Astronomy 6 The Space-Age Solar System Week Notes 1
Astronomy 6 The Space-Age Solar System Week Notes 1 ASTR 6 - 01
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lidia Carrillo on Tuesday March 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ASTR 6 - 01 at University of California - Santa Cruz taught by Smith,G.H. in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 42 views.
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Date Created: 03/29/16
March 29/March 31 2016 First week Lecture Astronomy 6: The Space-Age Solar System I. Konstantin Tsiolkovsky th Scot teacher in Russia beginning 20 century 1903 Investigation of Space by Means of Reaction Devices *First person to write about rocket theory / how physics works/ equations to understanding physics *To think about rockets being able to use for space travel and wrote first scientific paper on it Suggested liquid fuel could be used instead of solid fuel for rockets for space travel 1911,1912,1914 wrote more paper about the physics of rockets were / equations for rocket travel II. Before Konstantin People new rockets existed Rockets were used in military even though had no huge impact in was as they were small People didn’t understand rockets could be used to travel to space III. Robert Goddord 1919 wrote A method of Reaching Extreme Altitudes Explained about using rockets theoretical *1922 begins laboratory experiment with rocket engines *First to successful launch a rocket on liquid fuel from Auburn Ma 1916 1927-1929 Further Rocket launches from Ma *1930 moves experiment to Roswell, New Mexico Rocket launches at Roswell Dec 1930 Rocket launches 2,000 feet contains a speed of 500 miles/hour 1935 rocket reaches 7500 feet altitude 1937 highest altitude attained 9000 feet 1937-1941 launches continued Work out of the public IV. Engines In a rocket the combustion of fuel occurs in the combustion chamber Oxygen combines with some chemical such as fuel to create heat When combustion fuel and oxygen produce very hot gas it releases heat Gas when sufficiently hot will exhaust out of nozzle and of bucket Liquid fuels were better than solid fuels for combustion which surprising since some liquids would burn Alcohol with oxide would be good for combustion V. Newton’s Third Law of Motion To every action there is an equal and opposite reaction Ex balloon thought as a rocket March 29/March 31 2016 Action : air rushes down Reaction: balloon goes up VI. Herman Obaith in Germany 1923 wrote book The rocket Into Interplanetary Space *Got people thinking about space travel even though Tsiolkovsky and Robert Goddord had written about this before wasn’t in public VII. American Rocket Society 1933 begins launching liquid fuel rockets from New York 1933 first successful rocket launch by Soviet Union Sergei korolev will play important rule in space program for soviet union VIII. The German VFR Society Society for Space Travel found in 1927 included Wernher van Braun 1931 rocket reaches 3000 feet altitude a group of amateurs 1932 demonstrates rocket to German Army as a result Wernher van Braun joins the Germany army research group IX. Capt. Walter Dranderg / German Army 1929 German army begin rocket research do to being prohibited from developing heavy artillery (Treaty of Versailles) through Department of Weapons Development 1931 army establishes facility at Kummersdorf south of Berlin Oct 1932 Wernher van Braun first from VFR to join the army research group With him army starts building experimental engines 1934 A-2 rocket reached altitude 2000 feet As a result start to build bigger facility in Peenemunde 1937 Peenemunde is built and A-5 rocket is built which reaches altitude 7 miles 1931-1934 More tests done on A-5 rocket A-5 stepping stone to next thing A-4 rocket next thing they started working on 3 Oct 1942 first successful flight Goes above hundred miles Opened eyes for space travel X. British Royal Airforce bombs Peenemunde Open eyes of Germany that they had to find way to move rocket Germany renames A-4 to V-2 (vengeance weapon 2) 1944-1945 Germany launched V-2 against Great Britain V-2 would travel faster than speed of sound so people couldn’t hear the rocket coming at them XI. Allies closing on Peenemunde March 29/March 31 2016 Those who made V-2 (engineers, scientists) including Wernher van Braun surrender to U.S army Those who surrender were moved to an Army base at Fort Bliss, near El Paso, Texas V-2 parts were shipped to the nearby White Sands Proving Ground in New Mexico now known as the White Sands Missile Range XII. U.S involvement in rockets U.S commissions White Sands Proving Ground in New Mexico and that becomes main rocket facility for U.S first launch of V-2 rocket in the U.S took place in April 1946 many modifications done the original German V-2 rocket increase the size & weight of the payloads so could carry 1946 first space program to be able to carry small things into space JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) a liquid fuel rocket is constructed called WAC Corporal XIII. U.S Army V-2 Program to test rocket propulsion systems to test various types of payload hardware and instrumentation to achieve new flight altitude records to take the first photographs of the Earth from near-space altitudes 1947 V-2 first photograph U.S navy to measure properties of the upper atmosphere such as temp and pressure 1946 first to instruments to measure atmosphere properties of high altitude To make observations of the sun and solar radiation 1948 instrument detects x-rays from sun To make observations of cosmic rays Energetic atomic particles from interplanetary space To test the effects of rocket flight on biological specimens o 1947 first flies and seeds ejected at altitude 68 miles o 1958 first laboratory monkey launched altitude 38 miles o 1949 additional launches XIV. Aerobee rocket 1947 the navy wanted to use to send this to space to experiment More stable than V-2 two stage rocket o When fuel of lower stage(stage one) used up would detach from upper stage(stage two) to continue going up o Stage one would fall back to earth First launch 1947 Capable of carrying scientific instruments of around 100 pounds March 31,2016 First week Lecture Astronomy 6: The Space-Age Solar System I. Aerobee rocket First launched in 1947 Capable of carrying scientific instruments Reaching altitude 120 miles Mice & monkey launched Noticeable for being two stage rocket Carried imagery devices that would take pics such as sun II. Army Bumper Program Decided wanted to use two stage rocker They put two rockets together the V-2 (on bottom) and WAC Corporal (on top) 1948-1949 Six launches for this particular rocket at White Sands Problems sometimes when V-2 or WAC Corporal would miss fire 1949 set altitude record 244 miles III. U.S Navy in the meantime was Interested in doing rockets Viking 1 was more powerful & stable than Aerobee Experimented launching with Viking 4 1954 Viking 11 climbs to 158 miles highest altitude at White Sands Viking Program also for one stage rocket IV. Muroc Army Air Force (Edwards Air Force Base) Establish to test air craft 1949 renamed as Edwards Air Force Base As aircraft kept getting faster was facing problems of controlling it a) X-1 Program Purpose to fly faster speed of sound 14 Oct 1947 go on record for giving faster than speed of sound 700 miles/hour 45,000ft X-1 & Super fortress put together X-1 was underneath Aircraft high altitude but not flying fast b) X-1A Improved version from X-1 had higher speed and altitude Piots Yeager & Murray 1954 Arthur Murray sets new altitude record 90,400ft (17mi) c) X-2 Test piolet Iven Kincheloe (first of spacemen) Sep 1956 altitude record 126,200ft (24miles) “near space environment” -above 106,000 ft (20 mi) altitude the piolet is above 99% of Earth’s atmosphere air craft could only be there certain time March 31,2016 V. U.S Air Force Project Manhigh 1950s you could put helium in balloon & sending 20 mi up while carrying a person The program ran 1957-1958 There was three flights Manhigh 2 was the most successful flight (Manhigh 2) Major David Simon record balloon flight 101, 500ft August 1957 last 32 hours About day is in near space environment VI. Project Excelsior Three main trying to get Helium balloon higher Capt. Joseph Kittinger 1960 he gets to 102,800 ft Parachutes back down VII. Army Service in U.S Army interested building stronger V-2 If rockets were going to become more powerful they needed new location so establish Atlantic Missile Range 1949 Located at Cape Canaveral 1950 had first successful flight in with two-stage bumper VIII. Definitions Trajectory- the flight path followed by rocket Sounding rocket- a rocket used for making measurements at high altitudes Ballistic missile- a military rocket used to deliver a payload from one point on Earth to another (the further from target point the better) Range- -distance between launch site and place payload returns to Earth’s surface Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile Range 1,500-3,400 miles Intermediate- Continental Ballistic Missile (ICRM) more than 3,400 mi Nose Cone- for ballistic missile still continuous going (detach from rocket) Parachute attach if you want to land safely IX. The Redstone Arsenal Wernher Van Braun- goal to get groups together for V-2 rocket to be able to use for military reasons Goal was to be able to launch at Cape Canaveral and the army to do it themselves Redstone first launch on 1953 Many more developments done of it 1953-1958 Comes up with Jupiter Rocker More stronger than Redstone 1957 first successful launch Single stage rocket Larger liquid fuel March 31,2016 Van Braun starts to build a three stage rocket U.S army Redstone design by Van Braun Jupiter C was a three stage rocket from Redstone Sep 1956 altitude 650mi, Range 3,400 Van Braun would want to use Jupiter C to send satellite 1950 army told to stop building something stronger than Jupiter C X. Airforce Thor IRMB 1957 launch its missile Only intermediate range Atlas on pad in 1957 major rule in space program More powerful than Redstone, Juipter, V-2 Titan 1 ICBM 1959 the stage ballistic missile can carry heavier missile USAF Titan 2 Silo Launch More powerful missile Powerful enough to send Develop facilities 1957-1958 (Vandenberg AFB) First launch 1958 Thor IRBM XI. Sergei korolev 1946 Scientific Research Institute 88 1947 first launch of V-2 rocket in the Soviet Union occurred at a facility named Kapustin Year End of WWII came with parts to build The group task of fighting V-2 Soviet Union only capture little so immediately had to be building their own rocket The Soviet R-1 rocket No more using spare parts V-2 Soviet copy of German Soviet geophysical rocket based on the R-1 (Kapustin Yar 1949-56) Sergei Korolev his identity kept a secret no one knew who he was outside Soviet Union Two version of the R-2 rocket Dogs successfully launched by R-1 &R-2 geophysical rockets The R-5 Rocket Range around 1200km Launches from Kapustin Yar started 1953 They take rockets like R-5 and strap many rockets to it (trying to build Intermediate- Continental Ballistic Missile that’s why we’re doing that) R-7 Rocket First successful launch August 1957 new facility near Tyuratam The price have to make them all start at the same time R-7 flies before Atlas March 31,2016 Newton o Discover a path where didn’t have to land back to earth o Realized could send artificially objects o Intermediate if able to send projector XII. International Geophysical Year (IGY) July 1957-December 1958 In 1955 science agencies in both the U.S &Soviet Union announce their intention to launch Earth satellites XIII. Project Vanguard Navy was chosen to send satellites to space Launch of Sputnik I on 4 October 1957 o Korvolez actually had achieve rocket to send satellite before navy o Carried radio transmitter Sputnik II and Laika launch on 3 Nov 1957 Attempted launch of first Vanguard satellite Dec 1957 o Van Braun given go after failure to do Jupiter C for satellite Launch explorer I on 31 January 1958 XIV. The Van Allen Belt He built little device on Explorer I that could detect protons An area in space name after him XV. The Atom Nucleus protons positive electron charge Electrons –negative electric charge orbital around the nucleus Protons visitor from space