Exam 3 Notes: Set Six
Exam 3 Notes: Set Six Bio 1144
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Murry on Tuesday March 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 1144 at Mississippi State University taught by Thomas Holder in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Biology II in Biology at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 03/29/16
Exam 3 Notes: Set 6 The Circulatory System Cont. • Heart – a large organ that pumps blood throughout body o Blood Flow: oxygenated blood pumps from the heart to organs through the arteries à arteries branch into smaller tubes called arterioles à blood passes from arterioles through capillaries where gas exchange takes place à venules drain blood from capillaries and the deoxygenated blood (that is rich in carbon dioxide) travels through the venules into veins à veins carry blood back to the heart o The mammal heart is the largest of any other group due to endothermic activity and metabolism o Evolutionary advances include an increase of size as well as increase of chambers; also a decrease of pseudochambers o Pseuochamber – a chamber off or outside the heart receiving pooled blood; function like a chamber of the heart but not actually part of the heart o Fish Heart § 2 chambers: 1 atrium and 1 ventricle § 2 pseudochambers: conus arteriosus and sinus venosus o Amphibian Heart § 3 chambers: 2 atria and 1 ventricle § 2 pseudochambers o Reptile Heart § 3 chambers: 2 atria and 1 ventricle § Only turtles have sinus venosus; none have conus arteriosus § Crocodilians have 2 atria and 2 ventricles and lack all pseudochambers o Birds and Mammals § 2 atria and 2 ventricles § Remnant of sinus venosus is patch of cells in right atrium which is the pacemaker of the heart o Heart Anatomy of Mammals § Almost 2x the mass of a bird heart § 4 chambers total § 2 Atria – thinner walled and smaller § 2 Ventricles – thicker walled and larger; left ventricle is thickest § Right Side of Heart • Conducts blood to the lungs and back to the heart • Gas exchange • Pulmonary Circuit § Left Side of Heart • Conducts blood to body • Systemic Circuit § Heart Valves – prevent backflow of blood into a chamber or out of the heart completely • Atrioventricular Valves – at the junction between an atrium and a ventricle; prevent backflow of blood into the atrium • Semilunar Valves – half-moon shaped valves that prevent blood from backing up into the ventricles whenever the ventricles relax; 2 types: o Pulmonary SV – between the right ventricle and pulmonary arteries o Aortic SV – between left ventricle and aorta (the largest artery carrying blood away from heart) • Human Heart Diagram:
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