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PSYC 2010- Chapter 11 Notes

by: Morgan Dimery

PSYC 2010- Chapter 11 Notes Psyc 2010-003

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Morgan Dimery

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These notes cover the stuff that's from the chapter 11 section on the knowledge checklist.
Introduction to Psychology
Edwin G. Brainerd
Class Notes
PSYC, Psychology
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Morgan Dimery on Tuesday March 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 2010-003 at Clemson University taught by Edwin G. Brainerd in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.

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Date Created: 03/29/16
Chapter  11   Personality     Personality  is  an  individual’s  unique  constellation  of  consistent  behavioral  traits.  A   personality  trait  is  an  enduring  characteristic  way  of  behaving,  or  deposition,  such   as  a  tendency  to  be  cautious  or  adventurous.  Personality  is  used  to  explain  the   consistency  of  a  person’s  behavior  and  the  differences  between  people’s   personalities.  Regular  people  and  researchers  try  to  describe  personalities  using  the   trait  approach.  This  is  simply  listing  out  the  characteristics  that  an  individual  has.   Researchers  look  more  into  the  development  of  personality,  but  regular  people  still   show  an  interest  in  this  too.  The  psychodynamic  approach  is  used,  which  involves   unconscious  determinants  of  behavior.  Three  big  name  psychologists  in  this  area   were  Freud,  Young,  and  Adler.       Factor  analysis  uses  correlations  among  many  different  variables  in  order  to   identify  closely  related  clusters  of  variables.  If  the  correlation  is  high,  then  it  is   assumed  that  there  is  one  factor  that  is  influencing  all  of  them.  Universal  traits  are   traits  that  can  be  used  to  describe  everyone;  this  is  one  of  the  problems  with  the   trait  approach.  It  is  easier  to  describe  someone’s  personality  using  universal  traits.   McCrae  and  Costa  developed  the  Big  Five  Personality  Trait  System  (OCEAN)  to   better  describe  an  individual’s  personality.       • Openness  to  experience-­‐  curiosity,  vivid  fantasy,  flexibility,  intelligent,   imaginative.     • Conscientiousness  (constraint)-­‐  diligent,  punctual,  disciplined,  organized,   dependable.     • Extraversion  (positive  emotionality)-­‐  outgoing,  upbeat,  assertive,  friendly,   sociable.     • Agreeableness-­‐  sympathetic,  modest,  trusting,  cooperative,  straightforward.   • Neuroticism-­‐  anxious,  insecure,  hostile,  vulnerable,  self-­‐conscious.   Some  life  outcomes  have  been  associated  with  high  scores  in  some  of  these  areas.   Scores  can  be  high,  low,  or  in  the  middle  for  any  of  these  five  areas.  People  who  are   higher  for  conscientiousness  have  been  known  to  do  better  in  college.  Extraversion   and  conscientious  people  have  been  known  to  attain  a  job  more  easily  than  people   who  are  not  high  for  these  traits.  Men  who  are  high  for  agreeableness  have  been   found  to  not  have  a  very  high  income.  Neuroticism  increases  the  chance  for  divorce.   It  has  also  been  found  to  be  associated  with  mental  and  physical  disorders.   Conscientiousness  is  associated  with  less  disorders  and  living  longer.  Openness  to   experience  is  associated  to  living  longer  as  well.  Most  people  are  somewhere  in  the   middle  for  each  of  them.       Freud’s  Psychoanalytic  Theory   This  theory  is  the  oldest  theory  that  is  still  taught  on  a  regular  basis.  It  involves   childhood  experiences,  unconscious  mental  processes,  and  sexual  urges.  Freud   needs  to  somewhat  be  given  the  benefit  of  the  doubt,  because  he  did  not  know  as   much  about  psychology  as  researchers  and  even  regular  people  do  today.  He  did  his   work  in  a  completely  private  practice  and  used  verbal  interactions  with  patients  to   strengthen  his  theory.  He  also  grew  up  in  the  Victorian  Era,  where  sex  and  any  sort   of  sexual  expression  was  almost  absolutely  forbidden.  Freud  also  grew  up  fearing   that  his  father  was  going  to  physically  harm  him.  He  believed  that  most  of  our   motivation  comes  from  the  unconscious;  the  part  that  we  actually  show  others  is   very  small.  He  divided  personality  into  3  components:  the  id,  the  ego,  and  the   superego.   • Id-­‐  primitive,  operates  according  to  the  pleasure  principle-­‐  our  basic  body   needs  and  wants,  primary-­‐process  thinking,  infants  run  almost  completely  on   this,  wants  gratification  immediately  regardless  of  the  cost  involved,   completely  unconscious,  absolutely  irrational,  automatic  reaction.   • Ego-­‐  decision-­‐making,  reality  principle,  secondary-­‐process  thinking,   mediates  between  the  needs  of  the  organism  and  the  environment,  wants   you  to  have  the  “good  stuff”,  but  also  wants  you  to  think  about  the  costs   involved,  only  component  that  is  rational,  partially  unconscious,  pre-­‐ conscious,  and  conscious,  does  not  make  moral  choices,  only  practical.     • Superego-­‐  moral,  makes  real  choices  about  right  and  wrong,  perfection   principle,  just  as  irrational  as  the  id,  automatic  reaction  to  anything  “fun”  is   no.     Freud  says  that  we  are  constantly  at  war  because  we  can’t  have  things  both  ways.  It   is  impossible  to  mediate  when  you  have  two  irrational  things  going  against  each   other.  As  humans  we’re  in  an  uncomfortable  state  and  we  always  have  anxiety   because  of  this.  The  ego  does  its  best  to  mediate  between  the  id  and  the  superego.  If   the  id  becomes  too  powerful  a  person  becomes  amoral,  impulsive,  abusive  of  others,   and  in  trouble  with  the  law.  They  are  calm  in  extreme  circumstances  because  they   are  wired  differently  than  normal  people.  These  people  used  to  be  called   psychopaths,  but  now  that  word  has  a  negative  meaning  so  it  is  called  antisocial   personality.  If  the  superego  becomes  too  powerful  a  person  becomes  perpetually   guilty,  anxious,  unhappy,  and  rigid.  This  used  to  be  called  neurotic  but  now  it  is   called  anxiety  disorder.  Sometimes  the  ego  runs  out  of  steam  and  has  to  resort  to   defense  mechanisms.  These  are  explained  in  one  of  the  sections  below.  The  ego   ideal  rewards  you  when  you  behave  correctly.  Whenever  you  do  the  right  thing,  it   contains  positive  values  of  society.  The  conscience  is  what  causes  you  to  feel  bad   about  certain  behaviors  that  you  do.       Freud  came  up  with  three  states  of  awareness:  conscious,  preconscious,  and   unconscious.  The  conscious  consists  of  whatever  one  is  aware  of  at  a  particular   point  in  time.  The  preconscious  has  information  that  is  just  below  the  surface  of   awareness  and  can  easily  be  brought  to  the  conscious.  The  unconscious  level   contains  thoughts,  memories,  and  desires  that  are  very  far  below  the  surface  of   awareness.  They  still  have  a  great  influence  on  behavior.       Defense  mechanisms  have  four  things  in  common:  they  are  initiated  by  the  ego,   unconsciously  used,  distort  reality,  and  are  helpful  at  first  but  become  highly   destructive  with  the  passage  of  time.  They  are  ways  that  people  protect  themselves   from  inner  conflict  and  having  feelings  of  anxiety.  There  are  seven  mechanisms  that   were  talked  about  in  class  and  in  the  textbook.   • Rationalization-­‐  creating  false  but  plausible  excuses  to  justify  an   unacceptable  behavior   • Repression-­‐  most  widely  used,  keep  bad  thoughts  and  feelings  hidden  in  the   unconscious   • Projection-­‐  saying  that  the  thoughts  and  feelings  that  you  have  are  actually   being  expressed  by  the  other  person  involved  (roommate  example  in  class)   • Displacement-­‐  taking  out  your  emotion  on  someone  other  than  the  person   that  made  you  feel  that  emotion   • Reaction  formation-­‐  behaving  in  a  way  that  is  the  exact  opposite  of  the   emotion  that  you  feel   • Reversion-­‐  an  emotion  causes  you  to  display  immature  behavior  (temper   tantrum)   • Identification-­‐  boosting  your  self  esteem  by  forming  a  real  or  imaginary   alliance  with  a  person  or  group  (movie  stars,  different  organizations)     Psychosexual  Stages   Freud  believed  that  an  individual’s  personality  foundation  has  been  established  by   the  age  of  5.  He  came  up  with  the  stage  theory  of  development  to  show  this.   Psychosexual  stages  are  developmental  periods  that  have  a  sexual  focus  that  leave   their  mark  on  adult  personality.  Fixation,  failure  to  move  forward  from  a  stage,  can   lead  to  very  predictable  behaviors.     • Oral-­‐  0-­‐1  years  old,  focuses  on  the  mouth  (biting,  sucking),  weaning  is  very   important  in  this  stage,  if  a  child  is  weaned  too  soon  then  they  will  do  things   like  suck  their  thumb,  chew  on  their  clothes,  be  very  dependent,  indecisive,   and  gullible.     • Anal-­‐  2-­‐3  years  old,  children  get  their  pleasure  from  either  expulsion  or   retention  of  their  feces.  Toilet  training  is  very  important  in  this  stage.  Toilet   training  too  soon  could  lead  to  the  child  being  compulsively  neat  (anal   retentive  personality),  or  compulsively  destructive.  It  could  also  give  them   hatred  towards  their  mother,  which  could  lead  to  a  hatred  of  all  women.     • Phallic-­‐  4-­‐5  years  old,  the  genitals  become  the  focus,  masturbating  occurs  in   this  stage.  Little  boys  develop  an  erotic  tinged  preference  for  their  mother   (oedipal  complex),  and  feel  hostility  toward  their  father  because  they  think  of   him  as  a  threat.  Girls  develop  these  same  kinds  of  feelings  towards  their   father.  Girls  develop  “penis  envy”,  which  is  being  envious  when  they  learn   that  boys  have  different  genitals  than  they  do.  They  form  hostility  towards   their  mother  because  they  blame  her  for  the  deficiency.  Children  must   overcome  these  feelings;  if  they  don’t  then  they  will  stay  fixated  in  this  stage.   Eventually  the  young  boy  should  realize  that  he  is  never  going  to  “beat”  his   dad,  so  now  he  tries  to  be  just  like  him.  Kids  who  get  stuck  here  constantly   need  reassurance  of  their  masculinity  or  femininity.     • Latency-­‐  6-­‐12  years  old,  sexuality  is  suppressed  during  this  stage,  during  this   time  the  child  expands  their  social  circle  to  people  outside  of  their  family.  Dr.   Brainerd  doesn’t  think  this  stage  exists.     • Genital-­‐  puberty  onward,  sexuality  is  back  and  focused  on  the  genitals  once   again,  it  is  now  channeled  towards  peers  of  the  opposite  sex  rather  than  just   oneself.  Freud  believes  that  not  many  people  get  to  this  stage,  and  even  if   they  do  then  they  are  not  completely  safe  from  falling  back  into  the  other   stages  again.  If  something  really  bad  happens  in  a  person’s  life  then  they  can   experience  regression  and  go  back  to  one  of  the  earlier  stages.       Carl  Jung  came  up  with  another  theory,  and  like  Freud,  he  focused  on  the   unconscious  aspects  of  personality.  He  said  that  the  unconscious  consisted  of  two   layers,  personal  unconscious  and  collective  unconscious.  Personal  unconscious   is  information  that  is  not  in  someone’s  conscious  because  it  has  been  repressed  or   forgotten  (basically  the  same  as  Freud’s  definition).  The  collective  unconscious  is  a   place  for  latent  memories  about  a  person’s  ancestral  past.  He  said  that  each  person   shares  this  level  with  the  entire  human  race.  He  called  them  archetypes.  He  found   that  in  a  lot  of  cultures  the  mandala  (magic  circle)  was  a  symbol  of  unified   wholeness  of  the  self.  They  are  emotionally  charged  images  and  thought  forms  that   have  universal  meanings.  He  also  believed  that  dreams  tell  us  things  about  the   unconscious.  His  theory  was  called  analytical  psychology.       Alfred  Adler  had  the  individual  psychology  theory.  He  said  that  the  universal  drive   for  adapting,  improving  oneself,  and  mastering  life’s  challenges  was  striving  for   superiority.  He  said  that  younger  children  feel  weak  compared  to  older  children.   This  feeling  is  what  motivates  them  to  acquire  new  skills.  He  said  that  everyone  has   to  overcome  feelings  of  inferiority.  The  process  of  this  is  called  compensation.  This   is  the  effort  involved  to  overcome  imagined  or  real  inferiorities  by  developing  one’s   abilities.  Sometimes  inferior  feelings  can  become  excessive.  This  is  known  as  the   inferiority  complex-­‐  exaggerated  feelings  of  weakness  and  inadequacy.  Some   people  will  experience  overcompensation  in  order  to  get  rid  of  these  exaggerated   feelings  of  inferiority.  They  try  to  do  things  like  acquire  money,  possessions,  or   status  to  get  through  their  feelings.  He  said  that  birth  order  influences  a  child’s   personality.  Depending  on  where  you  fall  in  the  birth  order,  you  enter  into  a   different  environment  and  are  treated  differently  by  parents.       Psychodynamic  formulations  have  been  criticized  in  different  ways.  One  of  these  is   because  of  poor  testability.  Psychodynamic  ideas  are  often  too  vague  and  do  not   have  a  clear  scientific  test.  Another  reason  is  because  of  unrepresentative  samples.   Many  samples  that  have  been  taken  regarding  psychodynamic  theories  are  not   representative  of  the  entire  population  being  studied.  The  third  biggest  reason  is   because  of  overemphasis  on  case  studies.  In  this  case  it  is  too  easy  for  clinicians  to  see   what  they  expect  to  see.  Freud  has  been  caught  making  some  of  his  patient’s  case   studies  so  they  would  fit  into  his  theory.  Another  reason  is  contradictory  evidence.   Empirical  evidence  has  made  some  of  the  results  less  viable.  Many  factors  were   overemphasized  as  to  how  important  they  were.  The  last  reason  is  sexism.  Many  of   the  things  Freud  believed  made  it  so  that  females  were  always  inferior  to  men.       Behavioral  Approach  to  Personality   This  approach  wanted  to  focus  on  only  things  that  could  be  observed.  B.F.  Skinner   focused  on  how  the  environment  shapes  someone’s  behavior.  He  believed  in   determinism,  which  is  that  the  environment  fully  determines  someone’s  behavior.   He  believed  that  the  consistency  in  behaviors  is  because  of  stable  response   tendencies  that  have  been  acquired  through  experience.  He  said  that  someone’s   personality  is  a  collection  of  response  tendencies  that  are  tied  together  by  various   stimulus  situations.  He  believed  that  response  tendencies  are  learned  by  operant   conditioning.  Reinforcers  are  things  that  increase  the  rate  of  a  behavior.  Punishers   are  things  that  will  decrease  a  behavior.       Bandura  refers  to  his  theory  as  the  social  cognitive  theory.  He  believed  that  people   actively  seek  out  and  process  information  about  the  environment  in  order  to   maximize  favorable  outcomes.  Observational  learning  comes  into  the  picture  here.   He  said  that  behaviors  are  learned  watching  the  outcome  of  a  situation  experienced   by  another  person  (model).  He  also  said  that  self-­‐efficacy  has  an  influence  here.   This  is  one’s  belief  about  their  ability  to  perform  a  behavior  that  leads  to  an   expected  outcome.  The  higher  the  self-­‐efficacy,  the  more  confidence  someone  has  in   themself  to  perform  a  certain  behavior.       Walter  Mischel  believed  that  there  are  situational  factors  that  influence  personality.   People  make  responses  they  think  will  lead  to  reinforcements  in  the  situation  at   hand.  We  are  likely  to  behave  differently  in  church  than  we  do  at  a  beach  party.       Humanistic  Approach  to  Personality   This  approach  emphasizes  the  unique  qualities  that  humans  have,  especially  their   freedom  and  their  potential  for  personal  growth.  They  assume  that  people  are  able   to  rise  above  their  primitive  animal  heritage,  use  their  conscious  thought  and  be   rational,  and  they  are  not  helpless  to  deterministic  forces.  Carl  Rogers  called  his   approach  in  this  area  the  person-­‐centered  theory.  He  said  that  personality  is   formed  by  self  (aka  self-­‐concept).  This  is  a  collection  of  beliefs  about  one’s  own   nature,  qualities,  and  typical  behavior.  Sometimes  this  can  be  subjective  to  make   your  self-­‐concept  have  better  characteristics.  Incongruence  is  the  degree  of   disparity  between  one’s  self-­‐concept  and  one’s  actual  experience.  If  the  self-­‐concept   is  actually  close  to  the  actual  experience,  then  it  is  said  to  be  congruent.  Rogers  said   that  parents  either  show  conditional  love,  or  unconditional  love.  Conditional  love  is   love  that  depends  on  how  well  the  child  is  behaving.  He  said  that  this  causes   incongruence.  Unconditional  love  is  love  that  does  not  depend  on  the  behavior  of   the  child.  He  said  that  this  causes  congruence.  Rogers  believed  that  anything  that   causes  someone  to  think  differently  (in  a  bad  way)  of  themselves  are  the  principal   cause  of  troublesome  anxiety.  People  with  highly  incongruent  self-­‐concept  are  likely   to  have  a  lot  of  this  anxiety.  These  people  often  behave  defensively  and  turn  things   around  onto  other  people  so  they  do  not  start  thinking  bad  about  themselves.       Abraham  Maslow’s  biggest  contribution  to  this  area  was  his  hierarchy  of  needs.   This  is  a  systematic  arrangement  of  needs,  according  to  priority.  Basic  needs  need  to   be  met  before  less  basic  needs  are  met.     • Physiological-­‐  hunger,  thirst,  etc.   • Safety  and  security-­‐  long-­‐term  survival  and  stability   • Belongingness  and  love  needs-­‐  affiliation  and  acceptance   • Esteem  needs-­‐  achievement  and  gaining  of  recognition   • Cognitive  needs-­‐  knowledge  and  understanding   • Aesthetic  needs-­‐  order  and  beauty   • Self-­‐actualization-­‐  realization  of  potential   There  have  been  some  revisions  made  to  Maslow’s  hierarchy  of  needs.  They  believe   that  status  and  esteems  needs  go  together  in  one  level,  and  the  levels  are  as  follows   (from  most  basic  to  least  basic)  mate  acquisition,  mate  retention,  and  parenting.     Maslow  called  people  that  have  exceptionally  healthy  personalities  self-­‐actualizing   persons.  They  have  a  commitment  to  continue  personal  growth.  He  said  that  they   have  peak  experiences  more  often  than  regular  people  do.  Some  traits  of  this  people   are  comfortable  with  reality,  simple;  need  privacy,  autonomy,  strong  friendships,   philosophical,  and  able  to  tell  between  good  and  evil.       Some  criticisms  with  this  perspective  are  that  not  all  of  the  aspects  can  be  tested,   sometimes  theorists  are  unrealistically  optimistic  about  human  nature  and  healthy   personality,  and  there  should  be  more  empirical  research  to  solidify  this  view.       Biological  Approach  to  Personality     Hans  Eysenck  said  that  one’s  genes  largely  shape  personality.  He  believed  that  some   people  could  be  conditioned  more  readily  than  others  because  of  inherited   differences  in  their  physiological  functioning.  He  explained  variations  in   extraversion-­‐introversion.  He  said  that  introverts  are  more  easily  aroused  by   events,  so  they  are  more  easily  conditioned  than  extraverts.       Behavioral  Genetics  and  Personality   Genetic  blueprints  shape  the  contours  of  someone’s  personality.  Twin  studies  were   done  to  show  this.  Shared  family  environment  does  not  have  much  of  an  influence   on  personality.       Evolutionary  Approach  to  Personality   These  supporters  think  that  personality  has  a  biological  basis  because  natural   selection  has  favored  certain  traits  over  the  course  of  human  history.       There  are  some  criticisms  of  biological  approaches.  They  are  that  too  much  emphasis   has  been  placed  on  heritability  estimates,  results  may  be  too  artificial,  and  that  the   effects  of  nature  and  nurture  are  twisted  together  and  it  is  hard  to  see  the  actual   difference  between  the  two.       Contemporary  Empirical  Approaches  to  Personality   Narcissism  is  a  personality  trait  in  which  one  has  an  inflated  sense  of  importance,  a   need  for  attention  and  admiration;  they  have  a  sense  of  entitlement,  and  a  tendency   to  exploit  others.  This  behavior  seems  to  exist  so  these  people  have  a  way  to   increase  their  self-­‐esteem.  There  have  been  some  positive  qualities  associated  with   people  who  are  narcissist  people.  This  trait  has  been  seen  in  people  who  are   entrepreneurs.       One  of  the  goals  of  the  terror  management  theory  is  to  explain  why  people  need   self-­‐esteem.  This  causes  humans  to  contemplate  the  future  and  know  that  life  can  be   snuffed  out  at  anytime.  This  is  what  causes  humans  to  experience  anxiety,  alarm,   and  terror  when  they  think  about  mortality.  According  to  this  theory,  culture  is  what   saves  us.  Many  believe  that  self-­‐esteem  functions  as  an  anxiety  buffer.       Culture  and  Personality   National  character  is  the  idea  that  various  cultures  have  widely  recognized   prototype  personalities.  Researchers  asked  people  questions  from  many  different   cultures  to  describe  typical  members  of  their  culture  using  the  five-­‐factor  model  as  a   guide.  Most  of  the  time  people  from  the  same  culture  agreed  on  how  people  from   their  culture  were.  There  are  two  different  self-­‐systems.  The  independent  self-­‐ system  says  that  kids  learn  to  define  themselves  through  their  personal  attributes,   abilities,  accomplishments,  and  possessions.  This  is  how  it  is  in  America.  The   interdependent  self-­‐system  says  that  parents  teach  their  children  to  rely  on   others  and  to  be  modest  about  their  personal  attributes  so  they  don’t  diminish   others.  This  is  how  it  is  in  countries  such  as  China  and  Japan.       Personal  Application:  Understanding  Personality  Assessment     • MMPI-­‐  measures  ten  personality  traits  that  are  thought  to  be  symptoms  of   disorders   • NEO  Personality  Inventory-­‐  measures  the  Big  Five  Traits        


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