Notes for Exam 3
Notes for Exam 3 HDFS 2010-002
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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tess von Gal on Tuesday March 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HDFS 2010-002 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Rauer in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Lifespan Development in HDFS at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 03/29/16
Tuesday, March 8, 2016 Physical and Cognitive Development in Adolescence Five Developmental Tasks of Adolescence Physical Changes of Puberty o What goes on in puberty o Factors affecting the timing of puberty o Early vs. late- effects on girls and boys Advances in Logical Thinking o Four advances in adolescent thinking o Side effects of abstract thinking Inside the Teenage Brain (video) Five Developmental Tasks of Adolescence o Accept full-grown body and changes of puberty o Acquire more adult ways of thinking o Construct (or consolidate) an identity- solidify a sense of self o Develop more mature ways of relating to peers of both sexes Issues of dating o Attain emotional and economic independence Transition to parenthood is much later than it used to be Physical Changes of Puberty o Defining puberty: the set of biological processes that change the immature child into a sexually mature person o Puberty is a series of events that take place over a block of time o Timing of Puberty Girls: 10.5-15 Boys: 11.5-17 o Timing of puberty is earlier than in the past- most likely due to better nutrition and medical care Looking at the definition of sexually mature o Characterized by asynchrony (uneven growth)- body parts mature at different rates o Two types of physical changes: Overall body growth Controlled by increases in growth hormones Growth spurt: every part of the body increases, see increases in size, strength, weight (25-50 lb.) Reverse of cephalocaudal trend (feet grow first) o Adolescents are thought of as clumsy Girls start earlier (ages 9-10, done in 2.5 years); Boys start 2 years later and grow for a longer period of time Growth of secondary sexual characteristics (the external physical changes that distinguish men and women, i.e. breasts, facial hair, pubic hair, voices get lower) Both voices get lower, males just get lower than females The Brady Bunch: voice cracks Factors Influencing Timing of Puberty o Influenced by both genes and environment o Genetic contribution- identical twins tend to enter puberty within 2.8 months of each other vs. 12 months for fraternal twins o Multiple aspects of environment matter Weight, nutrition, diet, exercise Obesity: start earlier Malnourished: delayed puberty o Eating disorders, diets o Body doesn’t have enough nutrients for you let alone a potential child Exercise: (i.e. athletes such as gymnasts) delayed puberty Socioemotional stressors (i.e. divorce, father absence, family conflict) tend to cause early puberty Due to benefits of maturing early? o If you mature early, you would be able to move out of the home sooner o Getting out of the negative home environment Psychological Impact of Early Puberty o Girls: Below average in popularity with peers, but more popular with older boys Lacking in self-confidence, withdrawn, stressed At higher risk for developing eating disorders Their bodies are much larger than other kids their age o Boys: Seen as relaxed, independent, self-confident, popular, and attractive Tend to be leaders, athletic Good body image Bigger bodies are actually a good thing for boys Psychological Impact of Late Puberty o Girls: Regarded as physically attractive, lively, sociable, popular, leaders Good body image- have a body that is closer to the ideal in current media (extremely thin) o Boys: Viewed as anxious, overly talkative, attention seeking Looked at and treated as if they were younger Poor body image However, may be fine later on in life- more time to develop their identities with regards to careers ***Saved by the Bell: characters that embody each of these possibilities when things happen can affect you differently Four Advances in Thinking o Thinking about possibilities “What if” Thinking ahead o Thinking through hypothesis, hypothetical-deductive reasoning “If, then” able to formulate, test, and evaluate hypotheses 40-60% of college students failed abstract reasoning tests o Thinking about abstract concepts- such as love, justice, greed- turn assumptions on their heads Play devil’s advocate Inductive reasoning doesn’t work as well o Thinking about thoughts- second-order thinking- sophisticated level of metacognition Thinking about how they think Why they do better in school Side Effects of Abstract Thinking o Adolescent egocentrism: intense preoccupation with the self and with being presented in the best possible light Imaginary audience- erroneous belief that one’s behavior is a subject of constant public attention (self- conscious) Personal fable- erroneous belief that one’s thoughts, feelings, and experiences are totally unique Invincibility fable- fictitious belief that one is immune to common dangers (unprotected sex, risky behaviors) o Argumentativeness: increase in arguing with everyone due to increase in arguing skills o Difficulty in everyday decision making: overwhelmed by all the imagined possibilities Paradox of Choice Tying the Physical to the Cognitive o “Inside the Teenage Brain” (Frontline) o Attempt to understand why teenagers are the way they are using advanced neuroscience approaches and techniques o What do we do with this no information? o What do we tell parents who are struggling? Tuesday, March 22, 2016 Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Adulthood Transition into Adulthood o Less clearly defined than previous stages Puberty marks transition into adolescence What marks the transition into adulthood? Culture- military service, full-time job, etc. o Lack of clear structure has mixed effects Positive- more self-direction and flexibility Can decide what does or doesn’t work for you Paradox of choice- more options you have, the more difficult to make a decision and less likely you will be to enjoy the choice you make Negative- more floundering and avoidance of tasks o Is some degree of floundering normal? Jeffrey Arnett says yes. Seems to be “the norm” Idea that we have a new period of life emerging in which you’re trying to figure out whether or not you’re an adult Experimenting and exploring new identities and possibilities Emerging Adulthood (Arnett) o Transition from adolescence to adulthood (18-25) o Features of emerging adulthood Lots of identity exploration (love and work) Feeling in-between- not an adolescent or adult Not comfortable with saying you are an adult Some days and some ways feeling like an adult Inner monologue Highly self-focused- few other responsibilities Parenthood age pushed back Lots of instability- including living situations Constantly moving Age of possibilities- optimistic about their future o Not a universal stage*** o Britney Spears- I’m not a girl not yet a woman Early Adulthood- Peak Functioning o Seen as the “prime of life” o Physical strength increases during 20s, peaks around 30, and then declines o All body systems function at optimal level- overall healthy state- fewer visits to the hospital No major illnesses o Death from disease is rare- between 25-44 unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death Car crashes o Body has reached full form- growth in muscle increases in fat and weight When Biological Aging Begins o Genetically influenced declines in the functioning of organs and systems o Nature- asynchronous, large differences across individuals in rate and course Some parts decline faster than others Some people age faster o Physical changes of aging during 20s and 30s Changes in functioning of internal body systems Barely noticeable most of the time Only notice them during times of heavy exertion o Slower recovery time Heat and Lung (working out, stairs) Gradual muscle loss (30s) Reproductive functioning declines (late 30s) Changes in physical appearance Skincare advertisements Evidence of aging- fine lines (around eyes), thinning/grey hair, loss in collagen Less collagen- saggy and less flexible o Hand skin test Youth obsessed society o Care about the aging we can see more than internal aging Impact of Lifestyle Choices on Health o Dynamics of binge drinking Men- 5/more drinks in a row Women- 4/more o Prevalence 17,500 undergrads, 44% reported binge drinking o Why are people concerned? Culture says that this is normal during emerging adulthood Affects your ability to perform o Patterns in drinking (John Schulenberg) Once a binge drinker, always a binge drinker? Not necessarily 6,852 youth following 18-24 Multiple paths- chronic, decreased, increased, fling, rare, never Predictors of binge drinking= being white, being male, lower GPA, higher hostility, greater quantity of time spent with friends “Frat Effect” Tremendous variability What is the Naturethf Adult Thought? o Is there a 5 stage beyond Piaget’s stages? o Three characteristics of postformal thought Relativism- knowledge is relative, no absolute truth Contradiction- know it’s a basic aspect of reality Synthesis- integrate contradictor thoughts, emotions, and experiences into one model o Turns Piaget’s ideas on its head o Says we are okay with things not making sense Shaie’s Stages of Adult Cognitive Development o Acquisitive stage Childhood and adolescence Acquire information o Achieving stage Young adulthood Apply knowledge to major life decisions o Responsibility stage Middle adulthood Cognitions extend to social obligations and responsibilities How can I use this knowledge to help people who depend on me? o Executive stage Middle adulthood Applications move beyond family and coworkers to managing organizations not all adults hit this stage o Reintegrative stage Late adulthood Everyone hits this stage Focus on tasks that have personal meaning More selective o From “what should I know?” to “how should I use my knowledge?” Cognition and College o Changes in cognition that result from the college experience Improves verbal and quantitative skills, as well as knowledge of specific subjects Improves oral and written communication skills Improves various aspects of problem-solving Applying reasoning and evidence Identifying strengths and weaknesses Aware of multiple perspectives o Further changes in cognition that result from the college experience Fosters concern with individual rights and human welfare Develop a greater self-understanding, enhanced self- esteem, and a firmer sense of identity Prepares students to be lifelong learners Thursday, March 24, 2016 Socioemotional Development in Early Adulthood Levinson’s Seasons of Life o Sees development as a sequence of stable and transitional phases Stable- pursue goals, at ease with oneself Transitional- question one’s life and explore new possibilities Revolutionary when this came out in the 80s Sequence for Early Adulthood o 17-22: transition to early adulthood- task is to become psychologically independent form parents o 22-28: stable phase- become autonomous, establish oneself in the real world, work on developing intimacy o 28-33: age 30 transition, re-evaluate life choices Friends video clip o 33-40: stable phase- “settling down,” career consolidation a major goal (women tend to settle later in this phase than men do) Concerns Regarding Levinson o Relevance of patterns to today’s youth- more variety exists today Age of marriage and parenthood have been pushed much later o Absence of low-income men and women More responsibilities, not really something that’s important to you (to turn 30) o Possible inaccurate memories- often interviewed well after ages of life occurred They would tell their life narrative- was that truly their experience when they were in the midst of it Erikson: Intimacy vs. Isolation o Arises from a powerful drive to share life with someone else o What is intimacy? Involves a mutually satisfying close relationship with another o We are social creatures by nature o Must balance needs for independence and intimacy Without independence- define self only in terms of partner Definition of who you are turns from “I” to “We” Identity that you’ve worked so hard on becomes muddled Without intimacy- face isolation, loneliness, self-absorption Can go too far one way or the other Positive resolution- intimacy- committed relationship with sacrifice and compromise Better social networks, live longer Negative resolution- isolation- involves inability or failure to achieve mutuality Difficult connecting to one person can be problematic later in life (connecting with others) The Transition to Marriage o Nearly 90% of Americans marry at least once o However, Americans are waiting longer to enter into marriage 1950: 20 for women, 23 for men 2013: 27 for women, 29 for men seems to be plateauing o Why the delay? Longer education More hesitation due to divorce rates 1 in 2 married couples People think that if you’re going to get married, it needs to stick More people seeking alternatives (cohabitation) Some people don’t ever formalize their relationship More benefits are being made available Becoming more normative Whom to Marry? Factors Affecting Mate Selection o Homogamy: “birds of a feather flock together,” people usually end up dating and marrying someone with similar social characteristics such as- Age Ethnicity Religion Social class Values Propinquity (geographically close) o Physical attraction: we may prefer a more attractive person but we end up choosing someone who matches our level of attractiveness (the matching hypothesis) Angelina Jolie and Brad Pitt Some key differences o Gender differences: men and women emphasize different characteristics as important Men- value physical attractiveness, younger women Child bearing- more fertile, attractive children Women- value intelligence, ambition, financial status, character, and commitment. Prefer same age or older men Child rearing- can he help support them? Making it Work: Marital Roles o Types of Marriage: Traditional Marriage Clear division of husbands and wives’ roles- husband as breadwinner and head of household Wife as caregiver and nurturer of husband, home, and kids Egalitarian Marriage Husband and wife as equals- power shared Even in these marriages, women do more housework o Factors affecting the division of power Relative income of each partner Husband makes more- imbalance of power Wife makes more- equal power (not imbalance in her favor) Views of male as provider Degree to which they love each other equally Partner who loves the other person more has less power Presence of children Can throw things off in terms of equality What Predicts Marital Satisfaction? o Communication of emotion Need to be able to say when you are happy and unhappy o Homogamy- similarity of values & interests More similar you are, the easier things are Fundamental definition of conflict- disagreement (less opportunities for it) o Age at time of marriage- after 20 is best You have to establish yourself as an individual o Length of courtship- 6 months or longer Bachelor example Doesn’t work because they don’t have time to date them as they really are o Timing of first pregnancy- after first year Lack of sleep, loss of romance Need to establish intimacy as a couple first o Warm and positive relationship to extended family o Stable marital patterns in extended family Divorce rates increase if you have a divorce in your family Lack of models of a good relationship o Financial and employment security Stress about finances, bills, food, etc. makes it hard to think about establishing intimacy/communicating emotions Focus on survival rather than the marriage o Good conflict resolution skills Don’t make it about condescension, sarcasm, aggression, etc. “We are having a disagreement” o Realistic expectations about marriage Conflict is inevitable Unrealistic expectations can make it difficult to handle the rough situations The Healthy Marriage Initiative o In 2006 federal government allocated approx. $750 million over 5 years toward the HMI- designed to promote healthy marriages through education o Targeted at lower-income individuals Assumed to have less understanding of this o Are lower income families different? Yes- more likely to be in a single-parent household than married, two parent houses Is it because they value marriage less than families with higher incomes (as the government believed)? Attitudes Towards Marriage o Karney, Garvan, and Thomas (2003) o Compared the attitudes and relationships of individuals based on their income level o They found that the values of lower-income individuals were not that different- had higher intentions to marry o Premarital sex and Cohabitation are more likely in higher income o What’s different? The problems they are facing Money, infidelity, and drugs So what should we do? o Current efforts may be problematic: Lower-income individuals already value marriage so promoting marriage may be a waste of valuable resources The skills relevant to solving the problems faced by higher income couples may not be relevant to the types of problems (substance abuse) that lower income couples are likely to face Effective problem solving requires time and energy- two things often in short supply in lower income families o So what should we do? Address the problems they are dealing with first Tuesday, March 29, 2016 The Transition to Parenthood The family life cycle o chart Transition to parenthood o Decision to have children o Timing of parenthood o Advantages and disadvantages Transition to Parenthood o Statistics: 70% of couples bear children Fewer women are having children (80%) Having fewer children and having them later Having first child occurring at much later ages now Women are working Seen as a social status o Stable and mature o Want to become an adult before they have children o Disadvantages: less energy and less flexible o Financial aspect: Quarter of a million dollars o Family size in industrialized nations has declined 1950: 3.1 2009: 2.1 less expected to have children (still social pressures but less stigmatized to not have kids) Why do people decide to have children? o Joy of children Examples from Allen’s kids o Spouse’s wishes o Adequate financial resources Timing is right o It just happened o Care for me when I’m old Raise someone who owes it to me o Pressure from family Society in general (it’s the next step after marriage) Sliding vs. Deciding Not healthy Less commitment and more dysfunction (sliding into decisions rather than consciously choosing something) What does the Transition look like? o 4 phases in the transition to parenthood: Preparation phase- getting ready for parenthood Early adjusting phase- starts with birth and lasts anywhere from a few weeks to a few months; toughest stage due to the rapid changes and emotional and physical challenges Nobody really has any training Overwhelmed, loss of sleep, feelings of inadequacy Strongest feelings Later adjusting phase- actively rebuilding your day-to- day life and routines; often involves returning to work Feels more normal You move out of the phase where you think you may harm your baby You know you can allow it to survive Feeling adjusted phase- reaching a settling point; you feel like yourself and like a parent; one-year mark o What does this new normal entail? What changes foes parenthood bring for individuals? o Mixed effects Benefits: Warmth and affection; generates adult development; better social integration People feel more connected to the community and society Drawbacks: Role overload; work-family conflict; financial strain Mothers especially- “too much to do and not enough time to do it” Children are expensive; less money for other things (like spending it on yourself) Video: condom commercial What changes does parenthood bring for the couple? o Effects are more clear-cut Declines satisfaction consistently found for new parents Usually negative across the board Largely due to less attention focused on the marriage itself Having a child will never save a relationship/marriage Usually places more demands and makes it more difficult Video: Coca-Cola Life o Family satisfaction Stage 1: young couples without children; pretty satisfied before children come into the picture (wife is more satisfied than men are typically) Stage 2: young couples who have transitioned to parenthood exhibit a high degree of satisfaction for the husband but the wife has a significant decrease in satisfaction (lower satisfaction than their husbands after that transition) Stage 3: young couples with school-age children exhibit a declining degree of satisfaction for both husband and wife with the wife still exhibiting lower levels of satisfaction than the husband Stage 4: Couples with adolescent children exhibit uniformly declining satisfaction Stages 5 & 6: couples continue to experience a gradual decline in their relationship satisfaction throughout the rest of their marriage Less intense satisfaction/happiness, not demise of all relationships Why does it happen? o Factors that affect adjustment: Challenges with work Work brings stress Spill-over effect: stressed and unhappy at work spills over and makes home-life more difficult (to be calm and patient) Concerns about marital equity Fair house chores/work Women do more house work and childcare One person feeling like it’s unfair, not that they are split equally down the middle Video: equal share parenting Reduced time together Lessening of time and energy that relationships need o What can smooth the way? Parental self-esteem Feeling like you’re doing a good parenting job can protect the marriage Marital happiness pre-pregnancy Happier you are before, less of a decline you face after Social support Family, extended family, community, etc. Child characteristics (temperament) How difficult the child is to soothe may have a negative effect as well How much of an adjustment is it? Something extra o According to attachment theory, adult romantic relationships are all about emotional responsiveness (having a safe and reliable emotional connection with another) o Similar to relationships between parent-child relationships Feel safe and secure and protected, physically and emotionally o “the source of relationship distress is the fear that emotional connection- the font of all comfort and respite- is vanishing” we feel lonely, apart, or separate not about the details but that you are a team feeling like your partner will be there Exam Tips: Utilizing the exam review guide o Focus your reviewing of the textbook on those sections Exam Preps o 1-2:30, 3354 Haley o 4-5, 244 Spidle Hall Exam 3 Review Five developmental tasks of adolescence Early puberty- effects Advances in adolescent thinking Adolescent egocentrism Video: inside the teenage brain (prefrontal cortex) Stages of Identity formation: Identity foreclosure