Introduction to Visual Arts: Chapter 13
Introduction to Visual Arts: Chapter 13 115-01
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Suzannah Hudson on Tuesday March 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 115-01 at Brigham Young University - Idaho taught by Geddes, Matthew J in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Intro to Visual Arts in Art at Brigham Young University - Idaho.
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Date Created: 03/29/16
Chapter 13 Notes Architecture: Arch (higher) Tecture (building) Aesthetics and Function for architecture. Would have to study engineering, structure foundation, art, and much more. Structures must be tested first so that we can have a limit of how tall they can be built Building codes came from trial and error Tension (Pulling material apart) and Compression (forces that crush material) with stone. Trabeated (posts with block on top) and Arcuated (arches) Load Bearing (1 material that holds up and protects) and Skeleton & Skin (1 material holds up, another material protects it) ROCK CUT: Subtractive process, find a rock structure, cut out design and rooms. Egyptians would this for tombs and temples. Forms of Structures over the Years: STACKING & PILING: Taking separate rocks, and piling on top of one another. A great example is the Great Wall of China. Corbeled Arch, where we can stack rocks one upon another, then we add blocks that are slightly longer, until they meet up and have a keystone. POST & LINTEL: Vertical and Horizontal structures, such as Stonehenge. A lot of Egyptian and Greek architecture used post & lintel. A lot of posts for a good structure. Such as the Parthenon. Doric is blocked, Ionic is scrolled, and Corinthian is leafed. Entasis: Columns sizes will swell into the center Caryatids: Columns that are shaped to look like humans ROUND ARCH: Roman Arch (has a base, and then stack blocks until the keystone), Barrel Vault (like the roman arch, but longer and wider, to create a tunnel), Groin Vault (2-barrel vault arches joined together to create a 4 entry-way area) Roman Aqueduct: Roman arches built side by side, and then having Roman arches built on top of the first row. th th Romanesque: 10 -11 century, 3 elements of a Romanesque structure; Round Arches, Thick and Heavy walls, and Small Windows. POINTED ARCH: “Gothic Arch.” Arches can be taller, needed less stones, bigger cathedrals. Gothic: Pointed Arches. Bases can be thin and tall. Big, stain glassed windows. Flying Buttresses, the arms that support the pointed arches. DOME: Roman idea, taking arches and rotating it 360° to form a circle. Drum (making a round building, create tall circular walls, and put the dome on top. Example: Pantheon), Squinches (create a square structure, put the dome on top, and the squinch is the decoration that fills in the corner that connects the square and circle structures. Example: White House), Pendentives (Round arches are created, then put a dome on drum on top of the arches, and the space filling the arches to the drum are the Pendentives.) Oculus: An opening within a dome at the top that allows light and air in. Nave: the main body of the church. It provides the central approach to the high altar and gives it support to the entire structure. Cast-Iron Construction: A form of Skin & Structure, the Cast Iron part is the structure, and glass is the Skin. Can achieve great heights, greater than stone. Truss: a supporting structure or framework composed of beams, girders, or rods commonly of steel or wood lying in a single plane. Usually takes the form of a triangle or combination of triangles, since this design ensures the greatest rigidity. Example: Eiffel Tower Bauhaus: “form follows function.” This is the International Style, where structures are tall, box-like and are decorated with nothing but glass. Rigid. SUSPENSION: Structures that are hanging and flexible, such as the Brooklyn Bridge and Golden Gate Bridge. Cables are hanging down from top of structure and is holding these bridges up. REINFORCED CONCREATE: Another term for reinforced concrete, “Ferro Concrete,” Iron that is put into concrete, so that the concrete can be tensive and compressive. GEODESIC DOME: Take triangular structures, and create a 3D triangle, known as a tetrahedron. Now we can make a dome out of tetrahedrons, to have an extremely strong structure. Buckminster Fuller, “If you want to know how old a building is, weight it.” Fuller created this structure. 1895- 1983. Structures up until today, all buildings were in geometric shapes, for strong supports. But now, we can create architecture that uses organic shapes, and give the structures a softer, more visually pleasing look. Such as
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