o Valence electrons o Outershell Zn 2 and oclet rule I When atoms interact trying to reach 8 electrons in outer shell 3 Hydrogen and helium exceptions Isotopes Atoms that differ only in number of neutrons and mass 0 Atomic weight is weighed average mass over all known isotopes of an element 0 Isotopes chemically behave the same 0 But physically unstable isotopes radioisotopes decay over time radiation I Physical halflife vs biological halflife getting rid in body Radioactive isotopes 0 High energy radiation typically ejects electrons from atoms 0 Low penetrance I Alpha and beta particles 0 High penetrance I Gamma rays 0 All can produce dangerous ions and free radicals I Destroy biomolecules Ions and Electrolytes o Ions Charged molecules 0 Elements or molecules 0 Unequal number of protons and electrons o Ionization I Octet rule atom with lt4 valence electrons give them up 3 Cations I Atoms gt3 and lt8 valence electrons gain more 3 Anions H o Electrolytes substances that ionize in water can conduct electricity 0 Anions and cations are separate Free Radicals chemical particle with an odd number of electrons 0 Highly reactive o React with proteins DNA etc converting them to free radicals o Antioxidants neutralize free radicals 0 Super oxide anion Chemical Reactivity 0 Some atoms are chemically reactive others are not 0 Why I Valence shells and octet rule Chemical bonds 0 Types of bonds depend on ways that atoms share electrons o onic bonds one donates one receives I eg sodium chloride NaCl I transfer of electrons from one to another them opposites attract o nonpolar covalent bonds I carbon most common I sharing of electrons in order to satisfy octet rule or duet rule I double and triple covalent bonds very strong 0 Polar covalent bonds I Water vshape I Sharing of electrons in order to satisfy octet duet rule I But one atom has a greater affinity for the electrons creating a slight charge difference poles o Hydrogren bonds I Water gliders and water 0 Van de Waals forces I Brief attractions between nonpolar molecules due to temporary polarization electron cloud disturbances Organic Molecules are carbon based why 0 4 bonds at a time 0 Stable and reactive bonds 0 Abundant on earth o Lightweight easily manipulated by enzymes 0 Organic molecule used by lifeform in metabolic reactions organic chemistry