Lecture 16 - Helping Pt. 2, Aggression Pt. 1
Lecture 16 - Helping Pt. 2, Aggression Pt. 1 PSYC 2012
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Leslie Ogu on Tuesday March 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2012 at George Washington University taught by Stock, M in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 03/29/16
Leslie Ogu PSYC 2012 03/28/2016 Helping Pt. 2, Aggression Pt. 1 Helping Pt. 2 Situational Influences ➢ Rural v. Urban Environments ○ Ex: staged injury experiment ■ Small Town About 50% of pedestrians offered to help ■ Large City about 15% of pedestrians offered to help ➢ Why is there such a big difference? ○ Urban overload hypothesis: people living in cities are constantly bombarded with stimulation so they keep to themselves to avoid being overwhelmed ■ Immediate surroundings matter more than internalized values Bystander Effect ➢ Def: the more bystanders who witness an emergency, the less likely they are to help ➢ Five Steps to Helping ... or Not Helping (Bystander Intervention) **** KNOW FOR EXAM **** 1. Noticing the Event a. Preventions of Step 1 i. Distraction other people distract our attention ii. Manners we don’t stare at others; we keep our eyes to ourselves 2. Interpreting the event as an emergency a. Preventions of Step 2 i. Ambiguity ii. Pluralistic ignorance: the state in which people mistakenly believe that their own thoughts and feelings are different from those of others, even though everyone’s behavior is the same 1. Specifically, bystanders assume nothing is wrong in an emergency because no one else looks concerned 2. Ex: Smokefilled room study a. Most people in groups continued to work on the questionnaire as they coughed and waved smoke away with their hands b. People would look at others (saw that they were working diligently) and kept working c. They assumed the smoke was from: i. A leak in the air conditioner ii. Steam pipes iii. Chemistry labs in the building iv. Truth gas 3. Assuming Responsibility a. Preventions of Step 3 i. Diffusion of Responsibility: each bystander’s sense of responsibility decreases as the number of bystanders increases 1. When people are alone, they feel responsible 2. When people are with others, everyone places the responsibility on everyone else 4. Decide How to Help a. Why don’t people help? i. Don’t want to appear foolish b. Preventions of Step 4 i. Lack of knowledge and competence 5. Deciding to Implement the Help a. Preventions of Step 5 i. Legal Problems 1. Ex: not giving someone CPR because you may do it wrong ii. Embarrassment (audience inhibition) iii. Personal Danger ➢ How Can Helping Be Increased? (Increasing the likelihood that bystanders will intervene) ○ Reduce ambiguity ○ Increase responsibility ○ Increase selfawareness ○ Give specific instructions ○ Teach people about the bystander effect ○ It only takes one person to increase helping from others Aggression Pt. 1 Aggression ➢ Definition: any form of intentional behavior aimed at doing harm to another person (who is motivated to avoid such treatment) ➢ Keys of Aggression: ○ Intentional Behavior ○ Aimed at another person ○ Victim wants to avoid harm ➢ NOT JUST VIOLENCE ➢ Types of Aggression ○ Hostile: the harm inflicted is an end in itself (sole goal is to cause injury or death to the victim) ■ Ex: punching someone in a fight ○ Instrumental: the harm inflicted is a means to some other end (intentional use of harmful behavior so that one can achieve some other goal) ■ Ex: muggings, football ○ Relational: manipulates social situations ■ Ex: excluding someone from a group ➢ Gender Differences ○ Males are more violent than females in virtually every culture ever studied ■ Men commit the vast majority of murders ■ Men comprise the large majority of murder victims ○ Boys play more aggressive games ○ Boys like more violent books ○ Even infant boys show more anger ○ Men tend to be more physically/overtlyaggressive ■ More violent crimes, such as rape and murder, more aggressive games ○ Women tend to be more relationally/covertlaggressive ■ More exclusion, gossiping ● Ex: Mean Girls movie ○ Circumstances matter ■ Provocation v. No Provocation ➢ Theories of Aggression ○ What explains these gender differences? ■ Physical Characteristics? ■ Social Roles? ○ Biological v. Learned Theories of Aggression ■ Biological Theories of Aggression ● Instinct Theory (Freud) ○ Thanatos instinctual drive toward death, resulting in aggressive behavior ○ Energy must be turned into something positive/useful ● Hydraulic Theory: unexpressed emotions build up and are explosive ● Evolutionary Theory: aggression to environmental cues evolved over evolutionary time because aggression has helped our ancestors survive ○ Should aggress less towards genetic relatives ■ Children living with a stepparent are much more likely to be fatally abused than children living with both biological parents ● Biological Factors ○ Genetic ■ Temperament ○ Neural ■ Amygdala stimulation related to aggression ○ Aggression Related Hormones ■ Testosterone: steroid hormone responsible for the development and maintenance of masculine characteristics ● higher levels = more aggression ■ Serotonin: chemical responsible for maintaining mood balance (deficit of it leads to depression) ● lower levels = more aggression ○ Social Learning Theory: we learn social behavior (including aggression) by observing and imitating and by being rewarded and punished (this is seen especially with kids) ■ When aggression is rewarded, it’s more likely to be repeated / imitated ■ Direct and vicarious learning ■ Ex: A bully beats up a kid and gets his lunch money (reward) ■ Ex: Bandura’s Bobo Doll Studies ** ● Experimental condition children observed adult beat a “Bobo” doll ● Control condition Did not observe this ● Children were then left in room to play with toys, including Bobo ● Results Those who observed the adult imitated the aggressive behavior; Children in the control condition almost never abused the doll Alcohol ➢ Why does alcohol affect aggression? ○ Lowered inhibitions ○ Use more primitive brain structure ■ Reduced cerebral cortex activity ■ Increased midbrain (limbic system) activity
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