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Week 3 Lecture Notes- Political Science

by: Nicole Goodfliesh

Week 3 Lecture Notes- Political Science POL S 203

Marketplace > University of Washington > Political Science > POL S 203 > Week 3 Lecture Notes Political Science
Nicole Goodfliesh
GPA 3.7
Intro to International Relations

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Nationalism and War, Systemic Level of Analysis, Distribution of Power
Intro to International Relations
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nicole Goodfliesh on Tuesday January 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to POL S 203 at University of Washington taught by Caporaso in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 94 views. For similar materials see Intro to International Relations in Political Science at University of Washington.

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Date Created: 01/27/15
Lecture 7 01212015 Wednesday and Lecture 8 01232015 Friday Summary of Nationalism and War 1One Nation With One state Most Stable 2One Nation With Two States North and South Korea East and West Germany North and South Vietnam PRC and ROC 3 Several Nations with One State Creates pressures for succession Kurds in Iraq Arabs in Israel Basques in Spain Russians in Baltic States Ukraine Moldova The republic of Abkhazia and South Osetia broke off from Georgia and formed separate republics9 Russia recognized but most others did not Kosovo broke off from Serbia 9 US and EU recognized Kosovo but Russia did not Russia Annexed CrimeaPart of Ukraine using presence of Ethnic Russians as pretext Russia also supporting ethnic Russians in E Ukraine Donetsk Donetsk has majority of ethnic Russians What do they want Anything from absorption to succession to autonomy within a new federation The Systemic Level of Analysis I Meaning of System 1 organization of parts into the whole 2 two systemic characteristics 0 anarchy no main power for all of the nationstates 0 distribution of power In relation to each other Uni Bi Multi II Realism a brief Recapitulation 1 the actors states This doesn t mean that multinational companies individuals don t count but states have domestic legitimacy and legal monopoly on violence aka they have the ability to make war If you are skeptical of this proposition think about this 9 they take taxes give birthdeath certificates set UW prices send people off to war secure property rights pay for roads etc they are extremely powerful 2 the environment anarchy There s no world government Every society has conflict but there are institutions for solving conflict everywhere but they are nonexistent at the international level There s no Leviathan Hobbes 0 Life under anarchy is Solitary Poor Nasty Brutish Short 0 The only way to overcome is to create a domestic government 3 the means to achieve goals power Power is what is important States want cheap oil don39t carry out military exercises near your territory they want more land and power is the way to get it Power Ability of A to get B to do something that B would not otherwise do Robert Dahl s definition III The Distribution of Power in Realist Theory 1 Four propositions about Power 0 aIf power of A is expanding B should expand Multipolar world An easy way to do this is form an alliance quick and easy If not multipolar then this won t work If no one is available to form alliance start an arms race Bipolar worlds should be more characterized with arms races because multipolar world give you the option to form an alliance Ex Albania was an ally with China because they were scared of the Soviet Union during Cold War 198189 Iraq war US sided with Iraq We thought the greater threat was with Iran so we sided with Iraq even though we weren t exactly friends 0 b The enemy of my enemy is my friend Churchill If Hitler were to invade hell I would make a favorable reference to the Devil in the House of Commercequot Not always true Sometimes the enemy of your enemy is also your enemy o c Divide and rule If you cannot form an alliance or engage in an arms race to bring your power up you could try to divide your enemy If 3 are in an alliance against you and you can put a wedge between them you are weakening their alliance o d Support the weaker power 2 How is Power arranged o aconcentrated in one power unipolar system 91 US Concentrated in one pole o bconcentrated in two powers bipolar system Cold War Era 4590 US and Soviet Union 0 cconcentrated in three or more powers multipolar system IV Bipolarity the Cold War and the Long Peace 1 A Fable of Two World Wars Waltz o WW1 Versailles conference treaty of Versailles Set up League of Nations 9 put to the test to introduce collective security when any country is attacked all the others in the league come to their aid but it didn39t work out that way Japan invaded Manchuria Germany invaded Sudeten line and Poland Each country decided on it s own what it s interest was and where to put its military Woodrow Wilson s 14pts about LON o WW2 Set up the United Nations US and Soviet union are on the same side in this war 2 Description of Bipolarity power is distributed between two blocs o a structure of bipolarity Incredibly symmetric structure Relatively Equal Western Bloc Eastern Bloc Bloc Leader US Soviet Union Allies France West Czechoslovakia Germany UK Poland Hungary Military Org NATO Warsaw Treaty Organization Economic Org EU COMECON CMEA Neutrals Swedennot in NATO Switzerlandnot in NATO Austrianot in NATO or WTO Finlandnot in NATO or WTO Yugoslavia Not in NATO or WTO Two Germanys One for West and one for the East 0 Berlin inside East Germany most meaningful city in Germany Divided Berlin Wall 0 b competitive dynamics arms race Cold War US vs USSR Tanks soldiers WMD etc WMD 20 megatons much larger than the ones used against Japan Some were constantly in motion in the air Nuclear submarines difficult to detect track and destroy Mutually assured destructionquot even if you strike first the other side has second strike capacity even after absorbing the first strike Destruction of your homeland is assured so brings stability and peace 0 integration race EEC vs CMEA o CMEA the ways in which countries tie themselves together through globalization cross borders Western integration happens in Europe with US support Western Europe EEC France West Germany Luxembourg Belgium Italy Netherlands We won t be competitive with each other no arms races here Make it materially impossible to go to war with each other Coal iron and steel are put in the hands of a higher power these states don t have the authority to decide how much of these things to produce Industrial production needed for war is out of the hands of these countries US supplies troops Moves from 6 countries to 28 resources are shared specialization in comparative advantage really benefits everyone Equivalent to EEC for Eastern bloc Rather than market forces political planners chose the means of production USSR spent approx 2532 of GDP on the arms race US spent 6 of GDP on the arms race 0 c bipolarity and peace The majority of the deaths during the cold war were intrabloc in USSR due to uprisings within the country If anything goes wrong it will turn into a major disaster nobody can win 3 Elements of Stability o a absence of peripheries boundaries everyone knows who s in and who s out almost all of Europe was incorporated into one of the two blocs No ambiguity on who is on who s side 0 b scope of competition Everything counts Economies have to grow American vs Soviet way of life Brown vs Topeka is a victory in the cold war a Separate but equal educational facilities cannot be equal 0 USSR used separate but equal against US so now they cant o c permanent crisis never a moment to rest during multipolarity not enough feeling of a permanent crisisquot Hitler was running around 0 d independence not interdependence Soviet and Western blocs were not interconnected No cross trade sharing of technology etc These things are great but bring vulnerability Who is more selfsufficient and who as more fnends Since they didn t have economic ties they couldn t threaten to take them away 4 The End of the Cold War 0 a collapse of Soviet Union Would think that everyone would be happy but realists are pessimistic about the end of the Cold War because of the end of bipolarity o b partial withdrawal of the US Multipolar dynamic will be the new focus in Europe bad More uncertainty and war 0 c Weakening of NATO MULTIPOLARITY Mulitpolar systems have at least three powers 0 Usually more but wo three you can t form alliances Hard for any one or combination to achieve dominance Why 0 Defensive alliances easy Everyone fears concentrated power 0 Better to be friends with the weak than the strong 0 Minimum winning coalition 0 You want to offset the strongest power by forming alliances Multipolar worlds and uncertainty Why 0 Fluidity o Shifting alliances o Arms races In a bipolar world if A increases arms B must be concerned In multipolar world if A increases arms it may be directed against your enemy If Russian adds military divisions on Chinese border this lessens threat to US and India Because of uncertainty two twin dangers o Appeasement underestimation of aggressive intentions o Overestimation of hostile intent leading to escalation Major outcomes associated with Structural differences Unipolarity no one worth worrying about Bipolarity all too clear whom to worry about Multipolarity hard to know whom to trust when to rest and when to worry Unipolarity gives us indifference and arrogance bipolarity gives constant national security fears and multipolarity gives us uncertainty UNIPOLARITY Unipolarity I What is unipolarity o A distribution of power where one power stands above the rest 0 No plausible coalition of other countries can counterbalance 0 Not likely that India China Russia Brazil 9 alliance II Unipolar configurations of power are rare 0 Great Britain 1815 to late 19th century 0 US since 1990 III How did unipolarity come about 0 Bipolar world 19451990 0 Soviet Union collapsed 199091 That left only the US 0 US continued to spend more on military than other countries combined and Research amp Development IV What about other countries or alliances 0 Japan a possible great power during 805 went into a 20 year deflationarylow growth spiral 0 Russia on the defensive lost sphere of influence EE and former Republics of SU 0 EU has expanded from 12 to 28 members but Lacks political cohesion Only China has stayed ahead of the curve Yet China s capabilities are limited Britain and France spend 60 more on defense than China Europe s longrange strategic forces are more extensive than China s


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