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BSC 215 Week of 3/28

by: Regan Dougherty

BSC 215 Week of 3/28 BSC 215

Regan Dougherty
GPA 4.0

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Notes for the week of 3/28
Human Anatomy & Physiology 1
Jason Pienaar
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Regan Dougherty on Tuesday March 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 215 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Jason Pienaar in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy & Physiology 1 in Biology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 03/29/16
Tuesday, March 29, 2016 BSC 215 Lecture 18 The Skeletal System - Skeletal System Components • Bone - mineralized connective tissue • Cartilage - forerunner for bone (a step in endochondral ossification); covers most joints in adults • Ligament - dense regular connective tissue; holds bones together at joints (articulations) - Skeletal Cartilages • Hyaline - most prevalent; articular (where two bones come together), costal (connection between ribs and sternum), nasal Elastic cartilage - ears, epiglottis (prevents food form going down the trachea) • • Fibrocartilage - responsible for shock absorption; vertebral discs, knee menisci - Contains lots of water due to the presence of GAGs. - high tensile strength due to the presence of collagen - Bones • 206 bones (on average) • Axial Skeleton - main job is to protect internal organs - skull - auditory ossicles (ear bones) - hyoid bone (found in the throat) - vertebral column - thoracic cage (ribs and sternum) • Appendicular Skeleton - pectoral girdles (scapula and clavicle; one on each side) - upper limbs 1 Tuesday, March 29, 2016 - hip bones - lower limbs • What causes variation in the number of bones? - New borns have about 270 bones. Some separate bones begin to fuse with age. • ex. pelvic girdle, frontal bone - Sesamoid bones (bones formed within tendons) Additional bones may form within the tendons due to stress in those areas. • - Wormian (sutural) bones - extra bones in the skull - Bone Markings • Depressions - spaces for nerves; shaped for articulation - Facet • ex. rib - Fossa • ex. humerus - Fovea • ex. fovea capitis (femur) - Groove • ex. costal groove (rib) • Openings - enclose delicate structures; allow passage to marrow - Canal • ex. external acoustic meatus (temporal bone) - Fissure • ex. superior orbital fissure (sphenoid) - Foramen • ex. supraorbital foramen (frontal) • Projections - sites for ligament or tendon attachment; shaped for articulation 2 Tuesday, March 29, 2016 - Condoyle • ex. mandibular condoyle - Crest - Head • head (humerus) - Tubercle and Tuberosity - Process - Protuberance • ex. external occipital protuberance (occipital) - Trochanter • ex. greater trochanter (femur) - Line - Skull Bone Memorization Tricks • Cranial: PEST OF 6 - parietal (2) - ethmoid (1) - sphenoid (1) - temporal (2) - occipital (1) - frontal (1) • Facial: Virgil Is Now Making My Pet Zebra Laugh - vomer (1) - inferior nasal concha (2) - nasal (1) - mandible (1) - maxilla (1) 3 Tuesday, March 29, 2016 - palatine (1) - zygomatic (2) - lacrimal (2) • Orbital: Every Student Fancies Learning Zillions More Parts - ethmoid - sphenoid - frontal - lacrimal - maxilla - palatine • Paranasal sinus bones: For Easier Sinus Memorization - frontal - ethmoid - sphenoid - maxilla - The Fetal Skull • Fontanels - skull areas where intramembranous ossification is not yet complete - anterior and posterior • Sutures - skull lines between or within developing bones, where intramembranous ossification is not yet complete - frontal, coronal, sagittal, lambdoid - Vertebral Column cervical (7) • • thoracic (12) • lumbar (5) • sacral 4 Tuesday, March 29, 2016 • coccyx - Thoracic Cage • 12 ribs on each side - 7 true - 3 vertebrochondral - 2 floating sternum • - manubrium, body, xiphoid process - Axial Accessory Bones • hyoid • ossicles 5


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