Unit 10 Notes - Economic Systems
Unit 10 Notes - Economic Systems ANTH 1000
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Camila Correia on Tuesday March 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 1000 at East Carolina University taught by Joanne Phipps in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 03/29/16
Unit 10 Notes – Economic Systems Adaptive Strategies -Interconnected systems for survival -Five primary strategies: 1. Foraging -Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) -Detailed collective knowledge of flora and fauna in their surroundings -Small communities (40-60 people) -Egalitarian Society (all have equal access to resources) -Elders respected based on knowledge -Divisions of labor based on gender 2. Horticulture -First cultivating economy -Naturally-occurring plants are relocated to a garden -Slash-and-burn technique to clear land -Population limited by available useable land -People own garden produce, not land itself -Villages consist of single kin group -Each household owns a garden and keeps the produce 3. Pastoralism -Livelihood based on tending livestock i. Secondary animal products -Diets supplemented with foraging -Herd animals provide subsistence and social status -Kinship determines access to land/ resources 4. Agriculture -Intensive form of cultivation -Use of domesticated plants -Use of technology -Modification of land (Terrace Farming) -Individual ownership of land -Large increase in number of people supported (depends on sophistication of technology used) 5. Industrialism -Economic emphasis on manufacturing -Individualism (labor role determined by function) -Globalization (import of raw material; wars erupt over scarce res ources) All economic systems are composed of three parts: 1. Production -Five types of production strategies: 1. Foraging 2. Horticulture 3. Pastoralism 4. Agriculture 5. Industrialization 2. Distribution -How goods are moved throughout the community -Reciprocity -The giving and taking without use of money -Foragers, horticulturalists and pastoralists -Generalized Reciprocity -Primary type among foragers -People give without expectation of return -requires high levels of trust and accountability -Balanced Reciprocity -Giving with expectation of return -Primary system among horticulturalists and pastoralists -Redistribution -Primary form of agricultural societies -Centralized authority accumulates goods from society members, redistributes them as it sees fit -Resources often used to improve community infrastructure -Market Exchange -Found in industrial societies -Exchange goods (including labor) for money -Value of a good is not fixed (determined by rules of supply and demand) 3. Consumption -How goods are used -Associated with systems of distribution -Regarded in terms of capital -Goods used to produce other goods -In agricultural and industrial societies, ruling class has primary access to goods -Consider: In USA 2008, wealthiest 10% of population owns 70% of country's cap ital -The poorest 40% owns only 0.5% of capital -Issues of differences in access directly related to poverty -Ideas of poverty and wealth are ethnocentric The Kula Ring of the Trobrianders -System of non-competitive, ceremonial exchange -Only men participate -Helps establish, reinforce alliances and trading relationships -Two things traded: -Red shelled necklace "Soulava" -White shelled armband "Mwali" -If you get a Soulava, you must give a Mwali in return, and vise versa.