Chapter 1 Notes
Chapter 1 Notes PSY-P 101
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cierra Beyers on Monday January 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY-P 101 at Indiana University taught by Jeff Huber in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 196 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Indiana University.
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Date Created: 01/26/15
Chapter 1 January 15th 20th 22nd Intuitive thinking often useful often wrong Our intuition is limited Our thinking is easily in uenced 4 Thinking Errors 1 Hindsight Bias I knew this would happenquot a Making a postdiction 2 Overconfidence error a Illusion of Validity David Kahneman i Evaluating soldiers for advancement b Elizabeth Loftus Experiment i Watch car crash and report speed 3 Perceiving order in random events a Coincidence error perceiving order in randomness b Meaning error reacting to coincidence as if it has meaning Critical thinking careful style of forming and evaluating knowledge than just using intuition Scientific Method Set up situations to test Make observations Does data fit with our ideas If not modify our ideas and test again Scientific Method Has Revealed Our brain can recover from early childhood brain damage Sleepwalkers aren t acting out their dreams No hidden unused 90 of brain exists Brains don t have memories locked in a file Theory helps understand organize explain predict behavior and events EX All ADHD symptoms are reactions to eating sugarquot Hypothesi testable prediction consistent with theory EX If kid eats sugar he will act hyperquot Danger with theories Our theory can bias our thinking Overconfident Sometimes we look to prove our theory Disconfirm hypothesis prove our theory wrong test all parts Operational definitions guidelines for making accurate unbiased and careful observations Replication Have you already proved the theory Well prove it again Different results mean that first study is awed as well as the theory and hypothesis Description Research Case Study observing and gathering info to study an individual Naturalistic Observation gathering info about behavior by watching not intervening or changing anything Surveys and Interviews having other people report on their own attitudes and behavior Case Study Benefit source of ideas about human nature in general Danger overgeneralizing from one example or atypical sample Example Phineas Gage lost left frontal lobe shows function of brain Naturalistic Observation Used to study more than one individual and find truths that apply to a broader population Survey Random Sampling Chicago Tribune Truman won Not Dewey which is what the paper said People were interviewed by phone not enough people with phones Only wealthy people could afford phones and they tended to side with Dewey Use this if you want to know about a HUGE population Saves time and money Every individual in population has to have and equal chance of being in sample Selection is driven only by chance not by any characteristic Random sampling did not occur in our experiment with oceans and pulse Wording Effects Results from survey change due to wording Anchoring wording of survey Q Should we give aid to poor YES Should we give welfare to poor NO Mississippi River is 2340 miles long Correlation Measures how closely two factors vary together How well you can predict a change in one from observing a change in the other Negative Correlation one goes up the other goes down 0 Facebook friends and time spent studying Positive Correlation one goes up the other goes up 0 height and shoe size Correlation Coefficient number representing strength and directions R value Strength of Relationship how close the dots are to straight line 000 to 100 Just because there is a correlation doesn t mean one causes effects the other quotCorrelation doesn t mean causation Experimenting Experimentation manipulating one factor in a situation to determine its effect Experimental group receive manipulated variable Control group same in every way except the one variable we are changing Independent Variable experimental factor that is manipulated Dependent Variable thing that might change in response to manipulation Confounding Variable factors that might in uence results other than Independent variable 0 These often unintentionally in uence results Placebo Effect subjects change behavior because they expect the change due to intervention EX therapeutic touch People respond if they believe Reduce the Placebo Effect Single blind study control groups is blind to whether or not they are given real or fake treatment Double blind study researchers nor participants know which group is control nor which group is experimental Measures of Central Tendency how scores are distributed Mean Median Mode Deviation how spread out the scores are Standard Deviation how much individual scores vary from average score Skewed vs Normal Distribution Normal curve bell curvequot Weight height and blood pressure all typically have a normal curve Regression to the Mean if variable is extreme on first measurement it will tend to be closer to average on a second measurement Sir Francis Darwin EX If a golfer does extremely well on day 1 then on day 2 he is likely to be less successful than day 1 Vise versa Are results statistically reliable Not biased Are they random Is there a good representation of the population we want to study Was there an equal change to be control and experimental group Are there a lot of data points Did we use good data collection procedures
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