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Biology Lecture 2 - Exam 1

by: Devin Mart

Biology Lecture 2 - Exam 1 BIO 121 A

Marketplace > Missouri State University > Biology > BIO 121 A > Biology Lecture 2 Exam 1
Devin Mart
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A Darwinian View of Life
General Biology
Dr. Durham
Class Notes
Biology 120 - General Biology
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Devin Mart on Tuesday March 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 121 A at Missouri State University taught by Dr. Durham in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biology at Missouri State University.


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Date Created: 03/29/16
  Mart 1  Lecture 2: A Darwinian View of Life    ● Natural selection ​ is the process whereby organisms better adapted to their environment  tend to survive and produce more offspring.  ○ This view was challenged for centuries because at this time many were very  religious (biblical viewpoint).  ● Lamarck published theory of evolution (1809).  ○ Mechanism of evolution is the use and disuse of parts and inheritance of acquired  characteristics.  ■ Example: giraffes gradually over time acquired longer necks by reaching  for leaves, which is passed on to their offspring.  ● Charles Darwin​  (1809­1882)  ○ Darwin went on the survey ship ​ The Beagle​  for a voyage around the world.  ■ The mission was to chart poorly known stretches of the South American  coastline.  ○ Thousands of specimens of exotic and diverse flora and fauna of South America  were collected.  ■ Noted that the plants and animals of South America were very distinct  from those of Europe.  ○ Galapagos​ Islands ​contained animal species that lived nowhere else, yet  resembled species living on the South American mainland.  ■ The island was colonized by plants and animals from the mainland and  was later diversified into the different islands.  ○ While on The Beagle Darwin read Lyell’s ​ Principles of Geology and concluded  that the Earth was very old and was constantly changing.  ■ Darwin saw origin of new species and adaptation of species to  environment as closely related processes.  ○ Darwin quickly finished ​ The Origin of Species which attributed the essence of  evolution by natural selection to Darwin.  ○ Central to Darwin’s view of evolution was the idea of ​ descent with modification​.  ■ All present day organisms are related through descent from unknown  ancestors in past.  ■ Descendents of ancestors accumulated diverse modification or adaptation  that fit them to specific ways of life and habitats.  ■ Closely related species share the same line of descent until recent  divergence from common ancestor.  ○ Another central idea was the theory of ​ natural selection ​   Mart 2  ■ Inference 1: Production of more individuals than environment can support  leads to a struggle for existence among individuals of population with only  a fraction of offspring surviving each generation.  ■ Inference 2: Survival in struggle for existence is not random, it depends in  part on hereditary constitution of individuals.  ■ Inference 3: This unequal ability of individuals to survive and reproduce  will lead to a gradual change in a population, with favorable  characteristics accumulating over the generations.  ○ Darwin’s main ideas.  1. Natural selection is differential success in reproduction (unequal ability of  individuals to survive and reproduce).  2. Natural selection occurs through interaction between environment and  variability inherent among individual organisms making up a population.  3. Produce of natural selection is adaptation of populations of organisms to  their environment.  ● The Darwinian Revolution.  ○ Natural selection in action: insecticide resistance.  ■ Insecticides ­ poison that kills insects, pests in crops, swamps, backyards  and homes.  ■ Most insecticides kill 99% of insects, the 1% of survivors contain the gene  that enable them to resist chemical attack.  ● These insects that carry the gene pass it on to their offspring, the  survival rate will then increase with each generation.  ■ Natural selection operates not to create variation, but to edit existing  variation.  ● Favors characteristics in a variable population that fit current, local  environment.  ○ Natural selection in action: evolution of drug­resistant HIV.  ■ Many drugs are used in order to combat human immunodeficiency virus  (HIV) because the virus’ drug resistant strains evolve rapidly in HIV  population infecting each patient ­ 1­10 billion new mutant viruses per  day.  ○ Other evidence of evolution pervades biology.  ■ Evidence of evolution can be found in the biological diversity documented  by fossil record.  ■ In descent with modification, new species descended from ancestral  species by accumulation of modifications as populations adapt to new  environments.    Mart 3  ■ Homology ​ is a similarity in sequence of a protein or nucleic acid between  organisms of the same or different species.  ■ Vestigial organs ​ is a rudimentary structure found in humans that  corresponds to a functional structure or organ in ancestral animals.  ○ Biogeography ​ the branch of biology that deals with the geographical distribution  of plants and animals.  ■ Species that are more closely related to other species from the same area  than to other species with the same way of life, but in a different area.  ■ Resemblance is an example of ​ endemics ​ the process whereby organisms  not closely related, independently evolve similar traits as a result of having  to adapt to similar environments or ecological niches.  ■ Many species of plants and animals found nowhere else in the world are  called endemics​ .  ○ Succession of fossil forms is compatible with major branches of descent in the  tree of life.  ■ Fossilized fish, amphibians, reptiles, mammals and birds. 


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