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CHD2220 Exam 2

by: Chiara Fuller

CHD2220 Exam 2 CHD2220-0001

Chiara Fuller

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These notes cover exam 2
Child Growth and Development: The Foundation Years
Murray Krantz
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This 33 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chiara Fuller on Tuesday March 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHD2220-0001 at Florida State University taught by Murray Krantz in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Child Growth and Development: The Foundation Years in Child and Family Studies at Florida State University.

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Date Created: 03/29/16
Freud-psychoanalytic Carl jung: a young contemporary of freud; one of the first to focus on adult personality development Shadow: first 30 years of life consumed with repressed childhood desires, seeking out relationships or opportunities to help deal with childhood issues After 40, adults develop internal self-potential through balancing opposites, not consumed with repressed desires Gender crossover: as people age their focus starts to shift towards things they were missing out on (man used to always work, after 40 wants to stay home and ice versa) Balance of extroversion (self in society) and introversion (interiority): Erik erikson: developed a full stage-based model of development throughout the entire life span, focused on the development of identity Developed the epigenetic principle: there is an interaction between environment and genes (you may have genes but if your not in the proper environment, genes may not be expressed) 8 stage model of development: each stage described a developmental task or challenge to be accomplished, potive of neg resolution to each stage What we gain or don’t is carried to next stage Impairments limit information to the brain; brain knows deficiencies and tries to compensate  with other things ex: children visually impaired have more hearing and touch (plasticity) Depth perception: brain has to learn to interpret cues in environment that help child to  conceptualized three dimensional space  When children first begin to creep, they develop a differentiate view of 3D space  Drop­off means danger; creeping babies start to learn about 3D space and start to show  awareness of drop off (visual cliff; determines if emotions will get in the way of  cognition – mother is on the other end of the visual cliff, visual clues indicate that it is  very far drop) Brain development Neural tube fuses (problems cause things like spina bifida and anencephaly) Formed through mitosis, and cells/neurons migrate to where they belong  structurally/functionally, by the millions  Teratogens interfere with migrations patterns, influencing by killing them off or sending  to wrong place Development of nerve cells is very rapid (proliferation) we end up with almost 100 billion nerve  cells at birth  Way more than we actually need  Eventually that number will dwindle  Axon of one cell meets with dendrite of another = synapse (microscopic gap) these keep  connecting to form a nerve pathway (a thousand trillion connections)  Anything that disturbs migration patterns or synapses is less than whats is supposed to be  genetically  synaptogenesis: formation of synapses, myelination: over time throughout late prenatal  development, once nerve pathways are formed, insulator called myelin is formed around  nerves  nerve impulse begins with sensory input, then moves across nerves, synapses  (neurotransmitters: chemicals that transmit impulses across synapse)  why are there so many more nerve cells and synapses when we use only a small part of  it? o The brain is vulnerable to injury o Plasticity: the ability of the brain to have enough synapses that if part of the brain  is injured, fails to develop, messed up by disease it can be reprogrammed o The younger the child, the greater the plasticity  Hemispherectomy: removal of half of the brain bc of lesions o Plasticity will allow the remaining half to compensate for that half o Able to recall all cognitive abilities with rehab, only some motor problems o Ben Carson performed the first operation   Development of synapses is straightforward and linear, continues to increase until about  age 2­3 o Child is at the greatest level of synaptic density o Age 3­10, synapses remain constant o Aged 10­19 or 20, lost about half the synapses o Apoptosis: quality of every human cell, every cell has the potential to kill itself  off under circumstances o When a pathway receives stimulation and is stimulated again and again and get  wired together (nerved that fire together, wire together) become consolidated or  protected o Nerves on pathways that are not constantly stimulated undergo apoptosis  (between age 10 and 20) (use it or lose it principle)  o As cells and synapses die off, the brain eliminates the waste product in a process  called pruning o More stimulated pathways and the more quality of stimulation, the more pathways become stronger o More pathways: lots of diversity and lots of repetition COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT 03/19/2016 ▯ CHD Chapter 9 ▯ Preoperational stage of development  Operational­ refers to the logical systems of through which eventually  emerge in middle childhood o Ex. At age 7 or 8 most children understand that while all horses are animals, not all animals are horses  Preschoolers are incapable of these advanced forms of reasoning ▯ Symbolic function­ the ability to use symbols to represent or stand for  perceived objects and events  Deferred imitation­ children observe the behavior of a model and imitate  that behavior after a delay and, in some cases, when the model is no  longer present o This requires that the child stores and later retrieves the  information o Baby using a spoon like his father and hour later, but not the next  day  Advances in perception allow the child to engage in more detail Symbolic Play  Children pretend that an object is something other than it really is. o Pretending a wooden block is a boat, pretend drinking from a cup ▯ Shifting Context:  2 and 3 year old children typically require support from the play setting  to initiate and sustain their pretense. o A toddler will pretend eat in a kitchen before a backyard Substituting Objects  Children often substitute one object fro another in their pretend play o 2 year olds play with dolls without unrealistic things o 3 year olds can turn any prop into a toy and become less dependent on realistic props ▯ Substituting Other Agents for Oneself  Sequencing and Socialization of Pretend Episodes o a  two year old combs hair but a 4 year old washes it, dries it,  combs it, etc.  ▯ Mental Images  Internal representations of external objects or events  Enables them to think about objects that aren’t present ▯ The Advent of Preconcepts  Centration­ focusing your attention on minute and inconsequential  aspects of their experience o A three year old remembers nothing about the babysitter besides  her bright earrings  Preconcepts o Disorganized, illogical representations of the child’s experiences  Carlos remembers things about the zoo that aren’t relevant  to the zoo (popcorn, mom ripping dress, etc)  Little kids have their own versions of fairy tales because  they remember random facts Transductive Reasoning: Thinking with Preconcepts  In induction, we derive general principles from particular examples.  o An 8 year old boy who observes the teachers have favored girls in  each of his classes, might induce that teachers have favored girls in each of his classes, might induce that girls are teacher’s pets.  In deduction, we use general principles to predict particular outcomes o The same child could use his general principle to deduce that when he enters his next grade, his new teacher will be likely to favor  girls.   Transduction­ reasoning within the unsystematic collections of images  which constitute their preconcepts ▯ Egocentrism  The inability to conceptualize the perspective of other individuals o This does not imply that they are selfish, simply that they can not  see the world how others see it  Three­Mountain Problem – children between 4 and 12 years of age  were shown a three­dimensional model of a mountain scene. Each  mountain had its own unique color, size, and shape and a unique object  on its peak. Piaget asked each child to examine and then moved a doll to  various vantage points around the model, and asked the child to select a  picture  o Children under the age of eight identifies their own view as that of  the doll Irreversibility  The notion that preschoolers cannot mentally reverse their transductive  sequences of thought. o When a three year old girl who has a sister is asked if she has a  sister she predictably answers yes. If she is then asked if her sister  has a sister she will say no. o She cant mentally reverse the concept of the relationship Reasoning in Content Domains  Classification refer to the tendency to group objects on the basis of  particular sets of characteristics  o Adults maintain distinct categories for fruits and vegetables, indoor and outdoor sports, automobiles and airplanes  Stage 1­ children (5 years and younger) had no overall plan for sorting,  but produced graphic collections or pictures made with objects o Example­a child might arrange several of the forms into a  rectangle and refer to it as a house  Stage 2­ children( 6­8) sorted in a more organized way, producing a  series of collections of objects, based on different dimensions of  similarities  Stage 3­ children (later childhood to early adolescence) understood the  relationship the rule of class inclusion.  o Working with a set of four toy cows and two monkeys, children  responded correctly when asked whether there were more cows or  more animals, showing that they understood animals is a larger  class than cows Quantitative reasoning  The ability to estimate the amount of things ans the changed in the  amounts of things in terms of number, size, weight, volume, speed, time,  and distance o When a three year old tries to throw a ball, he must try to estimate  how much force is needed to project the ball a certain distance  Concepts of quantity o A critical point in the development of quantitative reasoning is  reached when children become aware that things in nature exist in  specific amounts, and that those amounts only change when certain actions are carried out  ▯ Conservation  The notice that certain attributes of objects and events may remain  unchanged, despite transformations or change  Concepts of Number o 1:1 correspondence  o same amount of two different things o According to Piaget, children’s responss showed a consistent  developmental trend: Young preoperational children show no  understanding of 1:1 correspondence, responding only to the  physical appearance of the rows  If one row is spread out it is judged to have more beans  The one to one principle­ one and only one distinctive number name  must be assigned to each item in the array.   The stable order principle­ Number names must be assigned in a stable  repeatable order.  This principle is being followed as long as a sequence  of number names is applied consistently across different arrays of items.   The cardinal principle­ the final number in a counting sequence gives  the total number of items in the array.   The abstraction principle­ virtually anything can be counted: tangibles  such as objects and events, and intangibles such as ideas, values, and  emotions.   The order­irrelevance principle­ The order in which objects are  counted is irrelevant. Appearance and Reality  Distinguishing appearance and reality o The fact that  adults generally sense that appearances do not  always reflect reality  People do not necessarily mean what they say, intend to do what they do,  or feel the emotions implied by the look on their face.  o The cat changing colors and the kid thinking it’s a monster  The object identity task presented children with a series of objects that  look one way but are actually something else ▯ ▯ Information Processing  Offers and alternative view of children’s cognitive development to that of Piaget.   This theory views cognitive development as a continuous process of  change in children’s information­processing capabilities  Refers to children’s use of attention and memory to gain and retain  information about their environment and their use of that information to  solve problems ▯ Attention  The ability to pay selective attention to objects in the environment  improves gradually with age, as children master strategies paying  attention to task­relevant objects ▯ Remembering  Research has shown that preschool children have only limited capacity to process information for long­term memory, particularly when they must  memorize lists of meaningless and unrelated items o A 4yearold can remember 4 digits and a 6yearold can remember 5  Toddlers and preschoolers do a lot better when asked to remember things  that have meaning to them like cartoon characters. They do even better  when they are asked to repeat information about events in which they  have participated like a field trip  Metacognition o Older children are better able than younger children to  conceptualize their own cognitive processes o This includes knowing how much you know, and knowing how to  improve your knowledge or your performance on some mental task ▯ Theory of Mind  What we use to explain and predict human behavior  ▯ Mind reading  The cognitive process by which we attribute desires and beliefs to other  individuals in order to explain and predict behavior  First begins during preschool years ▯ Deception  The ability to generate false beliefs in other individuals o One study used hide and seek game that required preschoolers to  use a puppet to hide a treasure in one of several differently colored  containers. Children as young as two and a half could use  deceptive strategies to create false beliefs Language Development  Towards the second year of life children have mastered many of the  fundamental components of language o The growth of vocabulary o Preschoolers learn nine words per day o They tend to learn words that reflect their understanding of time  (now, after, etc.) and concepts of space (under, over) o Preschoolers understand top and bottom but don’t understand front and back until a later age ▯ Learning the Rules of Grammar ▯ Grammar­ the system of rules that structures how to combine words into  meaningful sequences  They act as if they are constantly forming and testing hypotheses about  the lawful and systematic properties of their language o They first learn noun phrases (Little dolly) and verb phrases (goes  bye­bye)  Children use grammatical morphemes­ inflections such as –ings, ­ed, and –s which modify nouns verbs , and adjectives o They learn these in a grammatical morphemes in a fixed  developmental sequence  English speaking children learn to add –ing to verbs before learning to  add –s to form plurals. They learn irregular past tense (broke) before  regular (learned)  Over­regularize o The boy kicked the ball, the boy ranned home ▯ Communication  Adequate communication requires that the child master the pragmatics of language o The implicit rules, skills, and concepts, which regulate the  behavior of speakers and listeners in conversation ▯ Egocentric speech  Language that fails to consider the viewpoint of the listener  Monologue­ children simply talk to themselves, seemingly oblivious to  anyone around them  o “gonna put this here—oops that doesn’t fit” ▯ Collective monologue  Conversation­like turn­taking between egocentric speakers, with little or  no transfer of meaning ▯ Private Speech  Speech with no apparent communicative purpose  Some children characteristically mutter softly to themselves only in the  presence of others o They narrate their behaviors and announce their next moves  Developmentalists viewed private speech as egocentric, serving no  cognitive or communicative function  Inner speech­ thinking in words and sentence Chapter 10 ▯ Social and Emotional Development Early Childhood  During the preschool years we see the emergence of personality o A child’s unique pattern of relating socially and emotionally to  other human beings.  o Personality effects ability to achieve personal and social goals ▯ Promoting social competence  Social Competence­ The ability to establish and maintain satisfying  social interaction and relationship[s with peers and with adults o Knowing how to act under what circumstances, etc.  The differences in social and emotional competence are enormously  significant as children develop through the preschool years and prepare  for the challenged of adjusting to life in elementary school. o Schools usually facilitate development in this area ▯ Social Play  Provides children with the opportunity to experiment with their own  development  o To practice and perfect what they have already become and to  explore the cutting edge of their developmental potential o Emphasizes the process rather than the product  Build to build not to reach a certain height  Provides a unique opportunity for the development of social competency  by allowing children to regular the degree to which they involve social  partners in play episodes. ▯ Unoccupied behavior­ the child is not involved in play and does not  interact with other children or teachers ▯ Onlooker behavior­ the child observes the play of other children with  obvious interest but makes no effort to become involved in anyway ▯ Solitary play­ the child observes the play of other children with obvious  interest but makes no effort to become involved in any way. ▯ 24­30 months ▯ Parallel Play­ the child plays beside other children with toys that are similar to those used by those children. There is no social contact with other children nor  any effort to coordinate ▯ 30­42 ▯ Associative play­ the child plays with other children, sharing materials and  conversing, but there is no consistent theme to the play or division of roles.  ▯ 42­54 months ▯ Cooperative play­ the child plays with other children in an organized  manner, with roles differentiated to accomplish some goal or to act out some  agreed upon play theme.  ▯ ▯ Social pretend play  Children acting out roles and themes associated with stories, television  cartoon shows, or common family events such as “supper time” or  “bathing baby”   Increases through the preoperational period and declines at 6 or 7 ▯ Socio­dramatic play  Requires that children learn to negotiate and communicate about the  roles, objects, settings, and actions that will be employed in any given  “pretend engagement” o The failure to negotiate successfully can easily undermine the  quality of social pretense  If a stick is a wand for one kid and a stick for the other there  is room for conflict ▯ Promoting social pretense  Children’s pretend play is more positive and enjoyable o They tend to be more socially skilled and more empathetic ▯ Relating to Peers ▯ Social preference ▯ Socio­metric procedure  Individual children are asked to nominate three children they most like to play with and three that they least like to play with. Positive and negative preference have been used to classify children into social status  subgroups o Popular, rejected, neglected, controversial (some like some  dislike), average (don’t fall neatly into a category) ▯ Friendship  an enduring close, mutual relationship between two individuals,  expressed by a tendency to spend a disproportionate amount of play time  together o reciprocity is key o start to form friendships in prekindergarten o children that are similar to themselves o same sex, personality ▯ Conflicts  Any situation in which children find themselves opposing one another  Conflicts that do not involve aggression are typically resolved without  adult intervention, the end without a clear winner or loser and children  show very little negative emotion over the conflict ▯ Aggression  Purposeful efforts to inflict pain or injury on another child o Proactive aggression  Refers to a childs unprovoked, voluntary efforts to cause  harm to a selected victim  A child approaches another child and his the child for no  reason or a child forcefully rips a toy from another child’s  grasp and runs away with it ▯ Reactive aggression  A child is provoked by the behavior of an instigator, and the child  response defensively or in retaliation to that provocation.  ▯ Instrumental aggression  Object­oriented struggles between child over possession, territory, and  privilege o Snatching o Peaks during second year of life ▯ Bullying or hostile aggression  Person oriented acts aims at forcefully gaining social control over another child ▯ Relational aggression  Refers to behavior that is designed to inflict harm by undermining or  damaging relations with peers o Excluding another child, or threatening a friendship( “I don’t want  to be your friend anymore” o Appears during the preschool years and begins to take a high  emotional toll o Boys are more likely to bully and girls are more likely to rely on  relational aggression ▯ Theories of Childhood Aggression  Biological theories of Aggression o Humans are instinctually aggressive (Lorenz) o The destructive impulses are instinctive in humans, biologically  built into the individual from birth, highly pleasurable, and  virtually irresistible (Freud)  Phallic Stage­ children’s destructive impulse are directed increasingly  toward the same­sex parent, who is perceived as a rival for the affection  of the opposite sex parent.  ▯ Social Learning Theory of Aggression  Observational­children acquire aggressive responses by observing the  aggressive behavior of models and produce aggressive responses when  the situation suggests that such behavior will not be punished or possibly  even reinforced  Coercion theory­ one child’s aggression against another elicits  retaliation by the victim, if the retaliation is successful in terminating the  attack it  reinforces the aggression  Reinforcement trap­ the trap begins when a mother issues a command  such as “clean your room” the child responds with an aggressive  behavior, such as throwing a tantrum, and the parent finally gives in ▯ Dominance  Dominance hierarchy o A systematic ordering of power relationship[s from the most to the  least powerful member o When firmly established, the dominance hierarchy minimizes  aggression by allowing each member of the group to anticipate the  outcome of potential aggressive interactions with each member of  the group  One monkey encounters a higher ranked monkey, fighting is unnecessary since both already know the winner  Highest when children first meet, overtime decreases as  children find their place in society  Promoting Social Competence o Establishing a secure attachment relationship in infancy and early  childhood  o Developing a positive approach to socialization and discipline of  their children ▯ Attachment and social competence  Children’s social development depends on the quality of their  relationship with their parents o Secure attachment to the mother during the infant­toddler period is  associated with the child’s development of social skills in the early preschool years ▯ Child Rearing and Social Competence  Authoritarian parents assert great power over children, setting strict limits and standards on their behavior, no room for negotiation o More likely to be peer rejected  Indulgent­permissive parents are very accepting of their children’s  impulses, avoid setting rules and assert very little authority over the  behavior  Authoritative parents have expectations for their children’s behavior,  firmly enforce rules and standards, but allow children some say in the  developmental rules. o Communicate openly o Likely to be socially competent  Neglectful parents are uninvolved in their children’s lives and consider  parenting a burden ▯ Parental Coaching, Managing and Monitoring  Middle and upper class families chose to live in neighborhoods that  afford their children access to other children whom parents consider  acceptable social partners  Parents also manage their children’s social lives by initiating and  maintaining contacts with other children and their families o Children whose parents provided regular opportunities for peer  contact outside of the day care center received more bids to play  from other children inside the center ▯ Prosocial Behavior  Behavior that shows concern for the welfare of others o Sharing, helping, etc.  Helping and comforting increase in preschool years and sharing  decreases or stays the same  Nurturing mothers have more prosocial kids ▯ Development of gender roles  Toddlers can barely tell the difference between boys and girls  Gender identity­ the ability to classify oneself and others by sex (appears  in third year of life) o Girls do this earlier  Gender constancy­ the concept that gender does not change regardless of  how on behaves or what clothes one wears  Gender roles­ the behaviors, attitudes and beliefs that a particular culture  considers appropriate for males and females  ▯ Development of Gender Roles  Psychoanalytic Perspective o Oedipal/Electra complex­ preschool children develop love for their parents o Identification­ incorporating characteristics of the same­sex parent  and to a lesser extent the opposite­sex into the personality as an  ego ideal ▯ The Social Learning Perspective  Children learn gender roles that same way they learn any behavior o Observing others or being reinforced ▯ The Cognitive Development Perspective  Portrays the child as an active agent in the learning of gender roles, they  begin to label themselves accurately during the second and third year ▯ The Gender Schema Theory  A cognitive structure with which the child actively searches for gender  related information from the environment ▯ Emotional Development ▯ Sending and making emotions  Facial expressions and gestures   Display rules­conventions for appropriate displays of emotion o “save your tears for the pillow”  children learn to distinguish between apparent emotions and actual  emotions during preschool years o masking­ children alter the overt expression of emotion to conform to display rules  Children and Stress o Highly vulnerable to family stress  Divorce, death, etc ▯ Emotion Regulation  Children become more able to regulate emotions o First, toddles and young preschoolers begin to show relatively  stable individual difference in how they react emotionally to  certain events.   Emotional reactivity variations in thresholds for specific  emotions and the intensity and duration of emotional  reactions o Second, with the advent of language and an emerging sense of self, preschool aged children begin to show stable individual differences in the ability to self regulate ▯ Ability to self regulate plays a role in social adjustment ▯ Chapter 12 Cognitive and Language Development in middle childhood  As a fifth grader, you are able to separate and organize things more  complexly   Children’s knowledge tends to be uneven across domains o ex knowing everything about baseball but nothing about chemistry  ▯ Piaget’s concrete operations   Between the ages of 5 and 7 children go through a gradual period of  transition from the illogical and unsystematic reasoning of the  preoperational period to the more logical and systematic reasoning of the  preoperational period to the more logical and systematic and logical  reasoning of middle childhood o 5­7 shift  intuitive­a term that implies noticeable improvement over preoperational  thought but with lingering lapses in logic ▯ period of concrete operations  7­8  the concrete operation is a new form of cognitive ability that enables the  child to adapt to his or her environment with systematic logic  understand relationships among objects and events in their environment ▯ How does concrete operation differ from preoperational?  CO enables children to reverse their thinking   While preschoolers mistake appearances for reality, school age children  become aggressively less influenced by how things seem and far more  capable of inferring how they really are  Older children are able to decenter, distributing their attention across  multiple features of their experience  CO thoughts include a decline in egocentricism  ▯ Conservation  Do not recognize that the amount of a substance remains unchanged  despite changes in the shape of the container in which its held ▯ Classification  Ability to classify objects hierarchically  The fact that any give object can be classified in a series of increasingly  inclusive levels  o Apples are fruits which are a food ▯ Moral reasoning  Reinforcing children of desired behaviors  Freud’s view of moral development o Superego­a mental structure that unconsciously guides a child’s  behavior  Contains both a conscience that prohibits behaviors and an  ego ideal that provides children with an internal image that  the child strives to become  Violating the conscience is punished by unconscious guilt o Freud doesn’t believe in moral reasoning, he thinks they are  motivated to avoid the experience of guilt by behaving in ways that are consistent with the prohibitions and ideals of the superego  Piaget’s View of Moral Development o Piaget is credited with the first effort to describe developmental  changes in children’s moral reasoning o He believed that pre­operation children are amoral o Unable to reason logically about rules and concepts of right and  wrong o He describes the first logical reason as moral realism  An inflexible view that behaviors are wither right or wrong  with no in­between o Immanent justice­the notion that you always get punished for  behaving inappropriately and rewarded for behaving appropriately o Child blaming themselves for parents getting divorced o Autonomous moral reasoning­children gradually come to realize  that rules are not irrevocably set by external authorities, that rules  can be changed through negotiation, and that an individuals  intentions must be considered in judging whether a behavior is  right or wrong  Kohlbergs view o He believed that Piaget had oversimplified the progression of  children’s moral reasoning o He described the children’s responses to the dilemmas as a series  of non­overlapping, qualitatively distinct, sequential levels of  moral reasoning: pre­conventional morality, conventional morality  and post­conventional morality with each level subdivide into two  stages  At the first level young children engage in pre­conventional  moral reasoning, believing that the rightness or wrongness  of a behavior is determined solely by its consequences  Stage 1­ obedience and punishment orientation  Some children insist that Heinz should not steal drugs  because he would go to jail and other center more on  the negative consequences if he lets his wife die that  he would be lonely   Stage 2­ hedonistic and instrumental orientation  Believing that behaviors are “good” if they meet ones  personal needs  Emphasis on gaining reward rather than  avoiding punishment o Heinz should steal to help his wife get  better even though he may spend some  time in jail   Conventional level of moral reasoning  Children develop internal standards that reflect  society’s values of what is wrong and right  Stage 3  Good boy good girl   Engaging in good behavior to gain adult  approval or to avoid disapproval o He should steal because everyone will  think he is doing the right thing  Stage 4  Law and Order Orientation (adolescent) o Believing dogmatically that laws define  what is right and wrong  Stage 5­ post­conventional moral reasoning  Social contract orientation  Believing that laws should be respected as the  best way to balance individual interest against  the needs of the group  Stage 6  Universal principles orientation  Believing that universal moral principles  transcend laws made by mean  Justice, equality, human rights ▯ Information Processing  Focuses on exactly what a each individual is constrained by a finite pool  of metal resources that can be allocated ild’s system actually does when  solving problems o Limited capacity­ each individual is constrained by a finite pool of  mental resources that can be allocated to various thought processes and that total mental capacity is a constant throughout  development  o Effortful  Mental activities that require more resources  o Automatic mental activities   Free up resources for other purposes, efficient ▯ Becoming Strategic  Strategies o Goal directed mental operations that individuals use to deliberately facilitate their memory, attention, and problem solving  Children can repeat a series of numbers over and over to  facilitate memory, scan a visual display to systematically  gather information and count on fingers to solve math  problems o Rehearsal  A relatively simple strategy that involves repeating items  over and over­aloud to oneself­ to facilitate storage of  information for later retrieval  Repeating phone numbers o Organization  The purposeful attempt to identify conceptual relationships  among items to be remembered  Organizing things in groups to memorize o Elaboration  Relating objects to one another with absurd or fanciful  visual images  Memorizing boy, book, horse, field, rain  A boy was riding his horse across a field in the  rain o Meditational deficiency  A child has no strategy and does not profit from training to  promote the use of strategies  o Production deficiency  Failure to use a known strategy o Utilization deficiency  Strategy fails to improve performance ▯ Becoming expert  Children who are expert at things think better than adults who aren’t   Elaborated knowledge base­ recalling people by gender, where they sit in class, reading groups, etc. ▯ Becoming Metacognitive  Metacognitive­becoming increasingly aware of your cognitive abilities  Self appraisal o Recognizing that you have not learned the concepts required for an exam  Self­management o Altering study environment to reduce distractions and enacting  specific information gathering strategies to compensate for  deficiencies  Improve greatly from early to middle childhood What makes a school good?  Strong leadership  Orderly atmosphere   Teachers who are active  High expectations  Consistent monitoring ▯ Reading by Whole Language  Whole­word instruction o Showing children printed words and pronouncing each word out  loud Reading by Phonics  Phonics o Simple view of reading as an integration of decoding and  comprehension  Comprehension o The ability to understand words that have been decoded  Decoding o The ability to interpret printed letters as a code for spoken words  Phonemic Awareness o An understanding that spoken words are composed of sequences of sounds called phonemes  /b/ /a/ /t/ o once phonemic is established teachers introduce the alphabet ▯ Reading Disability  Underachievement  Dyslexia  28% in 1  17% in 6   th o this shows that they are temporary ▯ Learning Mathematics  In kindergarten, most have mastered fundamentals of counting, including both the ability to accurately recite numbers in correct sequence and to  count objects by systematically assigning number names ▯ Adding and Subtracting  Counting all o First grade o Combine two sets of objects into one set and recount all of them  for a sum  Counting on o Eliminates the need to recount everything o Finger counting  Min strategy o Always beginning counting on with the larger of the two addends ▯ Gifted and Talented  Sternberg and Janet Davidson view giftedness as a general ability to  process information o Involves making highly effective use of the components of one’s  information processing system: recognizing problems, perceiving  relationships, selecting relevant information, and enacting  strategies  Howard Gardner rejects the notion of giftedness as a general ability  o Can be giften in science but not reading  Identified by IQ tests, or observation Chapter 13 Social and Emotional Development in Middle School  The development of Friendship o Children become more selective in their friends   Emphasis on personality o Children in early grades selects friends who help them fufill self  serving needs for goods, friends with toys who will share o By 3  or fourth grade children seek friends they can related to  emphasizing loyalty, common interests, attitudes and values  Also race, age, social class, and social status o Boys emphasize similarity in superficial behaviors (comic books,  sports) girls focus on similarity in personal traits   Making Friends o Social comparison and friendship  Social comparison­ the ability to describe, rate, and rank  peers on various traits and attributes  Affects the way they interact and make friends  They compare and evaluate peers on dimensions  relevant to their needs and motivations in everyday  work and play and use these rankings to guide their  social behavior  If you want to play soccer you're going to play  with someone who is good at soccer  They also use social comparison to refine their  perceptions of their own competencies   Gossip­ the informal sharing of information and  opinion on peers’ strengths and shortcomings o Peer Reputation and Friendship  Peer reputation­ the relatively stable characterization of a  child shared by members of the peer group  Keeping friends o Must manage ones emotions in the context of increasingly intimate and reciprocal relationships  Be sensitive o Learn to attune or match their emotions and the tempo of their  behavior to that of their friends o Learn to avoid nagging or complaining ▯ Social information Processing  Children respond differently to social cues o This strongly influences whether or not a child is accepted  Social information processing­  how children generate, evaluate, and  select responses to certain events and how they enact responses the select ▯ ­Interpreting Social Cues  Assuming people who are smiling are happy, etc.   Rejected children tend to inaccurately respond to social cues  Some children observe parents actions before asking for money   Negative attributional bias o The tend to assume hostile intent  Social learned helplessness o Attributional style­ in the characteristic way that they attribute  intent to explain their own and others social behavior o Social learned helplessness­ the tendency to attribute failures to  internal, stable, and uncontrollably causes - Generation Responses o Information processing view­ One child interprets the problem or  challenge in a particular social dilemma, he or she must then consider  possible solutions or courses of action to deal with the dilemma  o When asked to creat scenarios to solve a problem, high status, popular children created novel and better answers compared to low status  rejected kids - Evaluation and Selecting the Optimal Response o The child must evaluate the potential situations he or she has  generated and select one that is most likely to solve the problem o Reflective reasoning­ children consciously and deliberately search  their repertoire for the best solution o Automatic reasoning­ children respond impulsively, selecting the first  thing that comes to mind - Enacting the Selected Response o The child must enact or perform the behaviors required by the strategy the child selected  Must do more than go through the motions - Integrating  o Children who process information well in one situation are likely to  actually perform more competently in that situation Social Status and Behavior o Popular children­ liked by most of their peers and disliked by no one o Rejected children­ disliked by most of their peers and liked by very  few o Neglected children­ neither actively liked or disliked by others o Controversial children­ liked by many and disliked by many o Average­status children­ liked by a few peers and disliked by some Earning social status o Popular children were rated high on cooperation, leadership and low  on being disruptive  o Rejected children were complete opposite o Neglected were rated very shy with low leadership and cooperation o Children earn their status through positive and negative behaviors o Most children earn the same status in every group they enter Loneliness o Aggressive­ rejected kids don’t feel lonely but non aggressive rejected kids do Later Adjustment o Willard Hartup (1977) expanded this view by suggesting that "without an opportunity to encounter individuals who are co­equals, children  do not learn effective communication skills, do not acquire the  competencies needed to modulate their aggressive actions, have  difficulties with sexual socialization, and are disadvantaged with  respect to the formation of moral values"  o  Popular, controversial, and average­status children are, to varying  degrees, involved in ongoing social interaction with their peer groups.  o There is now convincing evidence from short­term longitudinal  studies that problems in peer relations in the early elementary grades  place children at continuing risk for social problems in later  elementary grades  Physcological disorders o prosocial behavior ­­the intentional helping or caring for others­­ during the preschool years o Cognitively, the decline in egocentricity from early to middle  childhood improves children's ability to perceive when others are in  need, when they are in distress, and when they are likely to cooperate. More important, children show significant improvements in prosocial moral reasoning ­­the ability to think about conflicts in which they  must choose between satisfying their own needs or those of other  persons o Emotionally, as children grow into middle childhood they show  increasing ability to empathize or sympathize with the emotional  states of children in need or in distress.  o By age 9­10, girls­­but not boys­­begin to show more­sophisticated  forms of reasoning involving empathy and a true understanding of the  plight of those in need.  o Empathy refers to an emotional state that results from vicariously  experiencing the emotions of another individual­­that is, we feel what  they feel. o Sympathy, on the other hand, is an emotional response where one  feels sorrow or concern for another's welfare. Thus, in both empathy  and sympathy the focus is on the other person rather than on the self  Divorce o After their parents divorce, 90% of the children will live with their  unmarried mothers. Some 80 % of divorced parents remarry an  average of 5 years after the divorce. o Developmentalists have come to view divorce and remarriage not as  isolated events, but a sequence of family transitions that punctuate  children's development  o children show wide variation in their ability to adapt. While some  children are deeply distressed and continue to react negatively for  many years, other show great resiliency and go on with their lives.  Others show very little response initially, but negative reactions  appear eventually, often not until adolescence Working Parents  o mothers' employment will improve the family's financial situation,  increasing resources to support children's needs. o mother's employment may result in more equitable sharing of roles and  responsibilities between mothers and fathers with respect to child care and  household tasks. o working mothers spend less time supervising their children, forcing them to  rely on substitute care. o research on the effects of maternal employment in two­parent families has  failed to show negative effects on children's cognitive or social­emotional  development  Latchkey Children o children who are left to care for themselves for extended periods of  time before or after school o over 2 million American children o One study of fifth through ninth graders showed that latchkey children who stayed home alone actually were less likely to engage in  antisocial behavior than those who were routinely hanging out with  their friends o Latchkey children are not necessarily at greater risk of maladustment  than children who are more closely supervised. ▯ Cognitive processes include sense arousal attention Sensory-short term-long term Sensation: 5 sense are used for sensory memory Short term memory: processing and elaboration of sensations Long term memory: actively thinking about and storing short term Crystallized intelligence: measure of the knowledge acquired through experience and education; remains the same or even increases with age Fluid intelligence: innate ability of information processing and ability to deal with novel ideas; appears to decline with age so is more associated with younger people Mental health disorders Schizophrenia: more complicated, severe and more incapacitation that depression or anxiety; serious disturbances in thinking and communication and impaired contact with reality Dementia: deterioration in cognitive and behavioral functioning due to physiological causes; recent memory loss; difficulty performing familiar tasks, problems with language, poor judgement, changes in mood and personality, misplacing things Alzhiemers disease: most common form of chronic organic brain disease; shrinking of the brain in size and weight, loss of neurons, twisting of neuron fibers 1 in 7 unable to conceive Sperm cells joining with an egg in the fallopian tube (in the correct tube for the month; women typically ovulate on one side) sperm cell heads up uterus really fast After the egg is ovulated, it needs to be viable with a coating so that when sperm cells arrive it (only viable for 24 hours) the sperm starts eating away at the coating of the egg. Once the sperm enters the egg, a chemical process seals the egg so no other sperm cells enter the egg Male has to produced enough sperm to get at least 1000 into the tube to have enough worker sperm to eat away at the coating. After conception days 3.5 days in tube, then to the uterus for 3.5 days, then the fertilized egg attaches itself to the endometrium (wall of the uterus). Once it attaches, that it implantation = pregnancy (1 week after conception). Healthy male produces between 200 mil and 400 mil sperm in a single ejaculation (after 3 days of not ejaculating). Male: the testicles are important in sperm production, (throughout lives) in abdominal cavity in fetus, descend into sac called scrotum shortly before birth (undescended testicles = wait for up to 12 months to see if they descend on their own, if they do not surgey is peformed; live healthy sperm in large numbers can only be produced at a temp slightly below body temp. the scrotum cools the testicles so that they can produce the sperm. 1. If the testicles become overheated, lowers sperm count 2. It takes 74 days fofr sperm cells to develop 3. Don’t wear tight underwer bc they push testicles against body which raises temp lwoers sperm count 4. Exosing testcles to other forms of heating Laptop computerd generate heat that cooks testicles Varicose seal* Alcohol reduces volume of semen and reduces sperm count Marijuana makes sperm exhausted, reduces their energy supply makes it extremely difficult to make it from cervix to fallopian tube to get to the egg Infection and inflammation: when a male gets and infection and it is untreated st 1 stage of human development: prenatal stage: conception till birth, on average lasts 266 days, or 38 weeks  postmature: babies born two weeks or more after due date; problem: the placenta is rapidly losing efficiency to deliver oxygen and nutrients, causing high risk solution: induced labor  premature: babies born before due date; babies can be kept alive 40% of the time if they are born at least 24 weeks the prenatal stage is broken down into three-month intervals called trimesters most common way of breaking down prenatal stage st 1. period of the zygote: 1 two weeks following conception, the baby is referred to as an ovum or zygote 2. Period of the embryo: 3 week till 8 weekh 3. Fetal period: end of week 8 till birth Fertilized egg moves down through fallopian tube, and takes about a week (7 days) for impl


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