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ARCH 2243 - 001, Week #9

by: Ashley

ARCH 2243 - 001, Week #9 ARCH 2243 - 001


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Early Modern Architecture in Japan.
History of Architecture II
Kim Sexton
Class Notes
Architecture, History of Architecture, japanese architecture
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley on Tuesday March 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ARCH 2243 - 001 at University of Arkansas taught by Kim Sexton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see History of Architecture II in Architecture at University of Arkansas.


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Date Created: 03/29/16
Zen Aesthetics and the Foundations of Early Modern Architecture in Japan I. Background to Early Modern Transformation in Japanese Architecture  Orientation oNorth – dark turtle and snake oEast – dragon (beginning) oSouth – red bird (face it) oWest – white tiger (war)  Residence Type oThe size of your residence blocks = your class in the city oThe shinden-zukuri as villa and then temple image hall oThe shinden-zukuri in rural samurai strongholds in the Kamakura period (1185-1333)  Early residence  Staggered asymmetricth plans II. Jizodo of Shofuku-ji – Japan (near Tokyo) – 13 Cent – Japanesse Kamakura Period  Context oMeditation – clear your mind completely oJizo – Buddhist deity that looks after children  Site Plans oImportant halls one after another oRegimentation to the plans that follow the regimentation to their lifestyle  Style oChinese Elements  Difference between China and Japan is China uses bright red enamel over its wood buildings whereas Japan uses more muted neutral colors  lightened the posts standing on stone bases (China Influence)  Slender columns (China Influences) oJapanese Principles  Tie beams hold most of the building together  Enables thin columns  Enables thin walls  Enables everthing being made out of wood  On the top of windows and doors  Curvy top – suggests something light and floaty  3 block bracketing system inside and out  Flying rafters to support lightness of roof  Religious Values oZazen meditation  Objectless thought oKoan – exchanges with a master  Break through rational thought to the clarity of intuitive enlightenment III. Silver Pavillion – Kyoto, Japan – 15 cent – Japanese (Ashikaga-Muromachi)  shogun – title of a military leader in Japan  Ashikaga Yoshimasa – shogun whose retirement villa turned into a Buddhist temple  Context oJust outside of the main square of the city  Somewhere in the northern or eastern hills oThe Togudo’s “Equal Merit Study” – shoin (study) and the first tea room in Japan  Precedent oStarted in Monasteries oSammuri commander houses had the shoin in their house oThen in a shoguns palace oShoin Components  Built in desk (looks like a shelf because you sit on the ground)  Shelfs in little alcoves that are ALWAYS staggered _ -- to place art on  Straw tatami mats as a plan module oShoin unit signify as a typology  Appurtenances of scholarly and religious discipline create a verisimilitude of wisdom  Yoshimasa then became a zen priest and quit shogun  Style oSolid wall panels of white plastered clay pressed into a bamboo and rice straw framework oExterior partitions – desire to be connected to natural world  Sliding translucent paper covered screens (shoji) with or without high wooden wainscoting oInterior Partitions  Sliding painted fusama  Tatami mat flooring o1 Floor – residential shoji partitions  Half paper half wood  Fixed panelsnd oZen Temple on the 2 Floor  Cusped windows again  Zen Philosophy o Natural world extension of your inner harmony o Face onto a pond garden where landscapes are recreated in minatures  Pond = lake  Rocks = mountains o Wood is left plain and Plaster is white but not a shiny bright white but semi opaque white and Gold Tatami mats and Shoji Paper screens  Gold White and Browns together Altering Behavioral Norms: Psychology and Architecture in Tokugawa Palaces I. Ninomaru Palace – Kyoto, Japan – 17 cent – Japanese (Edo Period) Katsura Villa - Kyoto, Japan – 17 cent – Japanese (Edo Period)  Context o Organizational and administrative changes o Large territorial states o Shogun – Tokugawa Leyasu  Japan is now all one country and are under control of just this guy  Emperor is still there but under the Shogun  He built down the imperial palace and moved his new Imperial Palace to the right  Retirement Villa in a usual place  Nijo Castle – Shoguns Palace  Bottom right corner of the old Imperial Palace site  The Tour o Ninomaru Palace  Tozamurai (Reception Hall)  Shikidai (Formal Vestibule)  Ohiroma (Great Audience Hall)  Kuroshoin (Small Audience Hall)  Shiroshoin (Residential Shoin) o Katsura Villa  The Gepparo Tea House (Moon Wave Tower)  Old Shoin  Middle Shoin  New Goten (Imperial Visitation Palace)  Ruler Ideology o Ninomaru – aloof ruler all about divinity and being far away from the subordinates o Katsura – nostalgic imperial prince in leisure keeping his visitors comfortable o Both buildings have the same idea of taking a room and having it represent an entire building and connecting each building from one to the next o Movement Oriented Space  There is not one axis to it and its not symmetrical  To understand a building you must move but you don’t know what is lying in front of you  Knowing the building is successive observations  Very different from what’s in China in the forbidden city  Help make the visitor feel less in control to give the Shogun more power  Blocking views of things o Approach to the entrance  Ninomaru Palace  MASSIVE gates that prepare and set up an idea of formality  Gates show good government practices  Confucius ideology  Neo-Confucius movement  Very military like and power filled and straight axises  Katsura Villa  Emerse your visitors in nature going through the gates  Different forms of stepping stones and plantings o Politics Denied  Ninomaru Palace  He is not really a military man  Rules with just thinking and justice  Katsura Villa  Modest in materials – dark wood  Staggered shelfs in an abstract way  Not about politics but study of the mind  Style o Wabi Aesthetic (Zen inspired) – appreciation of austerity, simplicity, humility, tranquility, and purity o Sukiya Aesthetic (Tea Ceremony Inspired) = studied artlessness o On the exterior  Very heavy and steep roofs  Ninomaru Palace  Terra cotta tiles – better for fortification  Walls - Painted shoji screens with wood wainscoting  Solid looking  Katsura Villa  Cedar shingles  Walls - Paper shoji screens  Very delicate looking o On the interior  Tatami mats, painted walls, transoms on both  Ninomaru Palace  Ostentatious display  Gold, carved and painted walls  Gold leaf covered the silk with very thick paint on top  Katsura Villa  Studied artlessness  Plain transoms  Seeming sort of casual  Black ink on plain silk on the moving walls that move to reveal nature  Minimalistic  Landscape o Ninomaru Palace  The Shogun really gets the best view of the garden of immortals  Its really rocks and a little lake but you are supposed to see mountains and a bay  Garden symbolizes immortality and longevity  Stone bridge that leads from main island (turtle shell) to a smaller island (crane) o Katsura Villa  Many terraces and walkways  Floor to transom wall/windows that move to view nature on the other side  Not natural nature because the gardens have been designed  Strolling Garden  Not just a view of one picture  Take in many pictures as you walk through the prescribed path  A bunch of tea houses along the way  Plants are there to block or view spaces  Psychological Intimidation – Ninomaru Palace o Location suggests subordination to the emperor  Emperors position is being protected by the emperor who is in the north o Confucian Geomancy  The shoguns palace on the inside says the exact opposite  Now the emperor is the subordinate to the shogun  Strange because usually the emperor is this icon that doesn’t leave his palace  Once the emperor entered though he was protected o Interior Architecture  Dimensions of the Great Audience Hall instilled subservience in the shogun’s vassals  Very long audience hall  Shogun sits at one end and subordinates sit along the sides  Two levels in the room (family goes on top)  Direction of tatami mats lead you to the shogun  Crossing the room to the leader not leading you to a view  Paintings  Reception Hall  Intimidating  Tigers  Great Audience Hall  Longevity  Pine trees  No orientation for the poor subordinates due to the lack on ground shown in the paintings  Asymmetric Composition  Pine trees are asymmetrical creating a canopy that centers where the shogun is sitting  Shogun is star of the show and the extended center of the whole rest of the building to not make this room the breaker of symmetry o Illumination  There is a light source over his desk  In the room there is a focused dramatic lighting towards the side – asymmetric lighting  Tea – House Aesthetics – Katsura Villa o Entrance to the tea house  Very integrated with nature  Nature is creeping into the building  Entrances are designed to be hard to get to  Renouncing the world outside to get yourself inside the ritualistic tea house o Size of the tea house  Smaller the space = more focused on the ritual  Minimalize everything o Wild Materials  Interior is more of a sculpture of line and plain and surface that are interchangeable  More like an abstract composition more than a building  Natural forms  Natural state of wood trunks of limbs to support a roof or partition  Seeing the tree in the forest you don’t appreciate it as much rather than seeing it in the tea house due to the great amount of contrast o Tea House design goes beyond Wabi (Zen) aesthetic to Sabi (the taking pleasure of the old, tarnished, lonely and imperfect for its own sake)  Nature comes into the space – beyond zen – how nature really may age  Partitions that move – importance of confinement  More immediate connection


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