Notes for Exam 3
Notes for Exam 3 HIST 1010-004
Popular in World History 1
Popular in History
This 24 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tess von Gal on Tuesday March 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1010-004 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Kate Craig in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see World History 1 in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 03/29/16
Tuesday, March 8, 2016 The Rise and Spread of Christianity Crossed BCE/CE Rubicon- only common era going forward Axial Age ideas all belonged to a certain place Going forward, religions detach from certain places o Universal Religions: transcend locality and ethnicity, don’t “belong” to a certain place or people Relationship between universal religions and the political states that they are involved with How are religions and empires related to one another? What are the effects of mixing the two? o What should be the appropriate relationship between the two? o How religious authority and political authority resolve conflict Roman Empire, 1 century CE o Conquest and assimilation o Roman religion: Polytheistic Helps assimilate conquered polytheistic areas Mystery cults: Isis, Mithras Religious diversity and tolerance Mithras: bull and war imagery, popular with military Members don’t get in trouble- free thinking so long as there is no rebellion against the state o Must accept roman imperial authority above all else Judea as exception Monotheistic, difficulty assimilating Judah the Maccabee- revolt o 66-70 CE: Masada, Jewish rebels commit suicide What happens before the revolt? o 30 CE: tense political climate o Partisan groups: “zealots” (armed revolt) vs. Pharisees (collaboration) Active debate of the time Sets the stage for Jesus o Yeshua ben Yosef (Joshua son of Joseph) Greek: Jesus Is he a rebel or the Messiah? Emphasizes the tension within the Jewish community Separation between church and state Executed by Romans for sedition (inciting people to revolt) No written teachings: Four accounts of his life (Gospels) written by his followers long after his death o Paul of Tarsus Is this only for Jews? Moves beyond being a subset of Judaism New adherents didn’t have to follow Jewish practices Traveling, preaching in Greek, writing letters to Christian groups Meanwhile: no more Temple (The Arch of Titus) o Symbolic victory over Judea o Christianity separates form Judaism right when the heart of their culture is taken away o Pax Romana: Roads connecting the Roman Empire Connect people- things can travel, but so can ideas Christianity can spread easily throughout the Roman Empire o Follows the Roman trade routes o Spread and Evolution: Social appeal to Christianity: “First will be Last and the Last will be First” Slaves, women Bishops- organizational system, network of hierarchy and authority The Deified Emperor o Allegiance to the Roman State o Emperors get assassinated a lot A way to get people to show allegiance is to have them worship you as a god while you are still alive “Pledge of Allegiance” analogy weeds out believers from possible rebels o Causes trouble for Christians Martyrs: dying for their faith Willingly allow execution rather than assenting to authority Executing people who do not sacrifice for the emperor publicly The Passion of Saints Perpetua and Felicity o Who: Vibia Perpetua (well-to-do new mother from a good Roman family) o What: partially Perpetua’s own account of her death, and some by another Christian; Account of her martyrdom o When/Where: Carthage (North Africa), 203 CE o What arguments does her father use to try to convince her to stop seeking martyrdom? What does this tell us about the Roman idea of family? For the family, her child Roman idea of the family: she is supposed to value them above everything If one family member does something, it affects the whole family’s reputation Father is on top in the Roman family- can’t call her his daughter since she is going through with it (father should be the one in charge, not begging for his daughter to follow his wishes) o What is the problem with Christians according to the Romans? What about Perpetua’s behavior would a Roman have found shocking? She’s ignoring the basic principles for what women are supposed to care about in Roman culture Father and baby o How do Christians interpret their deaths? What about their behavior would a Roman have found shocking? They are willing to endure a “share in the Lord’s suffering” Would be strange to Romans for someone to be willing to go through it Impressive in some ways: what is the worst possible death to most people, they welcome willingly o This primary source can be seen as Christian propaganda o Conflict between Roman values of family and state and Christian values of monotheism and religious community o Can conformity to a religious idea take precedence over conformity to the state? Diocletian o Army general, comes to power by fighting his way to the top o Political instability leads to Tetrarchy: rule by four Means of preventing civil wars whenever there is a change of power Senior and Junior Emperors: systematic transference of power It all falls apart, but its an interesting concept o West and East o The Great Persecution (303-404 CE) Initiated by Diocletian before he dies Exterminating the source of conflict Constantine o Rose to power through the military o Chi-Rho: The Battle of the Milvian Bridge “Christos” = Christ Has a dream, wins the battle, and becomes emperor o Edict of Milan (313) Tolerance of all religions- No more persecution of Christian Constantine is paying his debts, but good news for Christianity o Constantine favors the Christians He realizes that he can harness the administrative structure of Christianity Reestablishing power at a local level Can be useful to him and the state Disagreements on key Christian issues The divinity/humanity of Jesus o Keeps the West/East division of the Emperor o Moves the capital from Rome to Constantinople Symbolically moving it from the West to the East East- most Christian hierarchy o Council of Nicea (325) Called by Constantine Alliance between the Christian church and the Roman state Who is in and who is out? Enforcing conformity “Nicene” Christianity: Jesus is both human and divine “Arian” Christianity: Jesus is not divine, only human Linkage between monotheism and the empire o Hierarchical structure of Christianity: Females cannot be bishops Offers a built in network of local authority Changes in the Roman Empire o A Christian Roman Empire 391: Emperor Theodosius I bans polytheistic worship o Hypatia (415) Fast transition of Christianity from persecuted to the persecutors o “Barbarians” Romans start hiring barbarian troops as defense o Huns and Goths Huns start moving around Eastern Europe Goths (people who used to live there) are displaced, and find their way into the Roman Empire o Rome sacked in 410 by Goths Augustine: City of God Christianity does not guarantee earthly success 476: The Last Roman emperor in the West deposed polytheism swoops in and blames the Christians (no longer “One God, One Empire”) o Christianity stays when the Roman Empire falls apart o Two Halves of the Roman Empire have different histories form now on East: Byzantium: Christianity and empire still linked (still works), falling back and regrouping, still Christian Justinian attempts to conquer back the West and fails West: Roman infrastructure falls into disrepair as different Barbarian kings set up around the old Western Empire Theodoric, and Arian Christian Gothic king of the Romans Cassiodorous: his aristocratic Roman Christian helper Fusion between many different influences: o Roman Empire o Christian Church o New Barbarian kings Thursday, March 10, 2016 Islam and the Caliphate Flat past: people think that the past looks exactly like the present (“The way it is now is the way it was back then”) How do religions and empires support each other? What are the effects of theses relationships? With Christianity, it developed as part of the Roman Empire, and then was later persecuted as it was a threat to political authority Religious and political authority will be fused together at the very beginning of Islam Byzantines and Sasanians o Byzantine Empire: Christian, Justinian (emperor) o Sasanian Empire: Persian Empire Zoroastrian, but tolerate other religions such as Christianity o Roads: Christianity and Judaism have moved along the Silk Road and spread beyond the Roman Empire Transfer of goods, ideas, and diseases as well o Great Arch of Khusro I o Fighting each other to exhaustion Both strong but weakened by the wars they have with each other Also weakened by the plague Arabian Peninsula o Nomadic Arabic-speaking tribes Not politically united United by language Polytheistic o The Quraysh tribe Mecca: the town of their home base People can come and trade in a safe place The Kaaba: sacred space of trade Tribe makes a lot of money from this Muhammad o Born 570 CE o Wife Khadija (also his employer o Well respected within his tribe and clan o 610 CE: Revelations begin as he meditates in cave outside of Mecca The Hija Cave Khadija reassures him that he’s not crazy Understood by Muslims to be the direct word of God given to hum by the Angel Gabriel o The Quran Holy Book of Islam Considered the direct word of God (different from the Bible) Not just God inspiring Muhammad to write Cannot be translated- those aren’t the words God spoke Same God as Judaism and Christianity There is one God (consider the impact in the polytheistic world Muhammad was living in) Allah= God o From Mecca to Medina 622 CE: Hijra (“the departure”) Year 0 AH Fundamental moment for Muslim calendar Similar to Jesus’ birth for the Christian calendar Constitution of Medina Invite Muhammad and his followers to come there Restoring order Fusion between religious authority and political authority Establishes himself as in charge of the religious and political communities Umma = “band of the faithful” Refers to a religious community as well as political at this point Creates a super-tribe o Above clan relations o Binding warring tribes, clans, etc. together o Back to Mecca The Kaaba Polytheistic gods are destroyed Site of Abrahamic worship now Death of Muhammad: 632 CE Considered the final prophet No one can be like him since the entire religions is initially concentrated in him completely o Caliphs (“Successors”) Four Rashidun (“rightly guided”) caliphs (632-661 CE) Umayyad Caliphate (661-750 CE) Abbasid Caliphate (750-1260 CE) Rapid Political Expansion o All within 100 years of Muhammad’s death o Military Success Weakness of Byzantines and Sasanians Tolerance of Christians, Zoroastrians, and Jews (jizya- poll tax) Forced conversion is prohibited in the Quran Fusion of tribal raiding culture with universal religion Fighting Arabian tribes united by the idea of umma Gives them a common goal/belief “jihad” = struggle Does not mean warfare Interpreted in different ways o Some have thought of it as military struggle against polytheistic religions o Most consider it as the struggle to live righteously Question of Succession o Four Rashidun Fourth Caliph: Ali, son-in-law of Muhammad Assassinated in 661 CE o Sunni Islam: acknowledge all four caliphs o Shia Islam: only acknowledge Ali and family Family of Muhammad are the only legitimate successors and the only people who deserve political and religious leadership The Umayyad Caliphate o Urban, Cosmopolitan, Arabic-speaking, Islamic World Long standing intellectual traditions o Islamic political world adopts these traditions Using Arabic as a way to connect the Islamic world Similar to Hellenism and Greek language o ***Mecca is not a city, it is a trading post o Great Mosque of Damascus Umayyad Caliph builds it Something that will make Damascus and important and beautiful city Five Pillars of Islam o Shahadah: Recite the Muslim profession of faith, “There is no God but God, and Muhammad is His Prophet” o Salat: Pray five times a day facing Mecca o Sawm: Fast during the month of Ramadan o Zakat: Pay alms to relieve the poor o Hajj: Make a pilgrimage to Mecca once in your life, resources and health permitting The Quran CONTEXT: direct word of God as dictated to Muhammad beginning in 610 CE outside Mecca Stable text (little variation) Divided in to pieces (suras) given in order of length o What characteristics of God (Allah) and the Islamic faith does this sura suggest? Gracious and merciful God He is the source of everything (help, guidance, worship, etc.) Will ultimately judge you Emphasizes monotheism o What relationship does this sura envision between Judaism, Christianity, and Islam (and their holy texts)? More in common than they have apart Began with the Torah, the Jesus, then the Book of Allah (Quran) Judaism and Christianity were leading up to Islam All part of the same thing (pieces of the puzzle, and the completed puzzle is Islam) Building one on top of the other o What beliefs about the afterlife and the relationship or Islam to Judaism/Christianity are reflected in this sura? They teach the same thing: incorrect behavior results in turning away from teachings/God Should be worrying about he afterlife more than current life on earth Islamic Texts and Legal Traditions o Hadith Saying attributed to Muhammad Associated to a chain of reporters Some are well-sourced, and others are not (becomes a question of what are you going go take as authoritative) o Ulama Educated men who have a knowledge in the Islamic faith Caliphs do not interpret things, they do o Sharia There is no single text Answers the question: “how are you supposed to behave as a Muslim?” Bans in Alabama on religious codes of behavior Not a law as we think of political laws o Al Shafi’i: schools of law Legal scholar Interpret things in different ways There was and is significant variation within Islam of both belief and practice. There was also significant variation between states ruled by Muslim leaders as the political world broke up after 750. Political Fragmentation o Umayyads overthrown by Abbasid Caliphate o Cultural Achievement Philosophy, science, mathematics, architecture Umayyad Spain: Cordoba (mosque) Fatimid Noth Africa: Cairo (center of intellectualism) Translation and transmission of learning Ibn Sina (980-1037) Great Muslim Intellectual Philosopher Wrote medical book Arabic numerals Intense intellectualism despite political disunity Tuesday, March 22, 2016 Tang and Song China Exam Date April 5 (Tuesday after the Review session) Covers less than Exam 2 Big Picture of Medieval World: (500-1500 CE) o Rise of Christianity (1-300) o Islam and the Caliphate (610-1258) o Tang (618-907) and Song China (960-1279) o Backwater of the Christian West- medieval Europe (500-1500) o Sub-Saharan Africa and the Empire of Mali (500-1500) o Mongols (13 century) Chronology of China o Shang o Western Zhou o Eastern Zhou o Qin Han o Tang o Song Goals for today: o Ideals of government How to rule, how to justify rule o How to deal with a universal religion Buddhism Tension between political and religious power o China’s development as a medieval economic powerhouse China is rich, Europe is poor o Columbus sails to provide wealth (attempts to find China) From the Han to the Tang o Han state breaks up o Competition among small kingdom Especially nomadic takeovers o Reunification Short-lived Sui dynasty (589-618) Sets the stage for a long lasting dynasty to almost immediately take over o The Yellow River Switches its course Unpredictable, “China’s sorrow” The Rise of the Tang o (618-907) o Li Yuan o Li Shimin (Emperor Taizong) Considers the military as essential to the state o Military: aristocratic cavalry, conscripted peasants, hired nomadic troops Able to expand significantly Clash with the Abbasids (Islamic Caliphate) Haven’t seen this before- direct contact between empires (because they are so big, they meet in the center) World becomes more directly connected Tang Government o Society (**not slave-driven) Court Commoners Slaves o Balancing Power Imperial Court Official bureaucracy (Confucian scholar-officials) What keeps going even if there is a crisis of authority Balances the single power of the Emperor Eunuchs: surgically castrated males, attached to the Imperial Court, in charge of the military o Civil Service examinations Meritocracy of scholar-officials Confucianism becomes foundation for Education as well as the key to government jobs Taken in order to join the bureaucracy Not practical exams Test knowledge of the Confucian Classics How well can you write? (become more rigid over time) Devastatingly hard (almost everyone fails, some more than once) Allows some opportunities for advancement If you are a really smart commoner, you can be successful However, not as equal a playing-field as advertised Can you afford to educate yourself enough to pass? Can you take the time off work to study? Sons of merchants cannot take the test for a while Women aren’t allowed to take it o Law: The Great Tang Code What aspects of Confucian thought can you see reflected in this legal commentary? Emperor as a parental figure- to be revered and respected Punishments involve your family, not just you o A Successful Test-Taker in Old Age: Tang Poet Du Fu “On the River” Has gone through the civil service examinations Reflecting on how central this has been to his identity Successful role in the Tang government Retirement isn’t all that it’s cracked up to be Primary Source: “On Effective Government” o Who: Emperor Taizong (Li Shimin) o When: Reigned 626-649 CE o Where: Tang Dynasty China o What: Advice for future Tang emperors, his descendants o Confucianism (government by moral example), Filiality, Ancestor Worship, Humaneness, Ritual (Code of Behavior) o Humility and simplicity, Agriculture is key, Mandate of Heaven, Debate on Salt and Iron: taxes and the people, “Dark Ages” (Drake, talking about the past) The people will suffer, therefore you will suffer o Civil Service examinations, Education (Confucianism), Scholar- officlas, Meritocracy, ritual o Key themes: How Taizong idealizes, discusses, and justifies rulership The Application of Confucian ideas to government Importance of scholar-officials Evolution of Buddhism (**Breaking chronology- taken from many chapters) o Buddhism as a “universal religion” o Mahayana and Hinayana Buddhism Buddha as a god (200 CE) Rather than someone who achieved enlightenment “Greater/Lesser Vehicle Buddhism” Mahayana considers the existence of lesser gods as well (Bodhisattvas) o Bodhisattvas and Buddha-lands Out of the goodness of their hearts have not gone to Nirvana, but have stuck around to help people out Merchants can participate in this Buddhism Spreads Christianity and Islam aren’t good at adopting local religious practices (ancestral polytheism does not fly with these two) Buddhism doesn’t make a blank slate o More of a melting pot, flexible Uses the Silk Road (ideas travel) o Buddhism in China Kumarajiva (344-413 CE) Translation of Buddhist texts to Chinese Explains in a more accessible way By 400 CE: 1,700 monasteries, 80,000 monks and nuns in China o Not paying taxes (remember later) o Amitabha Sutra Why do you think translations of texts like the Amitabha Sutra might have helped Buddhism spread into China? “A world full of ultimate bliss” New approach to Buddhism to open up paradise-like afterlife to people Buddhism and the Tang State o Emperor Taizong Toleration of Buddhism o Emress Wu Patronage Buddhism presents a useful idea in regards to female rule Concubine of Taizong Concubine and wife of Emperor Gaozong (Taizong’s son) Political tools: The bureaucracy Secret police Scholarly emphasis on women Buddhism o Han Yu: scholar-official Antagonism o Emperor Wuzong Suppression Narratives of Difference (Antagonism of Han Yu) o “Us vs. Them” Narratives o Defining “Us”: Markers of Identity Chinese Identity The other “barbarians” do not do these things Foot binding (song): goal is to have 3 inch feet, sign of social status Agriculture o Tang: Limit aristocratic lands Everyone gets land o Song (South): Introduction of quick-ripening rice (1000) Iron plows o Population explosion Economy o Song Manufacturing: Iron and Steel Production Canals unifying the economy Grand Canal (Sui Dynasty creates it- but Song doubles-down) Links everything together, easy transportation/exchange of goods Creates national unified economy o Cities and Trade Tang capital Chang’an (cosmopolitan city), largest in the world (8 c.) Diverse city (different religions) China is the heart of Afroeurasian economy Silk manufacturing makes them vital to economy o Technologies: Gun powder (improvement) Silkmaking (development) Ceramic (development) Printing (development) o Paper Money (Song, 12-13 c.) th Metals are being used for new things Counterfeiting is a severe offense o Takeaway: Medieval China became an economic powerhouse in terms of agriculture, population, manufacturing, and trade Thursday, March 24, 2016 The Backwater of the Christian West: Medieval Europe Why should we care about Medieval Europe? o Most isolated and poor regions in the world at this point o Negative Attributes: Only occasional connection to larger Afro-Eurasian world Bad economy Politically fragmented Limited scholarly/intellectual output o Positive Attributes: The connection to Afroeurasia, although only occasional, is still always there Bad economy will drive Europeans outward Politically fragmented, but religiously unified Limited scholarly output will have implications of how Europe approaches the rest of the world Important Points: o Christian West will adopt idea of itself as the successor to Roman Empire o West will adopt Christianity as basic tool of organization and control o West will develop clear narratives of difference and exclusion: “us vs. them” Adherence to official Christianity Define how Europeans approach minority groups and the larger world Fractured politically- weakened infrastructure o Nobody is maintaining it Rise of Political Unity o Charlemagne (dies 814) King of the Franks: “Carolingian” Empire Unifies small territory Allies with Christian Church Nicene Christianity and the Pope Ties to Rome o Carolingian Power Continuous military campaigns Bishop of Rome = the Pope Arian neighbors pose a threat to his authority- Carolingian powers are good at getting rid of Arian threats Beginning of an alliance between Charlemagne and Pope Charlemagne crowned “Roman Emperor” by the Pope Christmas Day 800 CE It’s been 300 years since there has been a Roman Emperor in the west Alliance between religious and political authority “Carolingian Renaissance”: Latin reflective of the unity between politics and religion characterized by Carolingians using the idea of Rome as a source of legitimacy using Latin (not spoken, but a church language)- documents become legible after standardization The Western Christian Church o Christianization and conquest Captured countries (Saxons)- force of baptism Using Christianity for people to show loyalty to the state o Missionaries Sent out by states (with the source of political power) to bring areas into this cultural fold o Bishops More than religious figures at this point Religious, political, and social power Used to send out as part of Charlemagne’s administration o Monasteries Become part of this political world of power Abbots (leaders of the monasteries)- sources of power o Literacy: Latin Languages connect people and bring them together Latin follows a different path Not a spoken language that people grow up speaking Language of the Church and the Aristocracy Becomes a way to separate across social class All documents produced in language (in Monasteries) Church is in control of this elite language The Vikings o Breakup of the Carolingian World Partially responsible o Raiders, traders, tribute-takers Comfortable on the sea Pursue different types of strategies Not always out to kill- also engaged in trading o “slav” = slave only thing Europe has to offer (since economy is so bad) captured and sold as slaves in the Muslim world Blonde haired, blue eyed o Part of the connection between Europe and the larger world o Iceland, Greenland, North America, the Baltic, the Mediterranean The Year 1000 o Warming trend means better crop yields o Society is changing “those who fight, those who work, and those who pray” Lords can be militarily or religiously affiliated Workers are the majority o Feudalism: social system Relationships between peasants and lords Relationships of lords to one another “lords and vassals” Homage: ritual of the alliance/exchange Pyramid of allegiance? Much messier Complex and conflicting network between fighters “The Peace of God” o Collaboration of monasteries, bishops, laypeople Outdoor meetings o Goal: limit violence of “those who fight” Caused by Feudalism/vassals o Relics: physical remains of the saints (like Perpetua) Used as tools to form oaths which “those who fight” can swear on to limit violence The First Crusade o Muslim Turks pressuring Byzantium Emperor Alexius I o Pope Urban II: Council of Clermont (1095) Exporting violence “Go fight somewhere else” Addressing the same issue as “The Peace of God” Giving “those who fight” new targets Call for Christians to go and fight the Muslims who have taken the Holy Land Vast, diverse army (not organized, no organized leader) o Slaughter the Jewish communities along the way The Rhineland Massacres Why go all the way to Judea to fight non-Christians when there are some right here? Evidence of Christian “us vs. them” mentality o Arrive in Constantinople Siege of Antioch: long and exhausting Siege of Jerusalem (1099) Muslim power is fragmented Almost immediately recaptured Establishment of tiny “crusader states” (don’t last long) The Deeds of the Franks: Primary Source o Context: Who: Fulcher of Chartes, a priest and chaplain What: description of the events of the First Crusade from a Western Christian perspective When: 1096-99 CE (First Crusade occurs) Where: describe Urban’s speech in France (1095) and the capture of Jerusalem (1099) o Content: How does Pope Urban II justify fighting to help the Byzantine Empire? Have to stop the non Christians before they stop “us” “God’s faithful people” o all are violent, but using this idea to justify their actions over the enemy’s No political narrative- Christianity is used as the purpose How does he define the “enemy”? Going against the non-Christians Muslims who are attacking the Byzantine Empire, and thus Christianity itself Who does Pope Urban expect to go on crusade, and what incentives does he offer? All Christians (Everybody) Including sinners- will be forgiven if you go Offers indulgences/remission of sins Why do you think Fulcher reports what day Jerusalem falls to the Crusades? How are the crusaders interpreting their success? Jerusalem falls to the crusaders on Good Friday o Strong connection between the ultimate sacrifice/triumph of Christianity and that of the crusaders They are able to take Jerusalem because God wants it o “God help us!” Why do you think the Muslims sought refuge in certain places in the city? Why do you think the Christians killed everyone in the city (regardless of place, age, and gender)? Muslims went into sacred/religious places (temples) Effects of the Crusades o No permanent presence in Holy Land o Strengthens authority of the Popes o Reopens contact with larger world Puts Christian West back in the loop o Establishment of “militant” Christianity: Templars Fusion of “those who fight” and “those who pray” Monastic order that also fights o “Us vs. Them” Formation of a “Persecuting Society” o Official Christianity as defining characteristic: who is in and who is out? o Heretics: those perceived to be out of line with official Christian dogma Jews, Muslims, lepers o Engaged in identifying difference Suppressing and destroying it The West Reemerges (post 12 c.) th o Reappearance of cities o Universities- training clergy o Arabic scholarship- older Greek traditions preserved and maintained Christian response Have to deal with the fact the Muslim thinkers have been thinking of these things for a very long time Make it back into the Christian west o St. Thomas Aquinas Christian thinker who incorporates Muslim thinking o Merchants and Friars New cultures of wealth and trade Credit and corporations St. Francis of Assisi (1181-1226) Wealth is not the way to a holy life To be holy you should be poor Franciscan friars: travel and preach St. Dominic Dominican friars Enforcing conformity inward and beginning to look outward Inquisition Tuesday, March 29, 2016 Sub-Saharan Africa and the Empire of Mali Historiography o “history of history” o study of history has often excluded certain groups of people o Sometimes the question of “what history is” has been used to justify those exclusions Excluding Africa: Hegel o Has been subject to exclusion from history o Hegel is wrong- the goal of justifying “Western” (European) exploitation in the modern world Using history to say that some people are unhistorical or part of the world; false idea that some people don’t have history (have always been the same) Great Zimbabwe o 36 ft. high walls: all the stones are held together without mortar o Example: censorship policy- nobody could claim that Africans built the wall Considered undeveloped, and did not want to give credit to great civilizations of Africa (response was to deny them) We want to escape historical frameworks that we know are wrong Can be difficult to move beyond them; they shape what we do and how we approach things without us knowing it or consciously acting as such Epistemology- How do we know what we know? o What tools do we have to learn about the past? Texts (from insiders and outsiders) Oral History Archaeology Ethnography- study of present people Historical linguistics Historical climate data Genetics o Discussing how multiple kinds of historical evidence can come together How have different kinds of historical evidence added to our understanding of Africa? Archaeology o About material culture; using the stuff people had/made to understand their lives (learning about the group as a whole) What did people eat? What did people make? How did they use what they made? Where did they live, where did they go? Jenne-Jeno o Old theory: Cities only came to sub-Saharan Africa after Islamic traders from North Africa overcame the barrier of the desert to establish long-distance trade routes o Jenne-Jeno: Ancient Jenne o Discovered the time depth of the city Graphic of change over time Archaeological findings Pits filled with broken pots and bones o Burial grounds o Ethnograpy: using the present to understand the past Kneeling statues within the walls of the house People have statues of their ancestors on an altar in their hallway Evidence of ancestors Problems with it: Blends the present with the past Can still be useful to draw connections using what you have o New Ideas: Cities like Jenne-Jeno were thriving along the Niger River long before the arrival of Islam Archaeology and ethnography help us understand city development Trans-Saharan Trade o 1200s: increased demand for gold across Afro-Eurasia not necessarily valued- value is created by scarcity things that are scarce are valuable o New exchange of goods Gold, slaves, and ivory (sub-Saharan Africa) Salt and Copper (Northern Africa) o Trade brings Islamic merchants and Islam south of the Sahara Texts from outsiders (Islam) about sub-Saharan Africa Problems with using texts from outsiders to understand a society When they describe people, they are influenced by their own culture and ways of evaluating things (what their priorities are) o At the same time, larger states are coming together The Empire of Mali o 13 c. decline of the Empire of Ghana (no relation to modern state) o Who will bring the diverse peoples of this area together politically? o Political (ethnic) groups: Soso Malinke (Mande-speakers) Primary Source: The Epic of Sundiata (Oral History) Who: Sundiata, chief of the Malinke people, who becomes Mansa (emperor) of Mali When: 13 c.th Where: The Empire of Mali, West Africa What: an oral history told by Griots, first transcribed in 1960 from the words of Djeli Kouyate o What is a griot? What status and purpose do griots have in Malian society (past and present)? Story-tellers Passing on stories, traditions, and deeds of kings on to coming generations Kouyates is the griot who is speaking Royal griots, in service of the princes o Modern Griot: Peace keepers, continuity of the tradition, blend the past and present o The Story: Soumaoro (villain)- sorcerer-king of the Soso Sundiata (hero): son of the Mande (“Mandingo”) king (Keita family) and Sogolon, the powerful avatar of the “buffalo woman” (and his griot: Balla Fasseke) Has royal blood, symbol of the lion Must marry the ugliest woman (Sogolon)- buffalo From exile to successful conquest: Sundiata’s exile, the defeat of Soumaoro and the triumph of Sundiata Capital established at Niani A story about creating an empire- who is going to unify these diverse groups and kings? o According to this passage, where does Sundiata’s authority as Mansa come form? How is his imperial power justified? 12 Kings proclaim him as emperor- symbolically giving over their power o What does this passage suggest about how the empire of Mali was structured and governed? Idea ritual- symbolically giving back the power (they can keep their kingdoms) They are all united underneath Sundiata o What does this passage suggest about how the Empire of Mali was structured and governed? They are all in charge of their own kingdoms, but Sundiata still can take their power away Yearly meeting- Niani If you don’t do what you’re supposed to you’ll be reprimanded at Niani Decentralized, but still checks in place to support Sundiati’s power o Key Themes: The roles of griots, both in telling the Epic of Sundiata (Djeli Kouyate) and in the 13 c. events described in the Epic (Balla Fasseke) Political coming together and government of the Empire of Mali Muslim Mansas o Blending Islam and African spirituality o Massive wealth of Mali Trade and Religion o Mansa Musa (1312-1332) Legendary pilgrimage Currency inflates for decades later- everyone has so much gold because this wealthy prince has moved through Wealth he gives away on his journey Christian-Western consciousness- wealthy king in Sub- Saharan Africa Rumors spread throughout the world Texts from Outsiders o Ibn Battuta: Malian Emprire (1304-1368) Using check boxes to describe their culture Reporting on what he is seeing, but judging it from his won perspective o Why no insider texts? Mali 2014: burnt books and manuscripts Abdel Kader Haidara secretly coordinated smuggled manuscripts out of the library o Hero of history Mostly saved becayse of heroism Wake up call: African historical archives should be getting the attention they deserve 98% of manuscripts have not been given serious attention; essential part of world history has been seriously neglected Worlds Apart: Europe and Africa Worlds Together: Islamic World and China Mongols 13 c.h o Drew a huge part of Afro-Eurasia together Through rapid and brutal conquest o Uniting this large area made travel more possible and safer than ever before Pax Mongolica = Mongol Peace Marco Polo o Germs travel too: The Black Death (Bubonic Plague) o Characteristics of the Mongols: Religiously tolerant Practical Established meritocracy o Areas that they conquered retained their cultural identities while being politically unified under the Mongols
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