Week 9 - Behavioral Neuroscience
Week 9 - Behavioral Neuroscience PSYC 4183-001
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Celine Notetaker on Tuesday March 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 4183-001 at University of Arkansas taught by Nathan Parks in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Behavioral Neuroscience in Psychlogy at University of Arkansas.
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Date Created: 03/29/16
Behavioral Neuroscience Week 9 Functional Neuroanatomy Peripheral Nervous system: o Divides into Autonomic Nervous System and Somatic Nervous System - Cranial nerves - Spinal nerves - Ganglia of the A.N.S. Cranial Nerves - 12 pairs - Bypasses the spinal cord and goes straight to the brain # Name Function Location Olfactory I Nerve Smell II Optic Nerve Vision Eye movement; III Oculomotor pupil Nerve constrictio n Trochlear Eye IV Nerve movement Somatosen sory informatio n (touch, V Trigeminal pain) from Nerve the face and head; muscles for chewing. Abducens Eye VI Nerve movement VI Facial Nerve Taste I (anterior 2/3 of tongue); somatosen sory informatio n from ear; controls muscles used in facial expression. VI Vestibulococ Hearing; II hlear Nerve balance Taste (posterior 1/3 of tongue); Somatosen sory informatio Glossophary n from IX ngeal Nerve tongue, tonsil, pharynx; controls some muscles used in swallowin g. Sensory, motor and autonomic X Vagus Nerve functions of viscera (glands, digestion, heart rate) Controls Spinal muscles XI Accessory used in Nerve head movement. XI Hypoglossal Controls I Nerve muscles of tongue Spinal Nerves Somatic Nervous system - Consists of all peripheral neural tissue concerned with movement Autonomic nervous system - All about controlling the organs of the body - Divided into Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nervous system Sympathetic Nervous system: = “Fight or Flight” SPINAL NERVES manage Sympathetic NS concerned with controlling functions associated with the expenditure of energy. Sympathetic Nervous system typically EXCITES the body EX: If you ate a sandwhich and then had to fight a bear your body would prioritize energy being sent to your muscles rather than energy being sent to your digestive system Parasympathetic Nervous System = “Rest and Digest” CRANIAL Nerves manage Parasympathetic NS Concerned with controlling functions associated with the conservation of energy. Neuroscience Methods Animal Methods = typically invasive Human Methods = noninvasive Animal methods Cats, Mice, Macaque Monkey most typical subjects Patch Clamping o Tecnique where the tip of a micopipette is positioned against the neuronal membrane o Sucks up a piece of the membrane into the pipette. Pipette seals off that piece of membrane o You can add a substance/chemical into the pipette and seeing how the membrane reacts. You can also measure this by putting an electrode in there Immunocytochemistry o Visualizes the presence of neuronal proteins, such as receptors, by using specially developed antibodies o You can develop an antibody for any protein that you want. This is as if you “programmed” it to lock on to a specific protein o Take a slice of tissue and apply the antibody you can discover if the protein it was designed for exists in that slice of tissue o Utilizes the immune response in the body for this method Microdialysis o Allows the chemical makeup of extracellular fluid to be examined by inserting a small tube into an area of the brain. o Pumps fluid from inside the brain up the tube to outside the brain o Then you can collect and analyze the fluid EX: Examining ECF in the hippocampus of a rat while it is exercising. You could compare the ECF at different points and see if the composition changes as the workout progresses Tracing Allows neurons projecting to and from a given brain area to be labeled by dye, autoradiography, immunocytochemistry, or virus. -Can only be done in animals Retrograde tracing: Shows INPUTS o Label is taken up by axon terminals and transported toward cell body Anterograde tracing: Shows OUTPUTS o Label is taken up by dendrites/soma and transported toward axon terminals RABIES virus and HERPES virus perform tracing in the nervous system Rabies can trace its way from motor neurons to the CNS (in the brain) and will cause death in a human (if no counter measures are taken) Optogenetic o Alter neuron genetics to insert light-activated ion channels. Neurons can then be activated or inhibited with different Knockouts wavelengths of light - This is borrowed from the proteins in ALGAE o Take a gene from an algae and inserting that into a rat brain o The rat brain now expresses this gene which can then be activated by shining different colors of light o Blue wavelengths depolarize (excite) neurons, yellow wavelengths hyperpolarize (inhibit) Can be used to balance the brain Ablation o Essentially destroying a part of the brain and seeing what happens Experimental ablation: a specific brain area is destroyed and the effect on behavior is assessed (also lesioning) Lesions can be introduced using a number of approaches : - Electrically: Running a large current through it - Aspiration : Essentially using a vacuum to suck it up (not very accurate) - Chemically: Over-excitation Excitotoxicity can kill cells a way to kill a population of cells (e.g. those only affected by glutamate) - Cooling (temporary/reversible): pumps cold water through that area to make the tissue stop working (e.g. snakes in the winter stop moving) lets you test the same animal under two conditions since it doesn’t permanently damage the brain - Anesthetic (temporary/reversible)- directly inject/infuse an anesthetic into the brain Record/Stimulate Single-Cell Recordings o Dropping an electrode into a brain area and passively record what is occurring o can be used to record action potentials from individual neurons • Examine how neural firing rates change with a stimulus or behavior - Very useful method for a variety of testing EXAMPLE: Give an animal a stimulus (scent, visual info) and then use single-cell recording to see the change in that cell and how it is affected (excitation, increase stimulus, etc…) o ALLOWS us to draw direct correlations Electrical Stimulation The same electrodes which record action potentials can be used to stimulate a neuron with electrical current • Can examine how stimulation of a particular brain region changes behavior Knockouts o Transgenic animals in which a particular gene has been inactivated -Taking out the gene from an animal and seeing what occurs -Knockout mouse: A gene has been removed that affects pigment. This affects gene expression and we see this when two of the SAME kinds of mice have different coats EXAMPLE QUESTION: How could you determine which brain areas the Inferior Colliculus projects to? Answer: Anterograde Tracing (with dye ) EXAMPLE QUESTION: What method would you use to measure the electrical current generated by opening a single nicotinic receptor Answer: Patch clamping EXAMPLE QUESTION: What method would you use to understand what type of objects a neuron in visual cortex reports? Answer: Single-cell recording EXAMPLE QUESTION: What method would you use to determine the rold of D2 receptors on long-term memory? Answer: Knockout method (use a mouse that has the D2 receptor turned off and compare it to a similar mouse with the D2 receptor still in tact) Human Methods Generally non-invasive and safe for participants Patients o Collect a population with brain damage and compare how they behave to a population without brain damage o Can be studied to understand the function of the damaged area. o Allow you to draw causal conclusions o Human equivalent to ablation study in animals. Patient H.M.--> Surgical removal of the medial temporal lobes to alleviate epilepsy • Electrocorticography (ECoG) Can be used to locate the source of ____. - Seizure source usually measured with clinical use. - Implanted in a patients head and placed across the frontal cortex. • Electrical Brain Stimulation (EBS) Can also stimulate the brain using this ECoG by running a current between the electrodes Computerized Tomography (CT) o 3-dimenstional image of the brain obtained by taking 2-dimensional X-rays (slices) at many different angles o Provides a 3D image of brain structure = Best suited for imaging abnormal brain structure o You can only see chunks of tissue inside the brain o You CANNOT see what the brain is doing Positron Emission Tomography (PET) o provide functional 3D images of brain activity by measuring the brain’s consumption of radioactively labeled glucose. o Basis of PET signal: Neural tissue consumes more energy (glucose) when active. o PET measures the accumulation of glucose in the brain via radioactivity = Metabolic measure. Pro: Great spatial imaging Con: you have to consume something radioactive - Results don’t tell you WHEN EXACTLY something became activated, but just tells you that it was activated - Super expensive Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) o Uses very strong magnetic fields and radio frequency emission to obtain 3D images of the brain – Structural and functional measures o 1000 times more powerful than the earth’s magnetic field o Works by aligning the hydrogen atoms in the body along a dipole. Then the MRI machie knocks them out of alignment and measures as they realign themselves. Done repeatidly Pro: Very high resolution images of brain structure Functional MRI (when the MRI setting is set to measure function, not structure) - When neural tissue becomes active, it consumes more oxygen - Deoxygenated and oxygenated blood have different magnetism o fMRI measures blood oxygenation in the brain => Metabolic measure. o Shows where In the brain, more oxygen is consumed o High spatial resolution, poor temporal resolution Con: - Slow, takes various seconds to process the activation of that area (which is really slow compared to the speed of neural processing) Timing is slowed -Super expensive Electroencephalography (EEG) o Measures the electrical activity generated by the brain using electrodes on the scalp. o Subjects are placed into caps containing an array of electrodes o Tells you activity of the brain “the conversation” - If you wanted to measure the dynamic activity of a stroke you could use this to get the play by play of each part of the activity, but it won’t tell you where it is occuring Pro: Cheap, great for temporal resolution Con: bad for spatial resolution (hard to tell where in the brain the activity is coming from) Magnetoencephalography o Measures magnetic fields generated by the brain (occur in conjunction with electrical activity) More precis spatial resolution than EEG because it uses magnetic field instead of electrodes Pro: Very high temporal resolution/ Moderate spatial resolution. Con: hard to upkeep the technology, costs millions of $ Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) o TMS is a method of disrupting ongoing cortical activity with a magnetic pulse causes temporary deviation or error in that activity o Uses magnetism to stimulate brain tissue o The magnetic field induces current in the underlying neural tissue o The induction of current transiently activates neural tissue o TMS allows causal inferences to be drawn about the function of particular brain regions. Behavioral Genetics o Attempts to correlate cognitive and behavioral effects with variability/similarity in the genome o Classic psychology = twin studies Systems Vision o Stimulus: Light - Light = Electromagnetic energy - Visible Spectrum (white light): is the section of the electromagnetic spectrum that humans are capable of seeing o This boundary is set by the receptors in the human eye Light wavelength: Affects the perception of COLOR Light amplitude: Affects the perception of BRIGHTNESS o Sensory apparatus o Neural Pathways o Cortical Representations