New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

BCOR 12 Chapter 25 Notes

by: Logan Langley

BCOR 12 Chapter 25 Notes BCOR 012

Marketplace > University of Vermont > BioInformatics > BCOR 012 > BCOR 12 Chapter 25 Notes
Logan Langley
GPA 3.35
View Full Document for 0 Karma

View Full Document


Unlock These Notes for FREE

Enter your email below and we will instantly email you these Notes for Biocore 012

(Limited time offer)

Unlock Notes

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Unlock FREE Class Notes

Enter your email below to receive Biocore 012 notes

Everyone needs better class notes. Enter your email and we will send you notes for this class for free.

Unlock FREE notes

About this Document

Notes on Chapter 25 of Animal Diversity
Biocore 012
Dr. Delaney & Dr. Stratton
Class Notes




Popular in Biocore 012

Popular in BioInformatics

This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Logan Langley on Tuesday March 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BCOR 012 at University of Vermont taught by Dr. Delaney & Dr. Stratton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Biocore 012 in BioInformatics at University of Vermont.


Reviews for BCOR 12 Chapter 25 Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 03/29/16
Lab TA: Laura May- Collado Date: 11/05/15 PCR LABORATORY Logan Langley University of Vermont BCOR-11 Logan Langley BCOR-11 Laboratory Laura May-Collado 11/05/15 1 Logan Langley BCOR-11 Laboratory Laura May-Collado 11/05/15 Abstract (200 words) The TAS2R38 gene effects the tongues ability to taste certain things such as a chemical called PTC (BCOR11 Lab Manual 7). This chemical can cause an extremely bitter taste on the tongues of some and no taste at all on the tongues of others. PCR can be used in many different ways in biology laboratories as it is the main way to isolate certain genes from DNA (Hillis 9). This experiment uses PCR reaction techniques to determine the phenotypes and genotypes of specific individuals when it comes to the TAS2R38 gene. Certain individuals determined their phenotypes by ways of taste testing, non-taster and tasters were then asked to isolate their DNA by means of centrifuge. The DNA when isolated, underwent PCR reactions and were then observed in an agarose electrophoresis gel. The agarose gel helped us determine the genotypes of non-tasters and of tasters. These results agreed with the prior knowledge of this specific gene and how it deviates based on genotypes. Homozygote recessive showed different three nucleotide sequences than homozygote dominant which both differed from the sequences of heterozygotes. Logan Langley BCOR-11 Laboratory Laura May-Collado 11/05/15 Introduction (400-500 words) tongue’s cells. This coded taste Human’s ability to taste drives an receptor interacts with the PTC chemical. This gene can vary among entire industry. Each of us has the humans causing some to be able to ability to taste five separate types of taste. The ability to distinguish strongly detect this chemical with a bitter taste response, while others between these tastes directly form no response at all to the correlates to the chemistry of the substance and how it may react to our chemical (BCOR-11 Lab Manual 7). These two phenotypes only differ taste receptors on our tongues. These genetically by three single nucleotide taste receptors behave differently based upon our genetic make-up. polymorphisms in the genetic sequence (BCOR-11 Lab Manual 7). In the 1930’s the chemical PTC was This information can be used to released into the air of the laboratory determine, in a DNA electrophoresis, if during a scientific experiment. One scientist had no reaction to this while an individual would be able to taste the PTC or not. This lab is designed to another complained of a horridly bitter determine phenotypes and genotypes taste in his mouth (BCOR-11 Lab Manual 7). This lead to an of individuals using a PCR (polymerase chain reaction). This PCR uses a DNA investigation of why that was and was polymerase, primers and restriction concluded in the name of genetics. The TAS2R38 gene is a gene that enzymes to amplify a specific region of a gene, in this case the TAS2R38 gene. codes for a taste receptor on your When amplified and ran through an Logan Langley BCOR-11 Laboratory Laura May-Collado 11/05/15 agarose gel the DNA sequence at that way to new techniques that can be point in the gene can be determined used in further research whether it will and from that the phenotype and be used to determine the hereditary genotypes are obtainable. connections to cancers and other The Taster allele (T) in this gene is the diseases, or the ideal of molecular cloning. dominant of the two whereas the non- taster is the recessive allele (t) (BCOR- 11 Lab Manual 7). Homozygote tasters will as expected be able to taste the PTC. Homozygote Recessive individuals will not be able to taste a thing when their receptors come into Materials and Methods (400-500 contact with the chemical. These two words) genotypes are conclusive whereas Determining Phenotype: heterozygotes ability to taste the PTC varies from fairly well tasted to just a The lab began with the tasting of PTC faint taste of something in their strips by each group in order to determine one taster and one non- mouths. taster from each group. Being able to determine the tasting ability of an individual through their Collecting DNA: DNA is just one way to use this Once these individuals were method of PCR. This lab will lead the determined each one mouth-washed Logan Langley BCOR-11 Laboratory Laura May-Collado 11/05/15 with 10mL of .9% saline solution for Set up of PCR: two minutes, in order to collect cheek ‘Ready to use’ PCR beads were cells of the tasters and non-tasters. gathered and put into .2mL tubes The saline was then collected and (These PCR pellets have most centrifuged for 10 minutes. everything essential for the PCR The Supernatant was gathered from reactions, except for primers and the each tube in the class and poured into DNA templates, such as nucleotides, a bleach solution. The remnants of the Taq DNA polymerase, and buffers). tube were then put into solution with Each taster and non-taster obtained 500 microliters of chelex and then re- one of these tubes and labeled it. 11 suspended. 500 microliters of this new microliters of each the forward primer solution was put into a 1.5 mL tube and the reverse primer were then and incubated for 10 minutes at 100 added (22 microliters total) as well as degrees Celcius. 3 microliters of the DNA template The tubes were then placed on ice for collected in the previous section. one minute then centrifuged again. The tube was then capped, mixed and 100 microliters were taken from this placed in the PCR thermocycler product and put into a new 1.5 mL programed to cycle at different tube. This is your isolated DNA. temperatures for different periods of time as shown in Table 1. The PCR [*Transferred to a different Lab period tubes were then frozen at -20 degrees for day two of the PCR Laboratory] Celsius to preserve. Logan Langley BCOR-11 Laboratory Laura May-Collado 11/05/15 Restriction Enzyme HaeIII: casting tray and the electrophoresis The previously frozen PCR samples comb was placed on top of the gel. The gel was allowed to cool for ~20 were obtained and allowed to thaw. 2 minutes. microliters of the Enzyme Hae III were added to the PCR reaction directly and Restriction Enzyme Digest Separation: mixed. The tube was then transferred The gel was placed in a gel running to a water bath at 37 degrees Celsius box and the comb was carefully (the temperature at which Hae III is removed. The gel was then covered the most active). The sample was with 1X TBE electrophoresis buffer. 4 incubated in this bath for one hour. microliters of 6X sample buffer were Agarose Gel Preparation: added to each of the digested and undigested PCR samples. Both 1 gram of agarose was mixed with 50 mL of 1X TBE electrophoresis buffer in samples were loaded into one well of the gel. 10 microliters of 100 base pair a 125 mL Flask. The agarose solution ladder was added to the gel to serve was then heated in 20 second sections to dissolve the agarose into a as an axis to determine nucleic acid sizes. The electrodes were connected homogenous solution. This was then and the electrophoresis was ran for allowed to cool for 10 to 15 minutes. 2.5 microliters of Cyber-safe 30-40 minutes at 130 Volts. The gel was then carefully removed and (fluorescence agent) was carefully placed on a plastic bag. The gel was added to the solution. This final solution was then poured into a gel then examined using a UV box light Logan Langley BCOR-11 Laboratory Laura May-Collado 11/05/15 since the Cyber-safe causes fluorescence in the nucleic acids. A Photograph of the gel was taken and observations were made. PCR Thermocycler Program (Table 1) Temperatu Time Cycles Figure 1: Agarose gel of HaeIII re (Seconds) (Celsius) digested TAS2R38 PCR product. Shown 94 30 30 Cycles here are a homozygous non-taster (tt) 64 45 72 45 individual and a homozygous taster 4 Infinite 1 Cycle (hold) (TT). Non Taster Taster Discussion (500 words) Results (200-250 words) This lab was performed to determine The agarose gel shows the bands of phenotypes and genotypes of tasters and non-tasters very clearly. individuals. Tasters and non-tasters The restriction enzyme HaeIII cut were found by having them taste a different length strands in each of the piece of PTC saturated paper. When genotypes my hypothesis of what my they determined themselves tasters or genotype would be is supported by the non-tasters, the hypothesis was made results. (See figure one). that the tasters had a heterozygous or Logan Langley BCOR-11 Laboratory Laura May-Collado 11/05/15 homozygous dominant phenotype, This could also be explained by a whereas non-tasters were predicted to defect in the agarose gel. If the gel be homozygous recessive. A taster was not made properly then the gel would, by genetic make-up, have two could have performed in the wrong different lengths of DNA fragments way when put through electrophoresis whereas a non-taster would only have not allowing the DNA or Cybersafe to one length of DNA fragments cut by flow through the gel. The data and the Hae III restriction enzyme. The hypothesis gathered up until the expected results were satisfied by the electrophoresis does support common actual results shown in figure one. The findings for the investigation of the Taster column of the gel shows two TAS2R38 gene (Bitter Tasting 1). The separate length DNA fragment bands experiment could be improved by and the non-taster shows two bands at more carefully paying attention to the same length. This picture is from a procedure and specific amounts of separate lab than was performed in reactants that were to be added when mine. The lab performed in my specific creating gel and or the PCR pellets. lab failed because the Cybersafe This experiment with the help of luminescent that should have common findings in the field is combined to the DNA fragments did successful. The findings allow for not. This could have been caused by a further exploration of the gene and few factors. The cybersafe could have allows individuals who were tested to been contaminated or added in be further tested to find any incorrect amounts to the PCR pellets. connections between this gene and Logan Langley BCOR-11 Laboratory Laura May-Collado 11/05/15 any other genetic patterns. The use of PCR in a lab is explored in this lab and proven to be a very precise process. It can be used to isolate nucleic acids, such as DNA, and be used in fields such as forensic science or genetics to make incredible findings. References: Hillis, David M., David E. Sadava, H. Craig. Heller, and Mary V. Price.Principles of Life. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, 2012. Print. Logan Langley BCOR-11 Laboratory Laura May-Collado 11/05/15 University of Vermont Integrated Biological Science Program, BCOR-11 Lab Manual, Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, 2015. Print. Bitter Taste Study in a Sardinian Genetic Isolate Supports the Association of Phenylthiocarbamide Sensitivity to the TAS2R38 Bitter Receptor Gene: D.A. Prodi, D. Drayna, P. Forabosco, M.A. Palmas, G.B. Maestrale, D. Piras, M. Pirastu, A. Angius. Chemical Senses; Oxford University Press. 2004.


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

0 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Jennifer McGill UCSF Med School

"Selling my MCAT study guides and notes has been a great source of side revenue while I'm in school. Some months I'm making over $500! Plus, it makes me happy knowing that I'm helping future med students with their MCAT."

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.