Chapter 1 Book Notes
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This 3 page Reader was uploaded by Emily Brandenburg on Monday January 26, 2015. The Reader belongs to 4362 at Ohio University taught by Hoyt in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 85 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology of Justice in Psychlogy at Ohio University.
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Date Created: 01/26/15
Forensic and Legal Psychology Chapter 1 D Hugo Munsterberg is considered the founding father of psychology and law 0 He wrote quotOn the Witness Standquot with the purpose of turning the attention of serious men to a eld which demands the full attention of the social community D Muller v Oregon Brandeis Brief 0 The Supreme Court ruled that the workday of any woman employed in a laundry or factory could be limited to 10 hours Major victory which sought to reduce work hours improve wages and restrict child labor D The Realist movement 0 1 Because society is always in ux faster than the law laws must be continually reexamined to make sure they serve society well 0 2 Law is quota means to social ends and not an end in itselfquot 0 3 Law must be evaluated in terms of its effects D Brown v Board of Education 0 The Supreme Court voted that keeping black and white children segregated in separate schools was a violation of the 14th amendment of quotequal protection under the lawquot 0 The Effect of Segregation and the Consequences of Desegregation A Social Science Statement 0 Segregation generated a feeling of inferiority affected learning and motivation D quotpsychology is descriptive and law is prescriptivequot 0 Psychology tells us how people actually behave and the law tells us how people ought to behave D Geert Hofstede and quotuncertainty avoidancequot o Cultures high on this develop elaborate rules and rituals in an effort to promote clarity and stability D Differences in Psychology and Law 0 Psychology emphasizes the characteristics of groups while the law emphasizes individual cases o The primary goal of psychological science is to provide a full and accurate explanation of human behavior Mainly interested in nding truth 0 The primary goal of the law is to regulate human behavior Mainly interested in rendering justice 0 The law is based on authority psychology is based on empiricism Psychologists as Advisors 0 Clinical psychologists testify about whether the defendant meets the legal de nition of insanity 0 As a trial consultant they can help with jury selection witness preparation or trial strategy o If a case is appealed to a higher court it is possible for psychologist to contribute to written argumentsbriefs submitted to the court Psychologists as Evaluators 0 Answer the question quotdoes it workquot Psychologists as Reformers 0 When psychologists have suf cient con dence in their ndings to advocate a particular change in the legal system Expert testimony 0 People who have acquired specialized knowledge through education and experience are called upon to testify in courts or in front of legislative bodies 0 A lawyer will use an expert to testify if heshe thinks it will strengthen the case 0 The judge can refuse to allow testimony if heshe thinks it will confuse jurors or have too much of an impact on the jurors 0 Four criteria Daubert Standard that should be used when deciding if scienti c testimony should be admitted The testability or quotfalsi abilityquot of the theory or technique Whether the scienti c ndings have been subjected to peer review Whether there is a known rate of error Whether the conclusions are generally accepted in the relevant scienti c community D A psychologists loyalty must be to their discipline They must strive to report the current state of scienti c knowledge accurately D Amicus Curiae Briefs 0 The goal is to summarize the relevant body of research and to clarify the overall meaning of a set of ndings