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Lecture 16 - Helping Pt. 2, Aggression Pt. 1

by: Leslie Ogu

Lecture 16 - Helping Pt. 2, Aggression Pt. 1 PSYC 2012

Marketplace > George Washington University > Psychlogy > PSYC 2012 > Lecture 16 Helping Pt 2 Aggression Pt 1
Leslie Ogu
GPA 3.01

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About this Document

We conclude our discussion on helping, finishing with the bystander effect and how that plays out in a social environment on a daily basis. Then, we begin our lesson on aggression, the factors that...
Social Psychology
Stock, M
Class Notes
social psychology, Aggression, help, social influences, situational influences, big city, small town, urban overload hypothesis, bystander effect, five steps, Event, emergency, notice, reaction, ambiguity, pluralistic ignorance, responsibility, implementa
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Leslie Ogu on Tuesday March 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2012 at George Washington University taught by Stock, M in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at George Washington University.


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Date Created: 03/29/16
Leslie Ogu PSYC 2012  03/28/2016 ­ ​Helping Pt. 2, Aggression Pt. 1    Helping Pt. 2  Situational Influences  ➢ Rural v. Urban Environments  ○ Ex: staged injury experiment  ■ Small Town ­ About 50% of pedestrians offered to help  ■ Large City ­ about 15% of pedestrians offered to help  ➢ Why is there such a big difference?  ○ Urban overload hypothesis:​  people living in cities are constantly  bombarded with stimulation so they keep to themselves to avoid being  overwhelmed  ■ Immediate surroundings matter more than internalized values    Bystander Effect   ➢ Def:​  the more bystanders who witness an emergency, the less likely they are to  help  ➢ Five Steps to Helping ... or Not Helping (Bystander Intervention)   **** KNOW FOR EXAM ****  1. Noticing the Event  a. Preventions of Step 1  i. Distraction ­ other people distract our attention  ii. Manners ­ we don’t stare at others; we keep our eyes to  ourselves  2. Interpreting the event as an emergency  a. Preventions of Step 2  i. Ambiguity  ii. Pluralistic ignorance:​  the state in which people mistakenly  believe that their own thoughts and feelings are different  from those of others, even though everyone’s behavior is the  same  1. Specifically, bystanders assume nothing is wrong in  an emergency because no one else looks concerned  2. Ex: Smoke­filled room study  a. Most people in groups continued to work on  the questionnaire as they coughed and waved  smoke away with their hands  b. People would look at others (saw that they  were working diligently) and kept working  c. They assumed the smoke was from:  i. A leak in the air conditioner  ii. Steam pipes  iii. Chemistry labs in the building  iv. Truth gas  3. Assuming Responsibility  a. Preventions of Step 3  i. Diffusion of Responsibility:​  each bystander’s sense of  responsibility decreases as the number of bystanders  increases  1. When people are alone, they feel responsible  2. When people are with others, everyone places the  responsibility on everyone else  4. Decide How to Help  a. Why don’t people help?  i. Don’t want to appear foolish  b. Preventions of Step 4  i. Lack of knowledge and competence  5. Deciding to Implement the Help  a. Preventions of Step 5  i. Legal Problems  1. Ex: not giving someone CPR because you may do it  wrong  ii. Embarrassment (audience inhibition)  iii. Personal Danger  ➢ How Can Helping Be Increased? (Increasing the likelihood that bystanders will  intervene)  ○ Reduce ambiguity  ○ Increase responsibility  ○ Increase self­awareness  ○ Give specific instructions  ○ Teach people about the bystander effect  ○ It only takes one person to increase helping from others          Aggression Pt. 1  Aggression  ➢ Definition: any form of intentional behavior aimed at doing harm to another  person (who is motivated to avoid such treatment)  ➢ Keys of Aggression:  ○ Intentional Behavior  ○ Aimed at another person  ○ Victim wants to avoid harm  ➢ NOT JUST VIOLENCE  ➢ Types of Aggression  ○ Hostile: the harm inflicted is an end in itself (sole goal is to cause injury or  death to the victim)  ■ Ex: punching someone in a fight  ○ Instrumental:​ the harm inflicted is a means to some other end (intentional  use of harmful behavior so that one can achieve some other goal)  ■ Ex: muggings, football  ○ Relational:​ manipulates social situations  ■ Ex: excluding someone from a group  ➢ Gender Differences  ○ Males are more violent than females in virtually every culture ever studied  ■ Men commit the vast majority of murders  ■ Men comprise the large majority of murder victims  ○ Boys play more aggressive games  ○ Boys like more violent books  ○ Even infant boys show more anger  ○ Men tend to be more ​physically/overtlyaggressive  ■ More violent crimes, such as rape and murder, more aggressive  games  ○ Women tend to be more ​ relationally/covertlaggressive  ■ More exclusion, gossiping  ● Ex: Mean Girls movie  ○ Circumstances matter  ■ Provocation v. No Provocation  ➢ Theories of Aggression  ○ What explains these gender differences?  ■ Physical Characteristics?  ■ Social Roles?  ○ Biological v. Learned Theories of Aggression  ■ Biological Theories of Aggression  ● Instinct Theory (Freud)  ○ Thanatos ­ instinctual drive toward death, resulting in  aggressive behavior  ○ Energy must be turned into something positive/useful  ● Hydraulic Theory:  unexpressed emotions build up and are  explosive  ● Evolutionary Theory:  ​aggression to environmental cues  evolved over evolutionary time because aggression has  helped our ancestors survive  ○ Should aggress less towards genetic relatives  ■ Children living with a stepparent are much  more likely to be fatally abused than children  living with both biological parents  ● Biological Factors  ○ Genetic  ■ Temperament  ○ Neural  ■ Amygdala stimulation related to aggression  ○ Aggression Related Hormones  ■ Testosterone:​  steroid hormone responsible for  the development and maintenance of  masculine characteristics   ● higher levels = more aggression  ■ Serotonin:​  chemical responsible for  maintaining mood balance (deficit of it leads to  depression)  ● lower levels = more aggression  ○ Social Learning Theory:​  we learn social behavior (including aggression)  by observing and imitating and by being rewarded and punished (this is  seen especially with kids)  ■ When aggression is rewarded, it’s more likely to be repeated /  imitated  ■ Direct and vicarious learning  ■ Ex: A bully beats up a kid and gets his lunch money (reward)  ■ Ex: Bandura’s Bobo Doll Studies **  ● Experimental condition ­ children observed adult beat a  “Bobo” doll  ● Control condition ­ Did not observe this  ● Children were then left in room to play with toys, including  Bobo  ● Results ­ Those who observed the adult imitated the  aggressive behavior; Children in the control condition almost  never abused the doll    Alcohol  ➢ Why does alcohol affect aggression?  ○ Lowered inhibitions  ○ Use more primitive brain structure  ■ Reduced cerebral cortex activity  ■ Increased midbrain (limbic system) activity 


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