CHD2220 Exam 2
CHD2220 Exam 2 CHD2220-0001
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This 33 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chiara Fuller on Tuesday March 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHD2220-0001 at Florida State University taught by Murray Krantz in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Child Growth and Development: The Foundation Years in Child and Family Studies at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 03/29/16
Freud-psychoanalytic Carl jung: a young contemporary of freud; one of the first to focus on adult personality development Shadow: first 30 years of life consumed with repressed childhood desires, seeking out relationships or opportunities to help deal with childhood issues After 40, adults develop internal self-potential through balancing opposites, not consumed with repressed desires Gender crossover: as people age their focus starts to shift towards things they were missing out on (man used to always work, after 40 wants to stay home and ice versa) Balance of extroversion (self in society) and introversion (interiority): Erik erikson: developed a full stage-based model of development throughout the entire life span, focused on the development of identity Developed the epigenetic principle: there is an interaction between environment and genes (you may have genes but if your not in the proper environment, genes may not be expressed) 8 stage model of development: each stage described a developmental task or challenge to be accomplished, potive of neg resolution to each stage What we gain or don’t is carried to next stage Impairments limit information to the brain; brain knows deficiencies and tries to compensate with other things ex: children visually impaired have more hearing and touch (plasticity) Depth perception: brain has to learn to interpret cues in environment that help child to conceptualized three dimensional space When children first begin to creep, they develop a differentiate view of 3D space Dropoff means danger; creeping babies start to learn about 3D space and start to show awareness of drop off (visual cliff; determines if emotions will get in the way of cognition – mother is on the other end of the visual cliff, visual clues indicate that it is very far drop) Brain development Neural tube fuses (problems cause things like spina bifida and anencephaly) Formed through mitosis, and cells/neurons migrate to where they belong structurally/functionally, by the millions Teratogens interfere with migrations patterns, influencing by killing them off or sending to wrong place Development of nerve cells is very rapid (proliferation) we end up with almost 100 billion nerve cells at birth Way more than we actually need Eventually that number will dwindle Axon of one cell meets with dendrite of another = synapse (microscopic gap) these keep connecting to form a nerve pathway (a thousand trillion connections) Anything that disturbs migration patterns or synapses is less than whats is supposed to be genetically synaptogenesis: formation of synapses, myelination: over time throughout late prenatal development, once nerve pathways are formed, insulator called myelin is formed around nerves nerve impulse begins with sensory input, then moves across nerves, synapses (neurotransmitters: chemicals that transmit impulses across synapse) why are there so many more nerve cells and synapses when we use only a small part of it? o The brain is vulnerable to injury o Plasticity: the ability of the brain to have enough synapses that if part of the brain is injured, fails to develop, messed up by disease it can be reprogrammed o The younger the child, the greater the plasticity Hemispherectomy: removal of half of the brain bc of lesions o Plasticity will allow the remaining half to compensate for that half o Able to recall all cognitive abilities with rehab, only some motor problems o Ben Carson performed the first operation Development of synapses is straightforward and linear, continues to increase until about age 23 o Child is at the greatest level of synaptic density o Age 310, synapses remain constant o Aged 1019 or 20, lost about half the synapses o Apoptosis: quality of every human cell, every cell has the potential to kill itself off under circumstances o When a pathway receives stimulation and is stimulated again and again and get wired together (nerved that fire together, wire together) become consolidated or protected o Nerves on pathways that are not constantly stimulated undergo apoptosis (between age 10 and 20) (use it or lose it principle) o As cells and synapses die off, the brain eliminates the waste product in a process called pruning o More stimulated pathways and the more quality of stimulation, the more pathways become stronger o More pathways: lots of diversity and lots of repetition COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT 03/19/2016 ▯ CHD Chapter 9 ▯ Preoperational stage of development Operational refers to the logical systems of through which eventually emerge in middle childhood o Ex. At age 7 or 8 most children understand that while all horses are animals, not all animals are horses Preschoolers are incapable of these advanced forms of reasoning ▯ Symbolic function the ability to use symbols to represent or stand for perceived objects and events Deferred imitation children observe the behavior of a model and imitate that behavior after a delay and, in some cases, when the model is no longer present o This requires that the child stores and later retrieves the information o Baby using a spoon like his father and hour later, but not the next day Advances in perception allow the child to engage in more detail Symbolic Play Children pretend that an object is something other than it really is. o Pretending a wooden block is a boat, pretend drinking from a cup ▯ Shifting Context: 2 and 3 year old children typically require support from the play setting to initiate and sustain their pretense. o A toddler will pretend eat in a kitchen before a backyard Substituting Objects Children often substitute one object fro another in their pretend play o 2 year olds play with dolls without unrealistic things o 3 year olds can turn any prop into a toy and become less dependent on realistic props ▯ Substituting Other Agents for Oneself Sequencing and Socialization of Pretend Episodes o a two year old combs hair but a 4 year old washes it, dries it, combs it, etc. ▯ Mental Images Internal representations of external objects or events Enables them to think about objects that aren’t present ▯ The Advent of Preconcepts Centration focusing your attention on minute and inconsequential aspects of their experience o A three year old remembers nothing about the babysitter besides her bright earrings Preconcepts o Disorganized, illogical representations of the child’s experiences Carlos remembers things about the zoo that aren’t relevant to the zoo (popcorn, mom ripping dress, etc) Little kids have their own versions of fairy tales because they remember random facts Transductive Reasoning: Thinking with Preconcepts In induction, we derive general principles from particular examples. o An 8 year old boy who observes the teachers have favored girls in each of his classes, might induce that teachers have favored girls in each of his classes, might induce that girls are teacher’s pets. In deduction, we use general principles to predict particular outcomes o The same child could use his general principle to deduce that when he enters his next grade, his new teacher will be likely to favor girls. Transduction reasoning within the unsystematic collections of images which constitute their preconcepts ▯ Egocentrism The inability to conceptualize the perspective of other individuals o This does not imply that they are selfish, simply that they can not see the world how others see it ThreeMountain Problem – children between 4 and 12 years of age were shown a threedimensional model of a mountain scene. Each mountain had its own unique color, size, and shape and a unique object on its peak. Piaget asked each child to examine and then moved a doll to various vantage points around the model, and asked the child to select a picture o Children under the age of eight identifies their own view as that of the doll Irreversibility The notion that preschoolers cannot mentally reverse their transductive sequences of thought. o When a three year old girl who has a sister is asked if she has a sister she predictably answers yes. If she is then asked if her sister has a sister she will say no. o She cant mentally reverse the concept of the relationship Reasoning in Content Domains Classification refer to the tendency to group objects on the basis of particular sets of characteristics o Adults maintain distinct categories for fruits and vegetables, indoor and outdoor sports, automobiles and airplanes Stage 1 children (5 years and younger) had no overall plan for sorting, but produced graphic collections or pictures made with objects o Examplea child might arrange several of the forms into a rectangle and refer to it as a house Stage 2 children( 68) sorted in a more organized way, producing a series of collections of objects, based on different dimensions of similarities Stage 3 children (later childhood to early adolescence) understood the relationship the rule of class inclusion. o Working with a set of four toy cows and two monkeys, children responded correctly when asked whether there were more cows or more animals, showing that they understood animals is a larger class than cows Quantitative reasoning The ability to estimate the amount of things ans the changed in the amounts of things in terms of number, size, weight, volume, speed, time, and distance o When a three year old tries to throw a ball, he must try to estimate how much force is needed to project the ball a certain distance Concepts of quantity o A critical point in the development of quantitative reasoning is reached when children become aware that things in nature exist in specific amounts, and that those amounts only change when certain actions are carried out ▯ Conservation The notice that certain attributes of objects and events may remain unchanged, despite transformations or change Concepts of Number o 1:1 correspondence o same amount of two different things o According to Piaget, children’s responss showed a consistent developmental trend: Young preoperational children show no understanding of 1:1 correspondence, responding only to the physical appearance of the rows If one row is spread out it is judged to have more beans The one to one principle one and only one distinctive number name must be assigned to each item in the array. The stable order principle Number names must be assigned in a stable repeatable order. This principle is being followed as long as a sequence of number names is applied consistently across different arrays of items. The cardinal principle the final number in a counting sequence gives the total number of items in the array. The abstraction principle virtually anything can be counted: tangibles such as objects and events, and intangibles such as ideas, values, and emotions. The orderirrelevance principle The order in which objects are counted is irrelevant. Appearance and Reality Distinguishing appearance and reality o The fact that adults generally sense that appearances do not always reflect reality People do not necessarily mean what they say, intend to do what they do, or feel the emotions implied by the look on their face. o The cat changing colors and the kid thinking it’s a monster The object identity task presented children with a series of objects that look one way but are actually something else ▯ ▯ Information Processing Offers and alternative view of children’s cognitive development to that of Piaget. This theory views cognitive development as a continuous process of change in children’s informationprocessing capabilities Refers to children’s use of attention and memory to gain and retain information about their environment and their use of that information to solve problems ▯ Attention The ability to pay selective attention to objects in the environment improves gradually with age, as children master strategies paying attention to taskrelevant objects ▯ Remembering Research has shown that preschool children have only limited capacity to process information for longterm memory, particularly when they must memorize lists of meaningless and unrelated items o A 4yearold can remember 4 digits and a 6yearold can remember 5 Toddlers and preschoolers do a lot better when asked to remember things that have meaning to them like cartoon characters. They do even better when they are asked to repeat information about events in which they have participated like a field trip Metacognition o Older children are better able than younger children to conceptualize their own cognitive processes o This includes knowing how much you know, and knowing how to improve your knowledge or your performance on some mental task ▯ Theory of Mind What we use to explain and predict human behavior ▯ Mind reading The cognitive process by which we attribute desires and beliefs to other individuals in order to explain and predict behavior First begins during preschool years ▯ Deception The ability to generate false beliefs in other individuals o One study used hide and seek game that required preschoolers to use a puppet to hide a treasure in one of several differently colored containers. Children as young as two and a half could use deceptive strategies to create false beliefs Language Development Towards the second year of life children have mastered many of the fundamental components of language o The growth of vocabulary o Preschoolers learn nine words per day o They tend to learn words that reflect their understanding of time (now, after, etc.) and concepts of space (under, over) o Preschoolers understand top and bottom but don’t understand front and back until a later age ▯ Learning the Rules of Grammar ▯ Grammar the system of rules that structures how to combine words into meaningful sequences They act as if they are constantly forming and testing hypotheses about the lawful and systematic properties of their language o They first learn noun phrases (Little dolly) and verb phrases (goes byebye) Children use grammatical morphemes inflections such as –ings, ed, and –s which modify nouns verbs , and adjectives o They learn these in a grammatical morphemes in a fixed developmental sequence English speaking children learn to add –ing to verbs before learning to add –s to form plurals. They learn irregular past tense (broke) before regular (learned) Overregularize o The boy kicked the ball, the boy ranned home ▯ Communication Adequate communication requires that the child master the pragmatics of language o The implicit rules, skills, and concepts, which regulate the behavior of speakers and listeners in conversation ▯ Egocentric speech Language that fails to consider the viewpoint of the listener Monologue children simply talk to themselves, seemingly oblivious to anyone around them o “gonna put this here—oops that doesn’t fit” ▯ Collective monologue Conversationlike turntaking between egocentric speakers, with little or no transfer of meaning ▯ Private Speech Speech with no apparent communicative purpose Some children characteristically mutter softly to themselves only in the presence of others o They narrate their behaviors and announce their next moves Developmentalists viewed private speech as egocentric, serving no cognitive or communicative function Inner speech thinking in words and sentence Chapter 10 ▯ Social and Emotional Development Early Childhood During the preschool years we see the emergence of personality o A child’s unique pattern of relating socially and emotionally to other human beings. o Personality effects ability to achieve personal and social goals ▯ Promoting social competence Social Competence The ability to establish and maintain satisfying social interaction and relationship[s with peers and with adults o Knowing how to act under what circumstances, etc. The differences in social and emotional competence are enormously significant as children develop through the preschool years and prepare for the challenged of adjusting to life in elementary school. o Schools usually facilitate development in this area ▯ Social Play Provides children with the opportunity to experiment with their own development o To practice and perfect what they have already become and to explore the cutting edge of their developmental potential o Emphasizes the process rather than the product Build to build not to reach a certain height Provides a unique opportunity for the development of social competency by allowing children to regular the degree to which they involve social partners in play episodes. ▯ Unoccupied behavior the child is not involved in play and does not interact with other children or teachers ▯ Onlooker behavior the child observes the play of other children with obvious interest but makes no effort to become involved in anyway ▯ Solitary play the child observes the play of other children with obvious interest but makes no effort to become involved in any way. ▯ 2430 months ▯ Parallel Play the child plays beside other children with toys that are similar to those used by those children. There is no social contact with other children nor any effort to coordinate ▯ 3042 ▯ Associative play the child plays with other children, sharing materials and conversing, but there is no consistent theme to the play or division of roles. ▯ 4254 months ▯ Cooperative play the child plays with other children in an organized manner, with roles differentiated to accomplish some goal or to act out some agreed upon play theme. ▯ ▯ Social pretend play Children acting out roles and themes associated with stories, television cartoon shows, or common family events such as “supper time” or “bathing baby” Increases through the preoperational period and declines at 6 or 7 ▯ Sociodramatic play Requires that children learn to negotiate and communicate about the roles, objects, settings, and actions that will be employed in any given “pretend engagement” o The failure to negotiate successfully can easily undermine the quality of social pretense If a stick is a wand for one kid and a stick for the other there is room for conflict ▯ Promoting social pretense Children’s pretend play is more positive and enjoyable o They tend to be more socially skilled and more empathetic ▯ Relating to Peers ▯ Social preference ▯ Sociometric procedure Individual children are asked to nominate three children they most like to play with and three that they least like to play with. Positive and negative preference have been used to classify children into social status subgroups o Popular, rejected, neglected, controversial (some like some dislike), average (don’t fall neatly into a category) ▯ Friendship an enduring close, mutual relationship between two individuals, expressed by a tendency to spend a disproportionate amount of play time together o reciprocity is key o start to form friendships in prekindergarten o children that are similar to themselves o same sex, personality ▯ Conflicts Any situation in which children find themselves opposing one another Conflicts that do not involve aggression are typically resolved without adult intervention, the end without a clear winner or loser and children show very little negative emotion over the conflict ▯ Aggression Purposeful efforts to inflict pain or injury on another child o Proactive aggression Refers to a childs unprovoked, voluntary efforts to cause harm to a selected victim A child approaches another child and his the child for no reason or a child forcefully rips a toy from another child’s grasp and runs away with it ▯ Reactive aggression A child is provoked by the behavior of an instigator, and the child response defensively or in retaliation to that provocation. ▯ Instrumental aggression Objectoriented struggles between child over possession, territory, and privilege o Snatching o Peaks during second year of life ▯ Bullying or hostile aggression Person oriented acts aims at forcefully gaining social control over another child ▯ Relational aggression Refers to behavior that is designed to inflict harm by undermining or damaging relations with peers o Excluding another child, or threatening a friendship( “I don’t want to be your friend anymore” o Appears during the preschool years and begins to take a high emotional toll o Boys are more likely to bully and girls are more likely to rely on relational aggression ▯ Theories of Childhood Aggression Biological theories of Aggression o Humans are instinctually aggressive (Lorenz) o The destructive impulses are instinctive in humans, biologically built into the individual from birth, highly pleasurable, and virtually irresistible (Freud) Phallic Stage children’s destructive impulse are directed increasingly toward the samesex parent, who is perceived as a rival for the affection of the opposite sex parent. ▯ Social Learning Theory of Aggression Observationalchildren acquire aggressive responses by observing the aggressive behavior of models and produce aggressive responses when the situation suggests that such behavior will not be punished or possibly even reinforced Coercion theory one child’s aggression against another elicits retaliation by the victim, if the retaliation is successful in terminating the attack it reinforces the aggression Reinforcement trap the trap begins when a mother issues a command such as “clean your room” the child responds with an aggressive behavior, such as throwing a tantrum, and the parent finally gives in ▯ Dominance Dominance hierarchy o A systematic ordering of power relationship[s from the most to the least powerful member o When firmly established, the dominance hierarchy minimizes aggression by allowing each member of the group to anticipate the outcome of potential aggressive interactions with each member of the group One monkey encounters a higher ranked monkey, fighting is unnecessary since both already know the winner Highest when children first meet, overtime decreases as children find their place in society Promoting Social Competence o Establishing a secure attachment relationship in infancy and early childhood o Developing a positive approach to socialization and discipline of their children ▯ Attachment and social competence Children’s social development depends on the quality of their relationship with their parents o Secure attachment to the mother during the infanttoddler period is associated with the child’s development of social skills in the early preschool years ▯ Child Rearing and Social Competence Authoritarian parents assert great power over children, setting strict limits and standards on their behavior, no room for negotiation o More likely to be peer rejected Indulgentpermissive parents are very accepting of their children’s impulses, avoid setting rules and assert very little authority over the behavior Authoritative parents have expectations for their children’s behavior, firmly enforce rules and standards, but allow children some say in the developmental rules. o Communicate openly o Likely to be socially competent Neglectful parents are uninvolved in their children’s lives and consider parenting a burden ▯ Parental Coaching, Managing and Monitoring Middle and upper class families chose to live in neighborhoods that afford their children access to other children whom parents consider acceptable social partners Parents also manage their children’s social lives by initiating and maintaining contacts with other children and their families o Children whose parents provided regular opportunities for peer contact outside of the day care center received more bids to play from other children inside the center ▯ Prosocial Behavior Behavior that shows concern for the welfare of others o Sharing, helping, etc. Helping and comforting increase in preschool years and sharing decreases or stays the same Nurturing mothers have more prosocial kids ▯ Development of gender roles Toddlers can barely tell the difference between boys and girls Gender identity the ability to classify oneself and others by sex (appears in third year of life) o Girls do this earlier Gender constancy the concept that gender does not change regardless of how on behaves or what clothes one wears Gender roles the behaviors, attitudes and beliefs that a particular culture considers appropriate for males and females ▯ Development of Gender Roles Psychoanalytic Perspective o Oedipal/Electra complex preschool children develop love for their parents o Identification incorporating characteristics of the samesex parent and to a lesser extent the oppositesex into the personality as an ego ideal ▯ The Social Learning Perspective Children learn gender roles that same way they learn any behavior o Observing others or being reinforced ▯ The Cognitive Development Perspective Portrays the child as an active agent in the learning of gender roles, they begin to label themselves accurately during the second and third year ▯ The Gender Schema Theory A cognitive structure with which the child actively searches for gender related information from the environment ▯ Emotional Development ▯ Sending and making emotions Facial expressions and gestures Display rulesconventions for appropriate displays of emotion o “save your tears for the pillow” children learn to distinguish between apparent emotions and actual emotions during preschool years o masking children alter the overt expression of emotion to conform to display rules Children and Stress o Highly vulnerable to family stress Divorce, death, etc ▯ Emotion Regulation Children become more able to regulate emotions o First, toddles and young preschoolers begin to show relatively stable individual difference in how they react emotionally to certain events. Emotional reactivity variations in thresholds for specific emotions and the intensity and duration of emotional reactions o Second, with the advent of language and an emerging sense of self, preschool aged children begin to show stable individual differences in the ability to self regulate ▯ Ability to self regulate plays a role in social adjustment ▯ Chapter 12 Cognitive and Language Development in middle childhood As a fifth grader, you are able to separate and organize things more complexly Children’s knowledge tends to be uneven across domains o ex knowing everything about baseball but nothing about chemistry ▯ Piaget’s concrete operations Between the ages of 5 and 7 children go through a gradual period of transition from the illogical and unsystematic reasoning of the preoperational period to the more logical and systematic reasoning of the preoperational period to the more logical and systematic and logical reasoning of middle childhood o 57 shift intuitivea term that implies noticeable improvement over preoperational thought but with lingering lapses in logic ▯ period of concrete operations 78 the concrete operation is a new form of cognitive ability that enables the child to adapt to his or her environment with systematic logic understand relationships among objects and events in their environment ▯ How does concrete operation differ from preoperational? CO enables children to reverse their thinking While preschoolers mistake appearances for reality, school age children become aggressively less influenced by how things seem and far more capable of inferring how they really are Older children are able to decenter, distributing their attention across multiple features of their experience CO thoughts include a decline in egocentricism ▯ Conservation Do not recognize that the amount of a substance remains unchanged despite changes in the shape of the container in which its held ▯ Classification Ability to classify objects hierarchically The fact that any give object can be classified in a series of increasingly inclusive levels o Apples are fruits which are a food ▯ Moral reasoning Reinforcing children of desired behaviors Freud’s view of moral development o Superegoa mental structure that unconsciously guides a child’s behavior Contains both a conscience that prohibits behaviors and an ego ideal that provides children with an internal image that the child strives to become Violating the conscience is punished by unconscious guilt o Freud doesn’t believe in moral reasoning, he thinks they are motivated to avoid the experience of guilt by behaving in ways that are consistent with the prohibitions and ideals of the superego Piaget’s View of Moral Development o Piaget is credited with the first effort to describe developmental changes in children’s moral reasoning o He believed that preoperation children are amoral o Unable to reason logically about rules and concepts of right and wrong o He describes the first logical reason as moral realism An inflexible view that behaviors are wither right or wrong with no inbetween o Immanent justicethe notion that you always get punished for behaving inappropriately and rewarded for behaving appropriately o Child blaming themselves for parents getting divorced o Autonomous moral reasoningchildren gradually come to realize that rules are not irrevocably set by external authorities, that rules can be changed through negotiation, and that an individuals intentions must be considered in judging whether a behavior is right or wrong Kohlbergs view o He believed that Piaget had oversimplified the progression of children’s moral reasoning o He described the children’s responses to the dilemmas as a series of nonoverlapping, qualitatively distinct, sequential levels of moral reasoning: preconventional morality, conventional morality and postconventional morality with each level subdivide into two stages At the first level young children engage in preconventional moral reasoning, believing that the rightness or wrongness of a behavior is determined solely by its consequences Stage 1 obedience and punishment orientation Some children insist that Heinz should not steal drugs because he would go to jail and other center more on the negative consequences if he lets his wife die that he would be lonely Stage 2 hedonistic and instrumental orientation Believing that behaviors are “good” if they meet ones personal needs Emphasis on gaining reward rather than avoiding punishment o Heinz should steal to help his wife get better even though he may spend some time in jail Conventional level of moral reasoning Children develop internal standards that reflect society’s values of what is wrong and right Stage 3 Good boy good girl Engaging in good behavior to gain adult approval or to avoid disapproval o He should steal because everyone will think he is doing the right thing Stage 4 Law and Order Orientation (adolescent) o Believing dogmatically that laws define what is right and wrong Stage 5 postconventional moral reasoning Social contract orientation Believing that laws should be respected as the best way to balance individual interest against the needs of the group Stage 6 Universal principles orientation Believing that universal moral principles transcend laws made by mean Justice, equality, human rights ▯ Information Processing Focuses on exactly what a each individual is constrained by a finite pool of metal resources that can be allocated ild’s system actually does when solving problems o Limited capacity each individual is constrained by a finite pool of mental resources that can be allocated to various thought processes and that total mental capacity is a constant throughout development o Effortful Mental activities that require more resources o Automatic mental activities Free up resources for other purposes, efficient ▯ Becoming Strategic Strategies o Goal directed mental operations that individuals use to deliberately facilitate their memory, attention, and problem solving Children can repeat a series of numbers over and over to facilitate memory, scan a visual display to systematically gather information and count on fingers to solve math problems o Rehearsal A relatively simple strategy that involves repeating items over and overaloud to oneself to facilitate storage of information for later retrieval Repeating phone numbers o Organization The purposeful attempt to identify conceptual relationships among items to be remembered Organizing things in groups to memorize o Elaboration Relating objects to one another with absurd or fanciful visual images Memorizing boy, book, horse, field, rain A boy was riding his horse across a field in the rain o Meditational deficiency A child has no strategy and does not profit from training to promote the use of strategies o Production deficiency Failure to use a known strategy o Utilization deficiency Strategy fails to improve performance ▯ Becoming expert Children who are expert at things think better than adults who aren’t Elaborated knowledge base recalling people by gender, where they sit in class, reading groups, etc. ▯ Becoming Metacognitive Metacognitivebecoming increasingly aware of your cognitive abilities Self appraisal o Recognizing that you have not learned the concepts required for an exam Selfmanagement o Altering study environment to reduce distractions and enacting specific information gathering strategies to compensate for deficiencies Improve greatly from early to middle childhood What makes a school good? Strong leadership Orderly atmosphere Teachers who are active High expectations Consistent monitoring ▯ Reading by Whole Language Wholeword instruction o Showing children printed words and pronouncing each word out loud Reading by Phonics Phonics o Simple view of reading as an integration of decoding and comprehension Comprehension o The ability to understand words that have been decoded Decoding o The ability to interpret printed letters as a code for spoken words Phonemic Awareness o An understanding that spoken words are composed of sequences of sounds called phonemes /b/ /a/ /t/ o once phonemic is established teachers introduce the alphabet ▯ Reading Disability Underachievement Dyslexia 28% in 1 17% in 6 th o this shows that they are temporary ▯ Learning Mathematics In kindergarten, most have mastered fundamentals of counting, including both the ability to accurately recite numbers in correct sequence and to count objects by systematically assigning number names ▯ Adding and Subtracting Counting all o First grade o Combine two sets of objects into one set and recount all of them for a sum Counting on o Eliminates the need to recount everything o Finger counting Min strategy o Always beginning counting on with the larger of the two addends ▯ Gifted and Talented Sternberg and Janet Davidson view giftedness as a general ability to process information o Involves making highly effective use of the components of one’s information processing system: recognizing problems, perceiving relationships, selecting relevant information, and enacting strategies Howard Gardner rejects the notion of giftedness as a general ability o Can be giften in science but not reading Identified by IQ tests, or observation Chapter 13 Social and Emotional Development in Middle School The development of Friendship o Children become more selective in their friends Emphasis on personality o Children in early grades selects friends who help them fufill self serving needs for goods, friends with toys who will share o By 3 or fourth grade children seek friends they can related to emphasizing loyalty, common interests, attitudes and values Also race, age, social class, and social status o Boys emphasize similarity in superficial behaviors (comic books, sports) girls focus on similarity in personal traits Making Friends o Social comparison and friendship Social comparison the ability to describe, rate, and rank peers on various traits and attributes Affects the way they interact and make friends They compare and evaluate peers on dimensions relevant to their needs and motivations in everyday work and play and use these rankings to guide their social behavior If you want to play soccer you're going to play with someone who is good at soccer They also use social comparison to refine their perceptions of their own competencies Gossip the informal sharing of information and opinion on peers’ strengths and shortcomings o Peer Reputation and Friendship Peer reputation the relatively stable characterization of a child shared by members of the peer group Keeping friends o Must manage ones emotions in the context of increasingly intimate and reciprocal relationships Be sensitive o Learn to attune or match their emotions and the tempo of their behavior to that of their friends o Learn to avoid nagging or complaining ▯ Social information Processing Children respond differently to social cues o This strongly influences whether or not a child is accepted Social information processing how children generate, evaluate, and select responses to certain events and how they enact responses the select ▯ Interpreting Social Cues Assuming people who are smiling are happy, etc. Rejected children tend to inaccurately respond to social cues Some children observe parents actions before asking for money Negative attributional bias o The tend to assume hostile intent Social learned helplessness o Attributional style in the characteristic way that they attribute intent to explain their own and others social behavior o Social learned helplessness the tendency to attribute failures to internal, stable, and uncontrollably causes - Generation Responses o Information processing view One child interprets the problem or challenge in a particular social dilemma, he or she must then consider possible solutions or courses of action to deal with the dilemma o When asked to creat scenarios to solve a problem, high status, popular children created novel and better answers compared to low status rejected kids - Evaluation and Selecting the Optimal Response o The child must evaluate the potential situations he or she has generated and select one that is most likely to solve the problem o Reflective reasoning children consciously and deliberately search their repertoire for the best solution o Automatic reasoning children respond impulsively, selecting the first thing that comes to mind - Enacting the Selected Response o The child must enact or perform the behaviors required by the strategy the child selected Must do more than go through the motions - Integrating o Children who process information well in one situation are likely to actually perform more competently in that situation Social Status and Behavior o Popular children liked by most of their peers and disliked by no one o Rejected children disliked by most of their peers and liked by very few o Neglected children neither actively liked or disliked by others o Controversial children liked by many and disliked by many o Averagestatus children liked by a few peers and disliked by some Earning social status o Popular children were rated high on cooperation, leadership and low on being disruptive o Rejected children were complete opposite o Neglected were rated very shy with low leadership and cooperation o Children earn their status through positive and negative behaviors o Most children earn the same status in every group they enter Loneliness o Aggressive rejected kids don’t feel lonely but non aggressive rejected kids do Later Adjustment o Willard Hartup (1977) expanded this view by suggesting that "without an opportunity to encounter individuals who are coequals, children do not learn effective communication skills, do not acquire the competencies needed to modulate their aggressive actions, have difficulties with sexual socialization, and are disadvantaged with respect to the formation of moral values" o Popular, controversial, and averagestatus children are, to varying degrees, involved in ongoing social interaction with their peer groups. o There is now convincing evidence from shortterm longitudinal studies that problems in peer relations in the early elementary grades place children at continuing risk for social problems in later elementary grades Physcological disorders o prosocial behavior the intentional helping or caring for others during the preschool years o Cognitively, the decline in egocentricity from early to middle childhood improves children's ability to perceive when others are in need, when they are in distress, and when they are likely to cooperate. More important, children show significant improvements in prosocial moral reasoning the ability to think about conflicts in which they must choose between satisfying their own needs or those of other persons o Emotionally, as children grow into middle childhood they show increasing ability to empathize or sympathize with the emotional states of children in need or in distress. o By age 910, girlsbut not boysbegin to show moresophisticated forms of reasoning involving empathy and a true understanding of the plight of those in need. o Empathy refers to an emotional state that results from vicariously experiencing the emotions of another individualthat is, we feel what they feel. o Sympathy, on the other hand, is an emotional response where one feels sorrow or concern for another's welfare. Thus, in both empathy and sympathy the focus is on the other person rather than on the self Divorce o After their parents divorce, 90% of the children will live with their unmarried mothers. Some 80 % of divorced parents remarry an average of 5 years after the divorce. o Developmentalists have come to view divorce and remarriage not as isolated events, but a sequence of family transitions that punctuate children's development o children show wide variation in their ability to adapt. While some children are deeply distressed and continue to react negatively for many years, other show great resiliency and go on with their lives. Others show very little response initially, but negative reactions appear eventually, often not until adolescence Working Parents o mothers' employment will improve the family's financial situation, increasing resources to support children's needs. o mother's employment may result in more equitable sharing of roles and responsibilities between mothers and fathers with respect to child care and household tasks. o working mothers spend less time supervising their children, forcing them to rely on substitute care. o research on the effects of maternal employment in twoparent families has failed to show negative effects on children's cognitive or socialemotional development Latchkey Children o children who are left to care for themselves for extended periods of time before or after school o over 2 million American children o One study of fifth through ninth graders showed that latchkey children who stayed home alone actually were less likely to engage in antisocial behavior than those who were routinely hanging out with their friends o Latchkey children are not necessarily at greater risk of maladustment than children who are more closely supervised. ▯ Cognitive processes include sense arousal attention Sensory-short term-long term Sensation: 5 sense are used for sensory memory Short term memory: processing and elaboration of sensations Long term memory: actively thinking about and storing short term Crystallized intelligence: measure of the knowledge acquired through experience and education; remains the same or even increases with age Fluid intelligence: innate ability of information processing and ability to deal with novel ideas; appears to decline with age so is more associated with younger people Mental health disorders Schizophrenia: more complicated, severe and more incapacitation that depression or anxiety; serious disturbances in thinking and communication and impaired contact with reality Dementia: deterioration in cognitive and behavioral functioning due to physiological causes; recent memory loss; difficulty performing familiar tasks, problems with language, poor judgement, changes in mood and personality, misplacing things Alzhiemers disease: most common form of chronic organic brain disease; shrinking of the brain in size and weight, loss of neurons, twisting of neuron fibers 1 in 7 unable to conceive Sperm cells joining with an egg in the fallopian tube (in the correct tube for the month; women typically ovulate on one side) sperm cell heads up uterus really fast After the egg is ovulated, it needs to be viable with a coating so that when sperm cells arrive it (only viable for 24 hours) the sperm starts eating away at the coating of the egg. Once the sperm enters the egg, a chemical process seals the egg so no other sperm cells enter the egg Male has to produced enough sperm to get at least 1000 into the tube to have enough worker sperm to eat away at the coating. After conception days 3.5 days in tube, then to the uterus for 3.5 days, then the fertilized egg attaches itself to the endometrium (wall of the uterus). Once it attaches, that it implantation = pregnancy (1 week after conception). Healthy male produces between 200 mil and 400 mil sperm in a single ejaculation (after 3 days of not ejaculating). Male: the testicles are important in sperm production, (throughout lives) in abdominal cavity in fetus, descend into sac called scrotum shortly before birth (undescended testicles = wait for up to 12 months to see if they descend on their own, if they do not surgey is peformed; live healthy sperm in large numbers can only be produced at a temp slightly below body temp. the scrotum cools the testicles so that they can produce the sperm. 1. If the testicles become overheated, lowers sperm count 2. It takes 74 days fofr sperm cells to develop 3. Don’t wear tight underwer bc they push testicles against body which raises temp lwoers sperm count 4. Exosing testcles to other forms of heating Laptop computerd generate heat that cooks testicles Varicose seal* Alcohol reduces volume of semen and reduces sperm count Marijuana makes sperm exhausted, reduces their energy supply makes it extremely difficult to make it from cervix to fallopian tube to get to the egg Infection and inflammation: when a male gets and infection and it is untreated st 1 stage of human development: prenatal stage: conception till birth, on average lasts 266 days, or 38 weeks postmature: babies born two weeks or more after due date; problem: the placenta is rapidly losing efficiency to deliver oxygen and nutrients, causing high risk solution: induced labor premature: babies born before due date; babies can be kept alive 40% of the time if they are born at least 24 weeks the prenatal stage is broken down into three-month intervals called trimesters most common way of breaking down prenatal stage st 1. period of the zygote: 1 two weeks following conception, the baby is referred to as an ovum or zygote 2. Period of the embryo: 3 week till 8 weekh 3. Fetal period: end of week 8 till birth Fertilized egg moves down through fallopian tube, and takes about a week (7 days) for impl
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