Chapter 6 Notes: Learning, Cognition, and Memory
Chapter 6 Notes: Learning, Cognition, and Memory EDP 202-007
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Smccarty on Tuesday March 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EDP 202-007 at University of Kentucky taught by Mrs. J. Burris in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Human Development and Learning in Education and Teacher Studies at University of Kentucky.
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Date Created: 03/29/16
Chapter 6: Educational Psychology – Developing Learners What is learning? Learning is long term change in mental representations or associations as a result of experience. There are 3 parts of learning: 1. Long-term change in that it isn’t just a brief, transitory use of information—but it doesn’t last forever 2. Learning has mental representations or associations: at the core it is a occurrence that takes place in the brain 3. Learning is a change due to experience, rather than the result of any physiological maturation, fatigue, use of alcohol, or drugs, or onset of mental illness. There are many theoretical approaches to learning: Behaviorism: Primarily concerned with observable behavior, as opposed to internal events like thinking and emotion. Observable, external behavior can be objectively and scientifically measured. Internal events, such as thinking should be explained through behavioral terms (or eliminated altogether). It takes into consideration the environment events (mostly as a stimulus) that precede the response (which is the behavior). Social Cognitive: Ways in which people learn by the observation and interaction with one another. Environment stimuli play a big role in this, but the cognitive processes are a major role in this. People learn from MODELING. Monkey see, monkey do. Overtime the development of incorporating self-regulating (people taking charge of and directing their own actions) This impacts largely motivation and learning of people. Cognitive Psychology: What is INSDIE the learner is what matters and the interaction of the learning, memory, performances. How people act in different situations is the key in the inferences they make about the observed. From observations of how people execute various tasks and behave in various situations, these theories make inferences about how people may perceive, interpret, and mentally manipulate the information they encounter Contextual Theories: Emphasis on the influences of learners’ physical and social environments on cognition and learning. However, they focus on things such a physical, social, and cultural; general factors. These support “thoughtful” learning. Theorists suggest young learners use things such as: sociocultural theory (Vygotsky). Results from a dynamic interaction between individuals and society. Through this interaction, children learn gradually and continuously from parent and teachers. This learning, however, can vary from one culture to the next. It is important to note that Vygotsky's theory emphasizes the dynamic nature of this interaction. Society doesn't just impact people; people also affect their society. Basic Assumptions of Cognition Psychology Cognitive processes influence what is learned o Example: mnemonics o cognitive processes – particular way of thinking about and mentally responding to a certain event or piece of information People’s cognitive processes can sometimes be inferred from their behaviors o Example: observing of how we might learn about learn about people’s cognitive processes by observing their behaviors People are selective about what they mentally process and learn o Sensation VS perception Meanings and understandings are not derived directly from the environment; instead, they are constructed by the learner o People often create their own understanding about a topic –that may or may not be accurate o Process of construction – mental process in which a learner takes many separate pieces of info and uses them to build an overall understanding or interpretation o Constructivism – theoretical perspective proposing that learners construct, rather than absorb, knowledge from their experience (individual constructivism) Maturational changes in the brain enables increasingly sophisticated cognitive processes with age o Neuropsychology – this is the study of how various brain structures and functions are related to human learning and behavior A Model of Human Memory Information Processing Theory: theoretical perspective that focuses on the specific way in which learners mentally think about, or process, new information and events People think about and interpret information in ways that are different to explain in the relatively simplistic, one-thing-always-leads-to-another ways that characterize computers Central to information processing theory is the concept of memory which is the ability to mentally to save something that has been previously learned; also, the mental “location” where such information is saved The process of putting what is being learned into memory is called storage. That is the process of putting new info into memory. o For example, when you go to class you store ideas from the lectures in class, the person sitting next to you in class. HOWEVER, the information is not stored as it is received. We go through coding. o Coding – modifying the information in a certain way, thus changing the format of new information as it is being stored in memory o When we need the information previously stored we use retrieval Put it into perspective. How quickly can you answer these questions? 1. What is your name? 2. What is the capital of France? 4. When talking about 3. In what year did appetizers at a party, we Christopher Columbus first sometimes use a French term sail across the Atlantic Ocean instead of the word appetizer. to reach the New World? What is that French term, and how is it spelled? What does it mean though? Answering your name is fast and easy. Other things –like what is the capital and who discovered the new world—take some time to think about the answer and retrieve the answer. Lastly, things like the spelling of the French word hors d’oeuvre (in case you needed the spelling) you remembered at one point but it may be impossible to retrieve. The Nature of the Sensory Register Sensory register or sensory memory – refers to the first and most immediate form of memory you have that takes in memory through your 5 senses and holds it no more than a few seconds Getting and Keeping Students’ Attention Create stimulating lessons in which students Provide frequent breaks from sedentary want to pay attention actives, especially when working with students in the elementary grades Get students physically involved with the In the middle school and high school grades, subject matter encourage students to take notes Incorporate a variety of instructional methods Minimize distractions, especially when students into lessons must work quietly and independently The Nature of Working (Short-Term) Memory Working Memory – the component of memory that holds and actively thinks about and processes a limited amount of information for a short time (about 5-20 seconds) UNLESS the learner does something consciously with it. Example – where we think about a lecture, analyze a textbook, passage, or solve a problem. This is where the mental work happens of the memory system, hence memory system There are several complex systems that involve in working memory. Working memory includes central executive which is the component of the human memory system that oversees the flow of information throughout the system. Example – imagine that you need to call your bestie, but you got a new phone and lost all your numbers so get their number off Facebook on your laptop. But then you can’t find your new phone. And you are sitting at Starbucks, so no pencil or paper. How do you remember the number until you find your phone? Repeat it to yourself! This is a process known as maintenance rehearsal. It keeps the information in working memory for as long as you’re willing to continue talk to yourself. The Nature of Long-Term Memory Long-term Memory is where learners store their general knowledge and beliefs about the world, the things they’ve learned in school, and their recollections of events in their personal lives. Things like driving, riding a bicycle, brushing your teeth are things that get put in long-term memory Long-term memories are a lot of time interconnected, think of the movie “Inside Out” and Joy and Sadness’s trip through the Long-Term Memory. As the interconnected, ever going, long-term memory of the little girl, it shows how many memories we hold (and like the gum commercial which comes back to play in her mind, or the old memories that disappear in time) Learning, Memory, and the Brain Astrocytes : Star-shaped brain cell hypothesized to be involved in learning and memory; has chemically mediated connections with many other astrocytes and with neurons Learning occurs in many places. The key process is the in the cortex (top and sides of the brain). Prefrontal cortex (area of the brain immediately behind the forehead) seems to be the primary headquarters for working memory and its central executive, although all of the cortex may be active to a greater or lesser extent in interpreting new input in light of previously acquired knowledge. Terms about Long-Term Memory Storage Declarative Knowledge Knowledge concerning the nature of how things are, were, or will be Procedural Knowledge Knowledge concerning how to do something (e.g., a skill) Conditional Knowledge Knowledge concerning appropriate ways to respond (physically or mentally) under various circumstances Explicit Knowledge Knowledge that a person is consciously aware of and can verbally describe Implicit Knowledge Knowledge that a person cannot consciously recall or explain but that nevertheless affects the person’s thinking or behavior Concept Mental grouping of objects or events that have something in common Schema Tightly organized set of facts about a specific topic Talking about scripts – when a schema involves a predictable sequence of events related to a particular activity, it’s sometimes called a script. There are many, MANY “love” scripts in our language: The 3 Base script The Netflix and Chill The One Night Stand Other scripts that follow daily life: Going to the doctor Going to school (Get on the bus, arrive at school, attendance, etc……) How Declarative Knowledge is Learned Rote Learning is learning info without attaching much meaning to it –a common rote learning is rehearsal repeating something over and over again within a short time frame, either by saying it aloud or by continuously thinking about it in an unaltered, verbatim fashion. Meaningful Learning – cognitive process in which learners relate new information to things they already know How Procedural Knowledge is Learned Examples – People bake a cake, serving a volleyball, driving a car with a stick shift Examples – Writing a persuasive essay, solving for x in an algebraic equation, surfing the Internet Helping Students Acquire New Procedures Help students understand the logic behind the Provide mnemonics that can help students procedures they are learning remember a sequence of steps When skills are especially complex, break them Give students many opportunities to practice into simpler task that students can practice one new skills, and provide the feedback they need at a time to help them improve. Roles of Prior Knowledge and Working Memory in Long-Term Memory Storage If students have a previous knowledge base (one’s existing knowledge about specific topics and the world in general) they are more likely to be engaged in the learning. The prior knowledge helps students: o Helps them determine what is most important to learn and therefore help them direct their attention appropriately o It enhances their ability to elaborate on information (for example, to fill in missing details, clarify ambiguities, and draw inferences) o It provides a framework for organizing new information Prior knowledge activation is the process of reminding learners of what they already know relative to a new topic Meaningful learning set is the attitude that one can make sense of information one is studying Conceptual understanding is meaningfully learned and well-integrated knowledge about a topic, including many logical connections among specific concepts and ideas Obstacles to Conceptual Change Most children and adolescents have a confirmation bias Students may believe that their existing beliefs better explain their everyday experiences Some beliefs are integrated into cohesive theories, with many interrelationships existing among various ideas Students may fail to notice an inconsistency between new information and their existing beliefs Students have a personal or emotional investment in their existing beliefs Promoting Conceptual Change Teachers not only must help students learn new things learn new things, but they must also help students unlearn things as well—or at least inhibit—their existing beliefs: o Identify existing misconceptions before instruction begins o Look for—and then build on kernels of truth in students’ existing understanding o Convince students that their existing beliefs need revision o Motivate students to learn correct explanations o Monitor what students say and write for signs of persistent misconceptions Long-Term Memory Retrieval Learners are more likely to remember something later on if, in the process of storing it, they connect it with something else in long-term memory. Factors Affecting Retrieval Distinctiveness – learners are more likely to remember things that are unique in some way, for instance, things that are new, unusual, or bit bizarre Emotional Overtones – As they think about new information, their thoughts and memories sometimes become emotionally charged –a phenomenon called hot cognition. Regular Practice – regular practice, over a lengthy time span of reviewing and using information and skills at periodic intervals over the course of a few weeks, months, or years. o Learners practice things over and over time and eventually achieve automaticity which is the ability to respond quickly and efficiently while mentally processing or physically performing task Relevant Retrieval Cues – a retrieval cue is a stimulus that provides guidance about where to “look” for a piece of information in long-term memory Wait Time – is the length of time a teacher allows to pass after the teacher or a student says something before the teacher says something else.