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Notes for Exam 2

by: Tess von Gal

Notes for Exam 2 ANTH 1000-004

Tess von Gal
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Extensive notes from lecture for the next exam.
Introduction to Anthropology
Dr. Berk
Class Notes




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This 22 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tess von Gal on Tuesday March 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 1000-004 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Berk in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Auburn University.

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Date Created: 03/29/16
Tuesday, February 18, 2016 Lecture #7- The Primates Focus on Contemporary Species Looks at how we divide existing primate species Why we study non human primates Taxonomies and Classifications Primate Evolutionary Tendencies Classifications The Hominoids Human Distinction Why do we study Non-Human Primates? o They provide the standard to assess human uniqueness o We are closely related to them o We share an evolutionary history o Many of our behavioral adaptations are found amongst other primates  Helps us make sense of behaviors that seem to be distinctly human o We did NOT evolve from monkeys  We share a common ancestor  Evolved at the same time as them o Our species split from gorillas and chimpanzees 6-8 million years ago o How are we, as members of the Homo Sapien species, similar and different from monkeys and apes? o What can anthropologists learn about humanity by looking at these similarities and differences?  We can figure out what is unique about humanity Linnaeus’ Regnum Animale (1735) o Taxonomy based on shared features o Our current method is very similar Primate Taxonomy o Taxonomies assign and organize organisms to categories according to their relatedness and resemblance o Many similarities between organisms reflect their common phylogeny- their genetic relatedness based on common ancestry o Homologies- similarities used to assign organisms to the same taxon  Shared traits inherited from a common ancestor  Not always from a common ancestry  Can arise from similar adaptations in response to similar selective or environmental pressures- analogies o Analogies and Convergent Evolution  Have shared traits because of their similar circumstances  Similar environmental pressures over time- convergent evolution  Dolphins: are mammals but share analogies with fish Fins, hairless bodies, marine lifestyle  Birds and bats: bats are mammals, but share analogies with birds Wings, small bodies, lighter bones, ability of flight o Scientists try to focus on homologies rather than analogies o Table 5.2 on Kottak p.95  Anthropoids vs. Prosimians  Old World vs. New World  Different Ape species  Chimpanzees are Apes NOT Monkeys Primate Tendencies Most developed in Anthropoids o Grasping Ability  Hands (and sometimes feet depending on bipedalism)  Nails instead of claws o Reliance on sight over smell  “Smell to sight”  Forward facing eyes, color vision  As our brains designated more to our sight, our sense of smell was reduced o Reliance on hand over nose  “Nose to hand”  rely on a sense of touch to provide us with information  highly sensitivity tactile pads on our hands and feet, fingers and toes o Brain complexity  Proportion of brain tissue associated with memory and thought it larger  Ratio of brain size to body size exceeds that of most mammals  We are really smart o Parental investment  Primates have a marked degree of parental investment  Our young ones are much more helpless than other mammals  Young are reliant and require constant attention  More learning opportunities- learned culture Primate adaptation o Sociality  We tend to live with other members of our species  Helps provide long term attentive care to offspring Primate Family Tree o Prosimians/Anthropoids  Prosimians: tend to be smaller and have relatively smaller brains Tend to be nocturnal Tapetum- night vision, extra reflective film on the eyes Tend to be solitary  Anthropoids: tend to be diurnal (out and about during the day) Tend to be gregarious/social (live in groups) o New World/Old World Monkeys  Platyrrhines: New World Monkeys Flat nose- nasal morphology Reproductively isolated Any similarities to Old World are due to convergent evolution South and Central America Have tails- prehensile (grasping tails) Arboreal (tree dwelling) o Brachiating (move through trees with hand- over-hand movement)- monkey bars o Smaller and more agile  Catarrhines: Old World Monkeys and Apes Pointed nose Have tails- not always and not prehensile Africa and Asia More terrestrial (earthbound) Larger to protect against predators Greater degree of sexual dimorphism o Difference in temperament and anatomy of males and females of a given species o Apes (Hominoids) Wednesday, February 24, 2016 Lecture #7- continued  Exam #1 discussion- slightly curved, tricky answer choices  Exam #2 won’t have CC reading questions (no readings for primates and hominids)  Apes o Gibbons, Orangutans, Gorillas, Chimpanzees, and Bonobos  “All the following are an ape except…” (Exam) o Larger Bodies o Longer lifespans o Longer birth intervals and period of infant dependency  Immature birth o A tendency towards upright posture (knuckle walk, not fully upright like humans)  More upright compared to other primates (monkeys tend to be on all fours) o Larger brains o Shorter faces  Baboons (Old World monkeys) faces extend out into a snout o No tails***  New World monkeys have prehensile tails, many Old World monkeys have tails but not prehensile o Last common ancestor: 6-8 million years ago (between apes and humans) o Gibbons  Spend lots of time in trees  Arboreal lifestyle  Brachiation  Really long arms  South Asia, China, Indonesia  Most distantly related to us o Orangutans  Sumatra, Borneo  Males weigh more than twice as much as females  Sexual dimorphisms  Eat fruit, bark, insects, leaves  Live in jungles and spend time in trees  Exception to the rule of sociality  They are very solitary  Split from them 13 million years ago  Live in old growth trees- their natural habitat is getting destroyed o Gorillas  African Ape  Strong sexual dimorphism  Males weigh twice as much as females  Terrestrial: up to 400 lb. and 6 ft. tall  Social, live in groups of 10-20 with strong social hierarchies  Intrapersonal relations  Eat bulk green vegetation (have to eat a lot of it) o Chimpanzee  Closest primates to humans  Smaller and more agile compared to gorillas  Spend a fair amount of time in trees although they live on the ground  Less sexual dimorphism  Similar to humans’ male/female ratio  Documentary on Friday  Primates o Many things that we may consider uniquely human exist amongst our primate cousins  In the wild and in captivity o Learning: historically has been viewed as uniquely human, but primatologists have tons of examples of learning behaviors among other primates (directly and indirectly)  Video: young chimp teaching baby sisters to termite fish o Tool use: “man the tool maker,” chimps use a lot of stone tools to break open food, termite fishing  Video clip o Hunting: chimps and bonobos hunt  Video: bonobos eat meat and use sex to calm social disputes o Symbolic Communication: ASL among other primates and linguistic productivity (“finger bracelet” = a ring)  The Chosen Primate o There are things humans tend to do that our close near primate relatives do not.  Difference in degree o At present, we imagine the following as distinctly human:  Share food widely and routinely  Cooperate in planning and carrying out complex, multistage tasks  Use spoken language (FOXP2 gene)  Classifying others as kin of various types and interact with them for life  Our kinship classifications are much more complex than any found among non-human primates o Group selection- culture is a major factor to human advancement o Culture and life in groups become more critical features in social status Monday, February 29, 2016 Lecture #8- The Early Hominins  What makes humans distinct form other primates is always changing- fluid nature  Deep History, Mergings, and Separations  Key Human Attributes and Evolutionary Trends  Hominid Ancestors  Early Hominin Ancestors  Kottak Ch. 6  Deep History o Depth of time with which is being dealt with o Life of the Earth Exercise***  Earth’s history is a 24-hour day  1 second= 50,000 years  Earliest fossils 5:45am  First vertebrates 9:02pm  Earliest mammals 10:45pm  Earliest primates 11:43pm  Earliest Hominins 11:57pm  Homo sapiens arrive 36 seconds before midnight o Primates have evolved and spread out over the last 65 million years o Prosimians: flourishing by 54 million years ago o Hominids: appeared 8 million years ago (which evolved into chimps, gorillas, and humans) o Hominins: (ancestors of humans) evolved into several species 2-5 mya o Homo: evolution of our own genus o Missing link between humans and chimps?  Based on false assumption that humans evolved from chimps and gorillas  Human ancestors split off from chimp and gorilla about 6 mya  Hogopan: hypothetically existed 8-6 mya  Last common ancestor we shared with chimps and gorillas  Split their ecological niches and their diets became specialized  Who went where? Who ate what?  Humans went to open grasslands (Savannah/Plains) and ate seeds, nuts, berries, and dry chewing- intensive foods o How do we decide if a fossil discovery is a Hominin or Hominid?  “in” and “id” refer to the degree of relatedness  Hominid: broader label that encompasses all ape species (refers to humans and other ape species  Hominin: refers specifically to the human line after we split from Hogopan  do not share anything with chimps and gorillas  ***All Hominins are Hominids, but NOT all Hominids are Hominins o What do we look for to distinguish between the two?  What do they look like?  Where are they found?  Who? o There are many things biological anthropologists pay particular attention to in making such taxonomic classifications o What are some major trends in Hominins?  Bipedalism  Tool Use  Australopithecus: first Hominin genus  Did they use tools?  Hominin Evolutionary Trends o Body size  Got larger over time (compared to Prosimians/monkeys) o Locomotion- movement towards bipedalism  Flaring hip bones  More upright spine o Cranial Capacity- big brains  More intelligent and more advanced tools o Tool Use  Roughly 2 ½ mya  Become more refined as species get more advanced  Can allow for hunting, fire can allow for cooking, which can lead to teeth changes and cranial mophology o Dentition- tooth size and type  Learning about diet based on size of the teeth  Tooth enamel o Cranial Morphology- Brow Ridge, Sagittal Crest- “bone Mohawk”, Zigomatic Arches- flaring cheekbones)  Based on chewing intensity  Can reveal what diet (tougher foods- more intense chewing) o Diet o Many of these traits are interrelated o Trends happened at different paces over time  Hominins were bipedal before they could use tools or had bigger brains than chimps  Phylogenetic Tree o Phylogenetic tree for African Apes, Hominids, and Hominins o “Toumai” and Ardipithecus species: stand up for debate o Focus on the species that are commonly understood to be the earliest Hominins (Australopithecus)  Why do we separate genus-homo from genus- Australopithecus? o Some of these species are direct ancestors, and others are extinct as “side branches”  Sahelanthropus tchadensis (7 mya) o “Toumai” o Discovered in Chad in 2001  Geographical outlier- only real species found there  Most evolution happened in East Africa (Rift Valley) o 6-7 mya o Blends apelike and human characteristics o Lived in mixed environment o Anterior foramen magnum  Bipedalism? o Shorter canine teeth- different form chimps o Small brain (like chimps), heavy brow o Hominin? We don’t know  Only cranial remains  What they have is already damages Rift Valley o Open grassland/savannah ecologies o Indicates separation of chimp and gorilla ancestors from Homo ancestors o Ardipithecus and Australopithecus  Genus Ardipithecus o Kadabba (5.5-5.8 mya) o Ramidus (4.4 mya)  Ardi (4.4 mya)  Most complete early hominid (potentially Hominin) specimen  110 different pieces of fossilized bone found  120 pounds, 4 feet tall  found 45 miles away from Lucy  opposable big toe- indication of arboreal habitat o Bipedal, but apelike in size, anatomy, and habitat  Arboreal o Earliest Hominin?  Australopithecines o Anamensis o Afarensis o Africanus (SA) o Robustus (SA) o Boisei o NOTE: Homo Habilus lived alongside Boisei for about a million years o What were they like?  Ape-like from the top down  Human-like from the ground up Wednesday, March 1, 2016 Lecture #8 cntd.  Australopithecus genus is the most widely accepted first distinctly Hominin genus o Most discovered in Rift Valley (East Africa), excluding two South African  Australopithecines o Afarensis: “Lucy”  Small bodies*** o Ape Like: craniums/skulls/dentition/brain size o Human like: the rest of their anatomy  Lumbar Curve in spine, difference in pelvis o Locomotion- bipedal (running on grasslands, hands are free to carry) o Size- 3-5 feet tall o Cranial Capacity- small species, narrow birth canals, smaller brains o Sexual Dimorphism- height difference (females shorter- 2/3 the size of males), greater than homo sapiens o Dentition  Molar size: what they ate made changes in their phenotype  Course, gritty vegetation; chewing intensive  Large molars o Cranial Morphology  Zygomatic Arches: accommodating larger chewing muscles; large cheek bones  Sagittal Crest  Robust Australopithecines o Large post canine teeth o Incisors and canines reduced o Flatter faces o Large chewing muscles o Gracile (Africanus) vs. Robust forms  Species living side by side (two South African species)  Develop different forms from different diets and competition  Africanus: smaller molars, smaller cranial morphology o Sagittal Crest: most pronounced in Boisei (hyper robust)  Competition o Many species lived together for extended periods of time o Genus Homo came on the scene 3-2 mya o They competed for resources  Some species were driven in to extinction  Evolutionary lines dead-ends  Others ultimately resulted in the Homo Sapien sapien (The Chosen Primate) o What helped Genus Homo?  Stone tools:  Oldowan pebble tools- oldest formally recognized stone tools  Corns and Flakes  Choppers- for pounding, breaking, and bashing  Flakes- for cutting  First stone tools appeared about 2.5 mya o Associated with Homo Habilus (“Handy Man”) o Most developed  Australopithecus garhi and tool use o Gahri = surprise o Found nearby  Division between hunters, gatherers, and foragers  Species with most diverse practices are most likely to adapt to environmental adaptations  Tool users pushed other species into drier climates o Lead to extinction Lecture #9- Genus Homo  Key Hominin Evolutionary Trends  Homo habilus, Homo erectus and Leaving Africa  Achaic Homo sapiens and Neanderthals  AMH’s and Behavioral Modernity  Kottak Ch. 7  Hominin Evolutionary Trends (Review) o Body Size o Locomotion: *bipedality o Cranial Capacity o Tool Use o Dentition o Cranial Morphology- interrelated o Diet  Genus Homo o Homo habilus o Homo erectus o Archaic H. Sapiens o Neandertals o Homo sapiens o NOTE: Also Denisovans and Homo floresiensis  Tool Technologies o Tool-making traditions (following Oldowan) o Lower Paleolithic  Archeulian, Homo erectus o Middle Paleolithic  Mousterian, Archaic Homo sapiens, Neandertals) o Upper Paleolithic  Blade tools, Homo sapiens sapiens  Genus Homo o Where did they live?  Eastern Africa o Where did they expand? o Why did they leave Africa? When? Who? Friday, March 4, 2016 Lecture #9 cntd.  Homo Habilus o Appears about 2 mya. o Coexisted with A. boisei (hyperrobust Australopithecine) for about a million years o 700-800 cc. o Long arms, small body o Oldowan tools  Distinguishes them from Australopithecines o Chimp-like  Homo Erectus o Only 200,000 years later  Either evolved form H. habilus or coexisted alongside them o Lived from 1.9 mya to 300,000 BP. o Modern body and limbs  Human-like o Bigger brain, between 900 and 1250 cc.  Why the rapid pace of evolution?  Punctuated equilibrium: Evolutionary change can occur rapidly over a short period of time that comes after a period of relative stasis (little change)  Do not change at regularized intervals Stone Tools o Larger brains and better tools  Acheulian o Lead to an increased reliance on hunting and animal protein o Less robust cranial morphology and dentition  Reduced molars, zygomatic arches, sagittal crest  More emphasis on front teeth o Head and body still very robust  Large neck muscles  Football shaped cranium Group Selection o Culture, inclusive fitness, and croup selection became major factors in species success, joining natural selection based on individual differential success  Living in groups o Shift from Darwinian to Lamarckian selection  Spiritually Lamarckian (since some of his ideas were incorrect) o Culture became something of an acquired characteristic, passed down directly and indirectly to one’s offspring  Passing down of knowledge Evolutionary Trends o Growing brains accompanied by related anatomical changes o Growing brains, Birth canals, Bipedalism  Birth canals can only get so wide before it starts to compromise bipedal locomotion  Competing evolutionary trends (***exam questions) o Immature Birth: skulls of newborns are not fully formed, are actually elastic, and continue to grow outside the womb o Brains as blank hard drives (beginning with H. erectus)- increasing memory  At birth they are big and empty, but are ready to be filled with cultural knowledge  Darwin and Lamarck working in tandem (culture with evolution)  Fossil Records o Social organization, diet, and fire o Terra Amata campsite in France  400,000 years old o Evidence of huts o Diet: deer, etc. o Fire as a tool  The ability to make and control fire enabled man to:  Cook vegetables and meat  Feed younger/older members softer foods  Eliminated certain parasites from their food  Homo Erectus Leaving Africa o Fire enabled them to spread into temperate climates and ultimately leave Africa  Started expanding with new, adaptable abilities o Southern Europe o Southeast Asia o China o After 300,000 BP, H. erectus had evolved into Archaic H. sapiens and Neandertals  Through population growth and dispersal, the species changed  Homo neandertalensis o Lived in Europe, where it was and is considerably colder than Africa o Large torso/short limb configuration  Adaptation to conserve heat o Face was pulled forwards, long. Broad noses  Thompson’s nose rule: protecting their brain from cold air (added insulation) o Heavy brow ridges, slanting foreheads, massive faces, large jaws  Ripping and tearing o More cranial capacity than modern humans o Tools  Mousterian- improved on the Acheulian variety  Hunt big game  Make heavy clothes  Diet: carnivorous*** (exam)- not a diverse diet o DNA Evidence:  Suggests that Neandertals ancestors split from Achaics 600,000 years ago  DNA different in 27 locations form modern humans  We share more with chimps than Neandertals  Neandertals gone by 28,00 years ago  Probably out competed by Archaic and anatomically modern humans  Denisovans o Southern Siberia o Wisdom tooth and finger fragment found o Split from ancestral Neandertals around 400,000 years ago o Tooth unlike either Neandertal or AMH teeth  Homo Florensiensis o “the hobbits” o Near Indonesia o Human-like but with very small brains o Pygmy H. erectus?  Warm, isolated island environment  Scientists Agree that: o About 6 mya our hominin ancestors originated in Africa and as apelike creatures they became bipedal o By 2.6 mya while still in Africa hominins were making crude Oldowan stone tools o By 1.7 mya hominis had spread from Africa to Asia and eventually Europe  Behavioral Modernity o There are debates over when AMH’s achieved behavioral modernity  Relying on symbolic thought, elaborating cultural creativity, and as a result becoming fully human in behavior as well as in anatomy o Focus on the ways in which human adaptations became increasingly complex and unstable after about 35,000 BP o Cave Paintings: Lascaux Cave, France  Symbolic expression Monday, March 21, 2016 Lecture #10- Food Production  Cosmologies and Food Production  Broad Spectrum Revolution and Domestication  The emergence of the state  New Problems  Cosmologies o Anthropology as a new and improved cosmology o We have already seen how theories of evolution attempt to make sense of human origins, just as accounts of divine creation do o Tales of domestication explain how we have acquired the levels of social and cultural complexity that we see today o Parallel trend in new and old cosmologies continues in discussion of food production and domestication o Genesis vs. Kottak  Agriculture as a curse that accompanies knowledge  Foraging societies egalitarian  Both place humans in an original state of nature  Preferable in the kinds of societies we live in now o As societies became more urban, industrial, and stratified, we have conceptualized these other ways of life as a form of utopia o Questions:  Why would humans opt for a way of life that brings with it so many maladaptive, dangerous, and evil things?  We were forced to (See Broad Spectrum Revolution)  What makes it worthwhile to live a life of domestication?  Broad Spectrum Revolution o Global warming o Glacier receding o Expansion of human range o Foragers pursued a more generalized economy, focusing less on large animals  Woolly Mammoths and rhinos went extinct  Diets were no longer sustainable o 15,000-12,000 BP o By 10,000 BP people in the Middle East were subsisting on domesticated crops and animals were living in permanent settlements  Wheat, goats, and sheep o By 7,000 BP people were abandoning broad spectrum economies in favor of economies based on domesticated sources of food  The Hilly Flanks o Fertile Crescent in the Middle East o Vertical Economy: consisting of four geographically close but different environmental zones  High plateaus  Hilly flanks  Piedmont steppes  Alluvial plain o Subtropical zone o Food production first began here  Wild wheat and barley  Can be compared to the Garden of Eden  Little work is needed to get the food  The Natufians o 12,400-10,500 BP o Worked out the initial adaptation to this array of climates o Built permanent villages in the Hilly Flanks o Became sedentary to remain close to their grain o Started to have a surplus of food  Population could get bigger  Surplus Production o Surplus production presented challenges  Organization of harvest  Limitation of access  Increased routine of distribution  New limits on consumption  Expansion and Domestication o Most of these challenges are related to population size o Once they reached carrying capacity (maximum number of people who can be supported), the population spilled out in to new ecological niches and marginal zones o Domestication was the gradual result of attempts to recreate the Hilly Flanks economy in new climates***  Domestication o Involved the alteration of both plants and animals o In contrast with broad spectrum foraging, domestication was more specialized  Focused on a smaller number of food sources o Natural and human selection o Plant Domestication  Wile Wheat and Barley  Brittle axis, hard husks  Seeds fall off easily  Plants itself  Prevents animals and humans to get into it  Domesticated Wheat and Barley  Hard axis, brittle husks  Seeds wont fall off in transportation  Easy to get into o Animal Domestication  Sheep and goats were also altered  Bred to be smaller and more docile  Bred to be more efficient producers of wool, hair, milk, fat, and meat  Irrigation o 7,000-6,000 BP o Bringing water into areas that did not have enough for agriculture o Made it possible to live in large towns and cities on the alluvial plain which had rich soils o Allowed for larger surpluses  Required greater administration and oversight  Led to evolution of the state  The State o a form of social and political organization that has a formal, central government and a division of society into social classes o Surplus takers, production organizers, food producers  Wealth concentrates in the first two o Early States (6,000-5,000 BP)  Alluvial Plain region (Tigris/Euphrates Rivers)- Mesopotamia  Iraq (Sumer)  Iran (Elam)  Uruk, the capital city of Sumer, had a population of 50,000 by 4,800 BP  China, Egypt, India/Pakistan o Key attributes  Larger and more densely populations  Farming economies (include cities)  Taxation  Monumental architecture  Cuneiform- first formal written system; record keeping technologies  Does not mean they had linguistic standardization  Social stratification  Pyramid Visual o Surplus takers o Production organizers o Food producers Wednesday, March 23, 2016 Lecture #11- Making a Living  Adaptive strategies and correlations  Capitalism and Industrialism  Economic systems  Principles of Exchange  Kottak Ch. 11, CC 8, 11, 12  Economy o Economy: a system of production, distribution, and consumption of resources o Economics: the study of such systems o Economic Anthropology: the study of economics in comparative perspective o The part of discipline that debates issues of human nature that relate directly to the decisions of daily life and making a living o Making a Living: Satisfaction of the most basic material survival needs (food, shelter, clothing) o Adaptive Strategies: Methods for meeting these needs  Making a Living o Foraging for food and Making a Living  No difference between these two things 10,000 YA (only way to make a living) o New forms of food production based on farming caused this to change o Today fewer than 30,000 people on the planet make their living by foraging, and this number is constantly decreasing o Most humans live in economies based on a mix of activities  Cultivation  Pastoralism  Trading goods and services for cash  Industrial production  Management and Control  Adaptive Strategies o Before the Industrial Revolution, the vast majority of the world’s population lived in economies based on four “adaptive strategies” o All but one of which developed only in the last ten thousand years  Foraging  Horitculture  Slash and burn cultivation  Agriculture  Machinery, intensive  Pastoralism  Branch of agriculture; moving settlements based on herds (no permanent living location  Nomadism and Transhumance  ???? (Stay tuned) o Frozen: pastoralist example (Kristoff & Sven- reindeer herders) o Yehudi Cohen’s typologies  Based on correlations: associations/patterns between two or more variables  Factors that are linked and interrelated  Typically found together  When one changes, others change with them o Correlations between subsistence strategies and:  Social/Political Organization  Environment/Geography  Some are better fits in some environments compared to others  EX: river valley civilizations  Population density  The amount of food you have and how consistent it is available leads to population changes  Surplus- larger population- sedentary  Foraging/Pastoralist- not sedentary- small populations  Diet  Broad spectrum foraging: varied diet  Agriculture: sustenance from less sources (less diverse) o Cohen’s Typology  NOT perfect (some groups posses more correlated features but not all)  NOT an evolutionary schema  One is not necessarily more evolved/developed than others  NOT mutually exclusive  Simplistic and good to think with, but should be taken with a grain of salt  Foraging o Correlations and features:  Depends on naturally available food  Don’t have domesticated plants/animals  Hunt and gather what they can  Small populations  Less consistent food source  Reliable, leisure time  Usually less than 100 people  Mobile  Need to be flexible/able to travel around  Relatively egalitarian  Must be flexible socially as well  No real class stratification  No complex division of labor  Man vs. Woman; Old vs. Young o Only divisions that matter (to your role in society)  Gendered division of labor  Men hunt, women gather  Majority of food comes from gathering (more consistent although yield is smaller) o Examples:  San (Southern Africa)- Kalahari Bushmen  Hadza (Tanzania)  Australian Aborigines o We should not view contemporary foragers as prehistoric, OR historical foragers as such either  Nobel savage paradigm  Problematic way to view things (seeing them as pure, primitive, tied with nature, etc.)  Evaluates one culture on its perceived level of progress in comparison to Western, developed civilization (ethnocentricism)  Horticulture o Correlations and Features:  Swiddens: burned clearings made for temporary agriculture  Slash and burn cultivation  Benefit of burning: more minerals/nutrients in soil, kills insects  Non-continuous: used for a season or two, and then move to another area (don’t use the same plot of land year after year) o Fallow – letting the land regenerate on its own to possibly be reused down the road  CC 9: description of this lifestyle  Hand-held tools (hoes and digging sticks)  Low Yields  Growing less, subsistence oriented  Supports a more sedentary and larger population compared to foragers, but still less than agriculture  Inequalities Appear  Social stratification  Sexual division of labor o Dissent groups: different kinship networks through which things may be passed down  Achieved statuses- there are leaders (based on consensus, not inheritance or a vote) o Different from Agriculture: not constant, non-intensive o Examples:  Kawelka (Papua New Guinea)  Kuikuru (Brazil)  Agriculture o Correlations and Features:  More complex tools  Mechanization, draft animals, irrigation, terracing  Animals can help with plows, can use their manure as fertilizer  Permanent plots and fields  Intensive and continuous cultivation  Key difference from horticulture  Larger scale with larger yields  Sedentary lifestyle; higher population density  Tied to the rise of states  Larger yields can support this larger population  Increased specialization  Leads to less diverse diets  Higher productivity  Compared to slash and burn swiddens  Greater alteration of the environment  Individual Ownership  Of land and products o Terracing- more efficient irrigation, prevents erosion, more complex use of the land (compared to slash and burn) o Agriculture can support more people (Mexico and Indonesia)


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