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Week 2 Lecture Notes- Political Science

by: Nicole Goodfliesh

Week 2 Lecture Notes- Political Science POL S 203

Marketplace > University of Washington > Political Science > POL S 203 > Week 2 Lecture Notes Political Science
Nicole Goodfliesh
GPA 3.7
Intro to International Relations

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Liberalism, Realism, Levels of Analysis
Intro to International Relations
Class Notes
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nicole Goodfliesh on Tuesday January 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to POL S 203 at University of Washington taught by Caporaso in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 128 views. For similar materials see Intro to International Relations in Political Science at University of Washington.

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Date Created: 01/27/15
8 Lecture 4 01122015 Monday Liberalism and International Relations I Introduction three key differences realism and liberalism 1 Units of Analysis 0 Realism States rational and unitary Realists say States are the only thing that are important because they have the monopoly on violence 0 Liberalism many actors states MNCs IGOs NGOs liberals say that multinational corporations are important too Looking at Europe economics is important too 0 Differences within states states not unitary States in realist theory are unitary doesn t necessarily mean that its monolithic but decisions get made in a way that they are funneled through a head decision maker Liberals say not so fastquot 9 this diversity in the way foreign policy decisions are made can be helpful in telling you what will come out at the top even if you agree there is a central decision maker EX After German reunification in 1990 whether the Germans would go for economic and monetary union a They could easily do it themselves9 Pohl head of the bankwas strongly against it and so was Heigl head of ministry of economics n Chancellor of Germany and his minister of foreign affairs are in favor of it for political reasons appease the French a They did it The decision came out of a complex interplay of the elites Liberals highlight the Domestic roots of decision making a Liberals are inclined to say that sometimes states make serious blunders in their policy 0 Not always rational Foreign policy mistake is not a representation of irrationality Saddam Hussein was criticized for being irrational because if he didn39t have WMDs why wasn39t he more forthcoming and send more signals to the US and allow inspectors in unconditionally9 he could have easily taken away the pretext and prevented the invasion the reason for the invasion of Iraq by Bush wouldn t have taken place He was convinced that the US was convinced that we believed that he had no WMDs because our technology was so high tech that we would just know 0 At the same time he was convincing the Shiites and the Kurds that he did have a viable weapons program 0 Mistake Yes Irrationality No 2The Environment anarchy 0 Both accept anarchy but different interpretations For Realists anarchy implies conflict For Liberals conflict and cooperation are possible Accept anarchy too Ex No government structure between the US and Canada and it is still very peaceful 3Explanation of war Realism quot it s the systemquot a Shifting power relations and nothing personal about the states themselves a Nothing about democracies not fighting each other 9 that has nothing to do with it Liberalism it s the units the statesquot a First to point out late in 19th century because there were so few democratic countries that democratic countries don t fight each other a Countries are too interdependent on each other to fight II Myths to Avoid 0 Realists are not always hawks Skeptical about the invasion of Syria Military intervention in Korea Mixed record on Vietnam For better or worse a humanitarian disaster is not enough to intervene What good can be done by the intervention and what bad could be done Dog eat dog place 9 fend for yourself Engage in wars with international interest 0 Liberals not always cloves 0 Libya and humanitarian hawksquot Susan Rice Hilary Clinton and Anne Marie Slaughter Argued for intervention in Libya on humanitarian grounds not national security reasons III Puzzles that Motivate Liberalism o 1The liberal democratic peace why don39t liberal democracies go to war with one another Realists competition anarchy 9 war Wars happen among all kinds of states systemic explanation Liberals liberal democracies don t fight one another A major challenge to realism view Liberals provide a unitcentered theory striking at core of realism 3 types of dyads a democracy democracy a non democracy non democracy a non democracy democracy I Liberals would say that all the wars will occur in the 2nd two types 0 2 Why don39t the strong gobble up the weak Why does the number of states increase over time 51 signed UN Charter 1945 193 of the UN with S Sudan today The territorial integrity norm weak states surrounded by the strong persist An emerging territorial integrity norm Over time you see a decreasing phenomenon of where the winning state of the war absorbs the losing country of democracies was small but today we have 120 democracies of the world You cannot join the UN if you have any territorial border disputes o 3Why is cooperation so widespread Levels of trade Growing faster than GDP Foreign direct investment spread of multinationals States cooperate in many areas from security to food standards to crime control IV The Nature of International Relations 1 Is IR really life within anarchyquot or is quotanarchy what states make of itquot o Realists say the first and liberals say the second o Anarchy is Canada US and France and Germany during 19th century 2 Similarities between domestic and international politics domestic politics is also violent and lacking in trust think of all the civil wars 0 Think of all the civil wars 3International Society strong norms in international society just as in domestic politics quottreaties must be obeyedquot pacta sunt servandaquotboundaries respectedquot uti possidetis and quotcontracts enforcedquot Most of these norms are obeyed most of the time 0 Don39t overdraw the distinction between international and domestic politics V Importance of the Units 1 What are states really 2 Unpacking the state 0 a the state is not unitary o b think of differences between State Dept and Defense in the Iraq War Rumsfeld v Powell 0 c Liberals argue that we must focus on these differences VI Continuing Debate 0 Realists argue that war always exists as a way to resolve conflicts 0 Security trumps economics 0 Liberals trade crosses borders people to people exchanges eg student exchanges Two ways to expand power aggression and economics trade MNCs o Realists use WWI and WWII as proof look at what happens when power is uncheckedquot 0 Liberals point to Japan who used aggression during 1930s leading to collapse 0 Since 1945 Japan has taken the economic path 2nd to 3rd largest economy 0 The Cold War is over and Japan wonquot C Johnson OTHER NOTES NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNN Lecture 5 01142015 Wednesday Levels of Analysis of International Relations 1 I Introduction significance of different levels of analysis a Explain war b too many explanations c need to organize information II Three Levels individual the societal and the systemic a first level individual biologypsychology The Man b second level societal countries c third level international system III The First Level the individual abiologica theories 0 Importance of group EO WilsonInstinct theories human naturequot Defend your groups against others People don39t live as individuals they immediately form groups 0 Explain a capacity for war Mead war is not a biological necessity but a human inventionquot Wars vary over time and space Suggests that we look for other factors Some argue that we are hardwired with aggressive behaviour bcognitive theory stereotypes misperception Humans poor decisionmakers Cognitive consistency Tendency to assimilate information into basic framework to make all elements consistent 2 Motivated biases see what we want Biases in decision making Stereotypes oversimplified images Congruence bias 0 Discount information that doesn t fit seeOH Overconfidence bias crossing the Rubiconquot fallacy financial crisis Fallacy of sunk costs we have already invested in x should not let go to wastequot Analogies Can be useful but also can entrap IV Examples Hitler39s Germany Munich Korea and Iraq a Germany and Munich disagreement on nature of threat appeasement or making concessions to a frustrated power Several leaders felt that Hitler was dissatisfied power who just wanted to quotcorrectquot the injustices of the Versailles Treaty Others eg Churchill felt that he was a threat from the beginning the Munich Analogy see OH 0 What happened at Munich In 1931 the Japanese army invaded Manchuria In 1935 Mussolini s army Italy took over Abyyssinia Ethiopia In 1938 Hitler took over Austra Soon after he began to demand chunks of Czechoslovakia 0 Lessons of Munich Appeasement is a bad thing 0 Munich analogy has been used as a rationale for confronting aggression in foreign policy Korea Vietnam Middle East 1991 war and 2003 war b Korea Munich analogy for Korea Security perimeter ambiguous Acheson Vagueness we akened deterrence c Iraq and the US 1990 and 2003 0 Both sides misperceived Hussein o Underestimated US resolve in 90 and 2003 o Underestimated effect of 911 US under two presidents Misunderstood Saddam s grievances re Iran Iraq war 198088 4 Saddam felt annexation of Kuwait justified Saddam more concerned about Iran than US some boasts re nuclear weapons directed at Iran US saw 91 campaign in Iraq as huge victory Hussein felt he did well bc he survived 2003 War Hussein overestimated the capability of US intelligence and underestimated resolve US misjudged capability WMD and underestimated resolve V Problems with analogies Problem is to match the right analogy to the case WWII gives us appeasement WWI gives us the conflict spiral and fear Vietnam gives us quagmire the Gulf War gives us misinformation and miscalculation on Hussein s part and on US s part NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN NNN Lecture 6 01162015 Friday The Societal Level Nationalism and War Definition Common identity and right to a state Nation shared identity that manifests itself in the desire of distinctive political institutions 0 Larger than family village ethnic group units of emotional attachment 0 Smaller than humankind and civilizations Nations need states for support States need nations to carry out the politics political vehicle II What are sources of common identity 0 Language But India is multilingual well over 500 dialects Canada is multilingual but still a nation Switzerland has 4 languages 0 Religion Can be quite secular France is secular firewalls between church and state 0 Historical experiences Declaration of independence 0 Participation in common markets People trade freely with one another without barriers III Ingroups and Outgroups o nations ingroups outgroups we presumes the thee You see the differences of those on the outside Those not in our group do things differently o ingroups seem to need outgroups o outgroup feelings don t have to be hostile but emphasize differences 0 Piaget s studies identityformation in children Allport 45 46 IV 2 Types of nations civic and ethnic Civic based on loyalty to institutions patriotic symbols ideas eg liberty equality o examples The US and France as civic republics Identification with flag constitution declaration of rights of man and citizen 1789 1793 Universal message we hold these truths to be self evidentquot liberty equality and fraternityquot Anyone ethnicity race religion can become French or American Ethnic nationalism Germany and Japan as ethnic communities Must have German Japanese blood to be a citizen Cannot just become a citizen only a permanent residentquot Identification with a people ancestry physical traits A Volkstum a German peoplequot A preexisting basis of identity based on descent There were Germans before the German state I There were still German People even when it was split into east and west In Their coming together was more in the people than the political institution 0 basis for citizenship Civic jus soli place Ethnic jus sanguinis law of blood 0 Summary of differences OH Civic Ethnic Law Common Roots Choice Inheritance Rational Attachment Emotional Attachment Unit by Consent Unity by Ascription Democratic Pluralism Ethnic majority rules Liberty Fraternity Individual Creates Nation Nation creates individual Hypotheses about Nationalism and War 1 The greater the disequilibrium between the number of nations and the number of states the greater the danger of war 0 aNumber of nations greater than number of states 0 bThe danger zones Eastern Europe the Balkans the FSU In FSU 104 nationalities 15 of them acquired a state 89 have not 256 million stateless nationals Tatars Germans Jews Chechens etc 2 Relationship between nationals outside the quothomelandquot and attitudes toward those nationals o airredentism recleaning an area of the world whose population is of the same ethnic group of your own If Russia tried to integrate the Russian ethnics that would be irredentists Ethnic Russians in Ukraine Balkans Sudeten line in Germany 0 bdiasporaaccepting ideologies immigrationist and diasporaannexing ideologies Jewish diaspora Some are destabilizing Others are not Putin and Crimea Putin and the Ukraine where there are strong Russian ethnic communities 3 The greater the tolerance of national minorities the less the prospect of war VI State Failure NOT RESPONSIBLE FOR THIS INFORMATION Nationalism a cause of instability States failed states or states that are not accepted also a cause of instability Examples of failed states Somalia Sudan Rwanda Afghanistan Iraq parts of Pakistan Somalia tops list for 5th straight year What kinds of states become failed states 0 O O O 0 Poor Few public services Collapse of state power Factional struggle for control of state Terrorist havens which came first Failed states are seen as threat Breeding ground for terrorism loose nukes violence drugs smuggling and piracy Bush administration has set up special office to deal with failed states


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