Notes for Exam 2
Notes for Exam 2 ANTH 1000-004
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This 22 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tess von Gal on Tuesday March 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 1000-004 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Berk in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 03/29/16
Tuesday, February 18, 2016 Lecture #7- The Primates Focus on Contemporary Species Looks at how we divide existing primate species Why we study non human primates Taxonomies and Classifications Primate Evolutionary Tendencies Classifications The Hominoids Human Distinction Why do we study Non-Human Primates? o They provide the standard to assess human uniqueness o We are closely related to them o We share an evolutionary history o Many of our behavioral adaptations are found amongst other primates Helps us make sense of behaviors that seem to be distinctly human o We did NOT evolve from monkeys We share a common ancestor Evolved at the same time as them o Our species split from gorillas and chimpanzees 6-8 million years ago o How are we, as members of the Homo Sapien species, similar and different from monkeys and apes? o What can anthropologists learn about humanity by looking at these similarities and differences? We can figure out what is unique about humanity Linnaeus’ Regnum Animale (1735) o Taxonomy based on shared features o Our current method is very similar Primate Taxonomy o Taxonomies assign and organize organisms to categories according to their relatedness and resemblance o Many similarities between organisms reflect their common phylogeny- their genetic relatedness based on common ancestry o Homologies- similarities used to assign organisms to the same taxon Shared traits inherited from a common ancestor Not always from a common ancestry Can arise from similar adaptations in response to similar selective or environmental pressures- analogies o Analogies and Convergent Evolution Have shared traits because of their similar circumstances Similar environmental pressures over time- convergent evolution Dolphins: are mammals but share analogies with fish Fins, hairless bodies, marine lifestyle Birds and bats: bats are mammals, but share analogies with birds Wings, small bodies, lighter bones, ability of flight o Scientists try to focus on homologies rather than analogies o Table 5.2 on Kottak p.95 Anthropoids vs. Prosimians Old World vs. New World Different Ape species Chimpanzees are Apes NOT Monkeys Primate Tendencies Most developed in Anthropoids o Grasping Ability Hands (and sometimes feet depending on bipedalism) Nails instead of claws o Reliance on sight over smell “Smell to sight” Forward facing eyes, color vision As our brains designated more to our sight, our sense of smell was reduced o Reliance on hand over nose “Nose to hand” rely on a sense of touch to provide us with information highly sensitivity tactile pads on our hands and feet, fingers and toes o Brain complexity Proportion of brain tissue associated with memory and thought it larger Ratio of brain size to body size exceeds that of most mammals We are really smart o Parental investment Primates have a marked degree of parental investment Our young ones are much more helpless than other mammals Young are reliant and require constant attention More learning opportunities- learned culture Primate adaptation o Sociality We tend to live with other members of our species Helps provide long term attentive care to offspring Primate Family Tree o Prosimians/Anthropoids Prosimians: tend to be smaller and have relatively smaller brains Tend to be nocturnal Tapetum- night vision, extra reflective film on the eyes Tend to be solitary Anthropoids: tend to be diurnal (out and about during the day) Tend to be gregarious/social (live in groups) o New World/Old World Monkeys Platyrrhines: New World Monkeys Flat nose- nasal morphology Reproductively isolated Any similarities to Old World are due to convergent evolution South and Central America Have tails- prehensile (grasping tails) Arboreal (tree dwelling) o Brachiating (move through trees with hand- over-hand movement)- monkey bars o Smaller and more agile Catarrhines: Old World Monkeys and Apes Pointed nose Have tails- not always and not prehensile Africa and Asia More terrestrial (earthbound) Larger to protect against predators Greater degree of sexual dimorphism o Difference in temperament and anatomy of males and females of a given species o Apes (Hominoids) Wednesday, February 24, 2016 Lecture #7- continued Exam #1 discussion- slightly curved, tricky answer choices Exam #2 won’t have CC reading questions (no readings for primates and hominids) Apes o Gibbons, Orangutans, Gorillas, Chimpanzees, and Bonobos “All the following are an ape except…” (Exam) o Larger Bodies o Longer lifespans o Longer birth intervals and period of infant dependency Immature birth o A tendency towards upright posture (knuckle walk, not fully upright like humans) More upright compared to other primates (monkeys tend to be on all fours) o Larger brains o Shorter faces Baboons (Old World monkeys) faces extend out into a snout o No tails*** New World monkeys have prehensile tails, many Old World monkeys have tails but not prehensile o Last common ancestor: 6-8 million years ago (between apes and humans) o Gibbons Spend lots of time in trees Arboreal lifestyle Brachiation Really long arms South Asia, China, Indonesia Most distantly related to us o Orangutans Sumatra, Borneo Males weigh more than twice as much as females Sexual dimorphisms Eat fruit, bark, insects, leaves Live in jungles and spend time in trees Exception to the rule of sociality They are very solitary Split from them 13 million years ago Live in old growth trees- their natural habitat is getting destroyed o Gorillas African Ape Strong sexual dimorphism Males weigh twice as much as females Terrestrial: up to 400 lb. and 6 ft. tall Social, live in groups of 10-20 with strong social hierarchies Intrapersonal relations Eat bulk green vegetation (have to eat a lot of it) o Chimpanzee Closest primates to humans Smaller and more agile compared to gorillas Spend a fair amount of time in trees although they live on the ground Less sexual dimorphism Similar to humans’ male/female ratio Documentary on Friday Primates o Many things that we may consider uniquely human exist amongst our primate cousins In the wild and in captivity o Learning: historically has been viewed as uniquely human, but primatologists have tons of examples of learning behaviors among other primates (directly and indirectly) Video: young chimp teaching baby sisters to termite fish o Tool use: “man the tool maker,” chimps use a lot of stone tools to break open food, termite fishing Video clip o Hunting: chimps and bonobos hunt Video: bonobos eat meat and use sex to calm social disputes o Symbolic Communication: ASL among other primates and linguistic productivity (“finger bracelet” = a ring) The Chosen Primate o There are things humans tend to do that our close near primate relatives do not. Difference in degree o At present, we imagine the following as distinctly human: Share food widely and routinely Cooperate in planning and carrying out complex, multistage tasks Use spoken language (FOXP2 gene) Classifying others as kin of various types and interact with them for life Our kinship classifications are much more complex than any found among non-human primates o Group selection- culture is a major factor to human advancement o Culture and life in groups become more critical features in social status Monday, February 29, 2016 Lecture #8- The Early Hominins What makes humans distinct form other primates is always changing- fluid nature Deep History, Mergings, and Separations Key Human Attributes and Evolutionary Trends Hominid Ancestors Early Hominin Ancestors Kottak Ch. 6 Deep History o Depth of time with which is being dealt with o Life of the Earth Exercise*** Earth’s history is a 24-hour day 1 second= 50,000 years Earliest fossils 5:45am First vertebrates 9:02pm Earliest mammals 10:45pm Earliest primates 11:43pm Earliest Hominins 11:57pm Homo sapiens arrive 36 seconds before midnight o Primates have evolved and spread out over the last 65 million years o Prosimians: flourishing by 54 million years ago o Hominids: appeared 8 million years ago (which evolved into chimps, gorillas, and humans) o Hominins: (ancestors of humans) evolved into several species 2-5 mya o Homo: evolution of our own genus o Missing link between humans and chimps? Based on false assumption that humans evolved from chimps and gorillas Human ancestors split off from chimp and gorilla about 6 mya Hogopan: hypothetically existed 8-6 mya Last common ancestor we shared with chimps and gorillas Split their ecological niches and their diets became specialized Who went where? Who ate what? Humans went to open grasslands (Savannah/Plains) and ate seeds, nuts, berries, and dry chewing- intensive foods o How do we decide if a fossil discovery is a Hominin or Hominid? “in” and “id” refer to the degree of relatedness Hominid: broader label that encompasses all ape species (refers to humans and other ape species Hominin: refers specifically to the human line after we split from Hogopan do not share anything with chimps and gorillas ***All Hominins are Hominids, but NOT all Hominids are Hominins o What do we look for to distinguish between the two? What do they look like? Where are they found? Who? o There are many things biological anthropologists pay particular attention to in making such taxonomic classifications o What are some major trends in Hominins? Bipedalism Tool Use Australopithecus: first Hominin genus Did they use tools? Hominin Evolutionary Trends o Body size Got larger over time (compared to Prosimians/monkeys) o Locomotion- movement towards bipedalism Flaring hip bones More upright spine o Cranial Capacity- big brains More intelligent and more advanced tools o Tool Use Roughly 2 ½ mya Become more refined as species get more advanced Can allow for hunting, fire can allow for cooking, which can lead to teeth changes and cranial mophology o Dentition- tooth size and type Learning about diet based on size of the teeth Tooth enamel o Cranial Morphology- Brow Ridge, Sagittal Crest- “bone Mohawk”, Zigomatic Arches- flaring cheekbones) Based on chewing intensity Can reveal what diet (tougher foods- more intense chewing) o Diet o Many of these traits are interrelated o Trends happened at different paces over time Hominins were bipedal before they could use tools or had bigger brains than chimps Phylogenetic Tree o Phylogenetic tree for African Apes, Hominids, and Hominins o “Toumai” and Ardipithecus species: stand up for debate o Focus on the species that are commonly understood to be the earliest Hominins (Australopithecus) Why do we separate genus-homo from genus- Australopithecus? o Some of these species are direct ancestors, and others are extinct as “side branches” Sahelanthropus tchadensis (7 mya) o “Toumai” o Discovered in Chad in 2001 Geographical outlier- only real species found there Most evolution happened in East Africa (Rift Valley) o 6-7 mya o Blends apelike and human characteristics o Lived in mixed environment o Anterior foramen magnum Bipedalism? o Shorter canine teeth- different form chimps o Small brain (like chimps), heavy brow o Hominin? We don’t know Only cranial remains What they have is already damages Rift Valley o Open grassland/savannah ecologies o Indicates separation of chimp and gorilla ancestors from Homo ancestors o Ardipithecus and Australopithecus Genus Ardipithecus o Kadabba (5.5-5.8 mya) o Ramidus (4.4 mya) Ardi (4.4 mya) Most complete early hominid (potentially Hominin) specimen 110 different pieces of fossilized bone found 120 pounds, 4 feet tall found 45 miles away from Lucy opposable big toe- indication of arboreal habitat o Bipedal, but apelike in size, anatomy, and habitat Arboreal o Earliest Hominin? Australopithecines o Anamensis o Afarensis o Africanus (SA) o Robustus (SA) o Boisei o NOTE: Homo Habilus lived alongside Boisei for about a million years o What were they like? Ape-like from the top down Human-like from the ground up Wednesday, March 1, 2016 Lecture #8 cntd. Australopithecus genus is the most widely accepted first distinctly Hominin genus o Most discovered in Rift Valley (East Africa), excluding two South African Australopithecines o Afarensis: “Lucy” Small bodies*** o Ape Like: craniums/skulls/dentition/brain size o Human like: the rest of their anatomy Lumbar Curve in spine, difference in pelvis o Locomotion- bipedal (running on grasslands, hands are free to carry) o Size- 3-5 feet tall o Cranial Capacity- small species, narrow birth canals, smaller brains o Sexual Dimorphism- height difference (females shorter- 2/3 the size of males), greater than homo sapiens o Dentition Molar size: what they ate made changes in their phenotype Course, gritty vegetation; chewing intensive Large molars o Cranial Morphology Zygomatic Arches: accommodating larger chewing muscles; large cheek bones Sagittal Crest Robust Australopithecines o Large post canine teeth o Incisors and canines reduced o Flatter faces o Large chewing muscles o Gracile (Africanus) vs. Robust forms Species living side by side (two South African species) Develop different forms from different diets and competition Africanus: smaller molars, smaller cranial morphology o Sagittal Crest: most pronounced in Boisei (hyper robust) Competition o Many species lived together for extended periods of time o Genus Homo came on the scene 3-2 mya o They competed for resources Some species were driven in to extinction Evolutionary lines dead-ends Others ultimately resulted in the Homo Sapien sapien (The Chosen Primate) o What helped Genus Homo? Stone tools: Oldowan pebble tools- oldest formally recognized stone tools Corns and Flakes Choppers- for pounding, breaking, and bashing Flakes- for cutting First stone tools appeared about 2.5 mya o Associated with Homo Habilus (“Handy Man”) o Most developed Australopithecus garhi and tool use o Gahri = surprise o Found nearby Division between hunters, gatherers, and foragers Species with most diverse practices are most likely to adapt to environmental adaptations Tool users pushed other species into drier climates o Lead to extinction Lecture #9- Genus Homo Key Hominin Evolutionary Trends Homo habilus, Homo erectus and Leaving Africa Achaic Homo sapiens and Neanderthals AMH’s and Behavioral Modernity Kottak Ch. 7 Hominin Evolutionary Trends (Review) o Body Size o Locomotion: *bipedality o Cranial Capacity o Tool Use o Dentition o Cranial Morphology- interrelated o Diet Genus Homo o Homo habilus o Homo erectus o Archaic H. Sapiens o Neandertals o Homo sapiens o NOTE: Also Denisovans and Homo floresiensis Tool Technologies o Tool-making traditions (following Oldowan) o Lower Paleolithic Archeulian, Homo erectus o Middle Paleolithic Mousterian, Archaic Homo sapiens, Neandertals) o Upper Paleolithic Blade tools, Homo sapiens sapiens Genus Homo o Where did they live? Eastern Africa o Where did they expand? o Why did they leave Africa? When? Who? Friday, March 4, 2016 Lecture #9 cntd. Homo Habilus o Appears about 2 mya. o Coexisted with A. boisei (hyperrobust Australopithecine) for about a million years o 700-800 cc. o Long arms, small body o Oldowan tools Distinguishes them from Australopithecines o Chimp-like Homo Erectus o Only 200,000 years later Either evolved form H. habilus or coexisted alongside them o Lived from 1.9 mya to 300,000 BP. o Modern body and limbs Human-like o Bigger brain, between 900 and 1250 cc. Why the rapid pace of evolution? Punctuated equilibrium: Evolutionary change can occur rapidly over a short period of time that comes after a period of relative stasis (little change) Do not change at regularized intervals Stone Tools o Larger brains and better tools Acheulian o Lead to an increased reliance on hunting and animal protein o Less robust cranial morphology and dentition Reduced molars, zygomatic arches, sagittal crest More emphasis on front teeth o Head and body still very robust Large neck muscles Football shaped cranium Group Selection o Culture, inclusive fitness, and croup selection became major factors in species success, joining natural selection based on individual differential success Living in groups o Shift from Darwinian to Lamarckian selection Spiritually Lamarckian (since some of his ideas were incorrect) o Culture became something of an acquired characteristic, passed down directly and indirectly to one’s offspring Passing down of knowledge Evolutionary Trends o Growing brains accompanied by related anatomical changes o Growing brains, Birth canals, Bipedalism Birth canals can only get so wide before it starts to compromise bipedal locomotion Competing evolutionary trends (***exam questions) o Immature Birth: skulls of newborns are not fully formed, are actually elastic, and continue to grow outside the womb o Brains as blank hard drives (beginning with H. erectus)- increasing memory At birth they are big and empty, but are ready to be filled with cultural knowledge Darwin and Lamarck working in tandem (culture with evolution) Fossil Records o Social organization, diet, and fire o Terra Amata campsite in France 400,000 years old o Evidence of huts o Diet: deer, etc. o Fire as a tool The ability to make and control fire enabled man to: Cook vegetables and meat Feed younger/older members softer foods Eliminated certain parasites from their food Homo Erectus Leaving Africa o Fire enabled them to spread into temperate climates and ultimately leave Africa Started expanding with new, adaptable abilities o Southern Europe o Southeast Asia o China o After 300,000 BP, H. erectus had evolved into Archaic H. sapiens and Neandertals Through population growth and dispersal, the species changed Homo neandertalensis o Lived in Europe, where it was and is considerably colder than Africa o Large torso/short limb configuration Adaptation to conserve heat o Face was pulled forwards, long. Broad noses Thompson’s nose rule: protecting their brain from cold air (added insulation) o Heavy brow ridges, slanting foreheads, massive faces, large jaws Ripping and tearing o More cranial capacity than modern humans o Tools Mousterian- improved on the Acheulian variety Hunt big game Make heavy clothes Diet: carnivorous*** (exam)- not a diverse diet o DNA Evidence: Suggests that Neandertals ancestors split from Achaics 600,000 years ago DNA different in 27 locations form modern humans We share more with chimps than Neandertals Neandertals gone by 28,00 years ago Probably out competed by Archaic and anatomically modern humans Denisovans o Southern Siberia o Wisdom tooth and finger fragment found o Split from ancestral Neandertals around 400,000 years ago o Tooth unlike either Neandertal or AMH teeth Homo Florensiensis o “the hobbits” o Near Indonesia o Human-like but with very small brains o Pygmy H. erectus? Warm, isolated island environment Scientists Agree that: o About 6 mya our hominin ancestors originated in Africa and as apelike creatures they became bipedal o By 2.6 mya while still in Africa hominins were making crude Oldowan stone tools o By 1.7 mya hominis had spread from Africa to Asia and eventually Europe Behavioral Modernity o There are debates over when AMH’s achieved behavioral modernity Relying on symbolic thought, elaborating cultural creativity, and as a result becoming fully human in behavior as well as in anatomy o Focus on the ways in which human adaptations became increasingly complex and unstable after about 35,000 BP o Cave Paintings: Lascaux Cave, France Symbolic expression Monday, March 21, 2016 Lecture #10- Food Production Cosmologies and Food Production Broad Spectrum Revolution and Domestication The emergence of the state New Problems Cosmologies o Anthropology as a new and improved cosmology o We have already seen how theories of evolution attempt to make sense of human origins, just as accounts of divine creation do o Tales of domestication explain how we have acquired the levels of social and cultural complexity that we see today o Parallel trend in new and old cosmologies continues in discussion of food production and domestication o Genesis vs. Kottak Agriculture as a curse that accompanies knowledge Foraging societies egalitarian Both place humans in an original state of nature Preferable in the kinds of societies we live in now o As societies became more urban, industrial, and stratified, we have conceptualized these other ways of life as a form of utopia o Questions: Why would humans opt for a way of life that brings with it so many maladaptive, dangerous, and evil things? We were forced to (See Broad Spectrum Revolution) What makes it worthwhile to live a life of domestication? Broad Spectrum Revolution o Global warming o Glacier receding o Expansion of human range o Foragers pursued a more generalized economy, focusing less on large animals Woolly Mammoths and rhinos went extinct Diets were no longer sustainable o 15,000-12,000 BP o By 10,000 BP people in the Middle East were subsisting on domesticated crops and animals were living in permanent settlements Wheat, goats, and sheep o By 7,000 BP people were abandoning broad spectrum economies in favor of economies based on domesticated sources of food The Hilly Flanks o Fertile Crescent in the Middle East o Vertical Economy: consisting of four geographically close but different environmental zones High plateaus Hilly flanks Piedmont steppes Alluvial plain o Subtropical zone o Food production first began here Wild wheat and barley Can be compared to the Garden of Eden Little work is needed to get the food The Natufians o 12,400-10,500 BP o Worked out the initial adaptation to this array of climates o Built permanent villages in the Hilly Flanks o Became sedentary to remain close to their grain o Started to have a surplus of food Population could get bigger Surplus Production o Surplus production presented challenges Organization of harvest Limitation of access Increased routine of distribution New limits on consumption Expansion and Domestication o Most of these challenges are related to population size o Once they reached carrying capacity (maximum number of people who can be supported), the population spilled out in to new ecological niches and marginal zones o Domestication was the gradual result of attempts to recreate the Hilly Flanks economy in new climates*** Domestication o Involved the alteration of both plants and animals o In contrast with broad spectrum foraging, domestication was more specialized Focused on a smaller number of food sources o Natural and human selection o Plant Domestication Wile Wheat and Barley Brittle axis, hard husks Seeds fall off easily Plants itself Prevents animals and humans to get into it Domesticated Wheat and Barley Hard axis, brittle husks Seeds wont fall off in transportation Easy to get into o Animal Domestication Sheep and goats were also altered Bred to be smaller and more docile Bred to be more efficient producers of wool, hair, milk, fat, and meat Irrigation o 7,000-6,000 BP o Bringing water into areas that did not have enough for agriculture o Made it possible to live in large towns and cities on the alluvial plain which had rich soils o Allowed for larger surpluses Required greater administration and oversight Led to evolution of the state The State o a form of social and political organization that has a formal, central government and a division of society into social classes o Surplus takers, production organizers, food producers Wealth concentrates in the first two o Early States (6,000-5,000 BP) Alluvial Plain region (Tigris/Euphrates Rivers)- Mesopotamia Iraq (Sumer) Iran (Elam) Uruk, the capital city of Sumer, had a population of 50,000 by 4,800 BP China, Egypt, India/Pakistan o Key attributes Larger and more densely populations Farming economies (include cities) Taxation Monumental architecture Cuneiform- first formal written system; record keeping technologies Does not mean they had linguistic standardization Social stratification Pyramid Visual o Surplus takers o Production organizers o Food producers Wednesday, March 23, 2016 Lecture #11- Making a Living Adaptive strategies and correlations Capitalism and Industrialism Economic systems Principles of Exchange Kottak Ch. 11, CC 8, 11, 12 Economy o Economy: a system of production, distribution, and consumption of resources o Economics: the study of such systems o Economic Anthropology: the study of economics in comparative perspective o The part of discipline that debates issues of human nature that relate directly to the decisions of daily life and making a living o Making a Living: Satisfaction of the most basic material survival needs (food, shelter, clothing) o Adaptive Strategies: Methods for meeting these needs Making a Living o Foraging for food and Making a Living No difference between these two things 10,000 YA (only way to make a living) o New forms of food production based on farming caused this to change o Today fewer than 30,000 people on the planet make their living by foraging, and this number is constantly decreasing o Most humans live in economies based on a mix of activities Cultivation Pastoralism Trading goods and services for cash Industrial production Management and Control Adaptive Strategies o Before the Industrial Revolution, the vast majority of the world’s population lived in economies based on four “adaptive strategies” o All but one of which developed only in the last ten thousand years Foraging Horitculture Slash and burn cultivation Agriculture Machinery, intensive Pastoralism Branch of agriculture; moving settlements based on herds (no permanent living location Nomadism and Transhumance ???? (Stay tuned) o Frozen: pastoralist example (Kristoff & Sven- reindeer herders) o Yehudi Cohen’s typologies Based on correlations: associations/patterns between two or more variables Factors that are linked and interrelated Typically found together When one changes, others change with them o Correlations between subsistence strategies and: Social/Political Organization Environment/Geography Some are better fits in some environments compared to others EX: river valley civilizations Population density The amount of food you have and how consistent it is available leads to population changes Surplus- larger population- sedentary Foraging/Pastoralist- not sedentary- small populations Diet Broad spectrum foraging: varied diet Agriculture: sustenance from less sources (less diverse) o Cohen’s Typology NOT perfect (some groups posses more correlated features but not all) NOT an evolutionary schema One is not necessarily more evolved/developed than others NOT mutually exclusive Simplistic and good to think with, but should be taken with a grain of salt Foraging o Correlations and features: Depends on naturally available food Don’t have domesticated plants/animals Hunt and gather what they can Small populations Less consistent food source Reliable, leisure time Usually less than 100 people Mobile Need to be flexible/able to travel around Relatively egalitarian Must be flexible socially as well No real class stratification No complex division of labor Man vs. Woman; Old vs. Young o Only divisions that matter (to your role in society) Gendered division of labor Men hunt, women gather Majority of food comes from gathering (more consistent although yield is smaller) o Examples: San (Southern Africa)- Kalahari Bushmen Hadza (Tanzania) Australian Aborigines o We should not view contemporary foragers as prehistoric, OR historical foragers as such either Nobel savage paradigm Problematic way to view things (seeing them as pure, primitive, tied with nature, etc.) Evaluates one culture on its perceived level of progress in comparison to Western, developed civilization (ethnocentricism) Horticulture o Correlations and Features: Swiddens: burned clearings made for temporary agriculture Slash and burn cultivation Benefit of burning: more minerals/nutrients in soil, kills insects Non-continuous: used for a season or two, and then move to another area (don’t use the same plot of land year after year) o Fallow – letting the land regenerate on its own to possibly be reused down the road CC 9: description of this lifestyle Hand-held tools (hoes and digging sticks) Low Yields Growing less, subsistence oriented Supports a more sedentary and larger population compared to foragers, but still less than agriculture Inequalities Appear Social stratification Sexual division of labor o Dissent groups: different kinship networks through which things may be passed down Achieved statuses- there are leaders (based on consensus, not inheritance or a vote) o Different from Agriculture: not constant, non-intensive o Examples: Kawelka (Papua New Guinea) Kuikuru (Brazil) Agriculture o Correlations and Features: More complex tools Mechanization, draft animals, irrigation, terracing Animals can help with plows, can use their manure as fertilizer Permanent plots and fields Intensive and continuous cultivation Key difference from horticulture Larger scale with larger yields Sedentary lifestyle; higher population density Tied to the rise of states Larger yields can support this larger population Increased specialization Leads to less diverse diets Higher productivity Compared to slash and burn swiddens Greater alteration of the environment Individual Ownership Of land and products o Terracing- more efficient irrigation, prevents erosion, more complex use of the land (compared to slash and burn) o Agriculture can support more people (Mexico and Indonesia)
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