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by: Lindsay Smith


Lindsay Smith
University of Louisiana at Lafayette
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Social Problems
Dr. Candace May
Class Notes




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lindsay Smith on Tuesday March 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOCI 241 at University of Louisiana at Lafayette taught by Dr. Candace May in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Social Problems in Sociology at University of Louisiana at Lafayette.

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Date Created: 03/29/16
Education ● Education​ a social institution by which society transmits knowledge including basic facts, job skills, and cultural norms and values to its members. ● Schooling ​ is a formal instruction carried out by specially trained teachers. Schooling is more available in some parts of the world than others. ● All nations provide for primary education of at least some children. In the poorest nations many children do not go to school. ● Secondary education of children is even less common. ● Poor nations are agrarian and rural. Families take primary responsibility for education. ● Children work at an early age. Governments in poor nations are trying to increase literacy by extending school. ● Gender also is related to education in poor countries. Patriarchy and education ● Higher rates of schooling and literacy. education is a necessity for jobs ● Thomas Jefferson: Literacy and democracy. By 1918, all states had laws making education mandatory. ● A larger share of the U.S. population earns a college degree than any other nation except Norway. Scholastic Assessment test scores (below the 1967 average for both men and women) ● SAT: african american students scare about 300 points below the average white student. Hispanics 200 points below non-hispanic whites. asian americans average about the same as white students. ● Children living in a single parent family, racial stereotypes and educational bias, hispanic children and language barrier, native american children and cultural alienation, poverty ● Completing high school is a major problem. About 8.1% of the population aged 16-24 have left school before graduating; figure was 14% in 1960 ● dropping out is related to being socially disadvantaged; economically and culturally ● dropping out puts one at risk for other social problems. ● Functional Illiteracy: Not being able to read and write or do basic arithmetic; well enough to carry out daily responsibilities ● About 14% or more of the population lack the necessary skills to function in society ● Affects job opportunities; source of embarrassment and shame ● Segregated schools post slavery through the 20th century. Supreme court case Plessy v. Ferguson in 1896 (separate but equal) ● law and educational segregation in the south- Jim Crow ● Supreme Court case Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka in 1954; separate but equal no longer legal ● residential segregation and continued educational segregation; busing to achieve integration (1960s-90s) ● blacks reacted to busing with mixed opinions; white flight; continued segregation today ● Inequality in educational resources between states and within state ● Public schools funded by state/local taxes ● Economic disparities between rich and poor communities; sources of income and educational spending for students; sources of income and educational spending for students ● Concentrated poverty and hyper-segregation ● Red Lining​ : refuse (a loan or insurance) to someone because they live in an area deemed to be a poor financial risk. ● Blockbusting​ : he practice of persuading owners to sell property cheaply because of the fear of people of another race or class moving into the neighborhood, and thus profiting by reselling at a higher price. ● Racial Steering​ :refers to the practice in which real estate brokers guide prospective home buyers towards or away from certain neighborhoods based on their race. ● Cultural Capital​ ; differences in the home life of rich and poor children is a major factor in education ● families with more income are able to give their children more cultural capital; more conducive environment and parental education ● Tracking​ : a policy of assigning students to different educational programs. ● Supporters of tracking argue that tests will be used to assign students to tracks best suited to address each child’s abilities. ● Critics argue that tracking is a form of institutional discrimination ● Tracking transforms a social advantage into an educational advantage; self-fulfilling prophecy Reproduction of gender inequality in schools ● Gender and educational steering by teachers, counselors, and curriculum based on cultural prescriptions of gender in society. ● Congress (1972) and Title IX of the Educational Amendments to the Civil Rights Act. ● Increase in the number of women going on to college Immigration: Increasing Diversity ● Educating the more than one million immigrants that enter the U.S. annually. English Immersion versus Bilingualism ● English immersion- teaching immigrants using English ● Bilingual education- policy by which schools offer classes in most subject areas in a student's native language while also teaching them english. Schooling People With Disabilities ● In 1975, Congress passed the education for all handicapped children act ● Mainstreaming​ : integrating special students into the overall educational program. ● special education:​ schooling children with physical; or mental disabilities in separate classes with specially trained teachers. Teacher Shortage ● 400,000 teaching jobs remain unfilled ● causes larger classes and greater burden on staff ● low salaries a factor; excessive bureaucracy and school violence are also a factor School Funding ● Local taxes, with additions from state and federal government (great variance, $17,500/student in LI- $8,000/student in TX) ● Vermont- Act 60 (1998) ● State pooling of local taxes and redistribution across all schools School Violence ● has been a growing concern: homicides, aggravated assaults, rape ● Type of school and violence: - Larger schools, urban schools, poverty, african american and latino students express greatest fear ● Reactions to school violence by schools and communities: - zero-tolerance policies, dress codes, conflict resolution programs. Structural-Functional Analysis: The Functions of Schooling ● The focus is on the role of education in society - education leads to transmitting knowledge, skills, and occupational roles - education integrates someone into the larger society Symbolic-Interaction Analysis: Labels in the Schools ● The focus is on how individuals experience education - educational labels shape the student’s future - labels and the self-fulfilling prophecy (people who are defined in one way eventually think and act as if the definition were true thereby recreating the circumstances that were defined for them) Social-Conflict Analysis: Schooling and Inequality ● How education results in the reproduction of inequality: - Class, gender, race ● Education and the hidden curriculum and the teaching of conformity: - obedience rather than critical thinking, patriotism rather than past mistakes, memorization rather than creativity


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