Multivariate Correlational Research
Multivariate Correlational Research PSY 3213
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Notetaker on Tuesday March 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 3213 at University of South Florida taught by Dr. Brannick in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Research Methods in Psychology in Psychlogy at University of South Florida.
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Date Created: 03/29/16
Multivariate Correlational Research The Three Rules for Causality: Internal Validity Covariance o Correlations can establish covariance Temporal precedence? o Directionality of effect problem Internal validity o Third variable(s) problem Longitudinal Designs 1 Cause must precede effect. Two studies How much violet TV and how aggressive? Longitudinal Designs Summary Longitudinal designs can rule out some causal explanations b/c of temporal precedence Based on the above study, aggression does not cause later viewing of violence on TV Longitudinal designs do not est. causality b/c they do not rule out alternative explanations (Internal validity) Viewing TV violence early may cause later aggression, but could be due to something else Why Not Just Do an Experiment Good experiments are the only way to establish causation Ethics – violence in the previous study Practicality – follow from 3 to 13 grade The Three Rules for Causality: Internal Validity Covariance Temporal precedence Internal validity o Third variable(s) problems Ruling out Third Variables Multiple-Regression Designs and Analyses o Multiple regression Statistical procedure that allows 2 or more independent variables and 1 DV. IV is often called a predictor in multiple regression. DV is often called a criterion. If IV1 is held constant (controlled, taken into account), is IV2 still related to the DV? IF IV2 is held constant, is IV2 still related to the DV? rd Mediation, Moderation and 3 Variables Mediation o What is the mechanism that explains why recess availability reduces behavior problems? o Could it be that the kids get all their physical activity out of the way? o The key word is mediation is “because” o Start with an association b/w 2 variables, A and B o Mediation hypotheses propose a mechanism for a bivariate relationship. Why are these two variables correlated? o Mediation hypotheses are causal statements o Mediators specify a time sequence for the three variables (temporal precedence) o Mediators also specify the mechanism o Steps in testing mediation: 1. Test path C – does recess predict behavior problems? If not, stop. If yes, go on. 2. Run regression with both recess and physical activity as predictors 3. If beta for recess gets small (approaches zero) after adding physical activity, you have mediation. If eta stays about the same, you don’t