Chapter 11 MGT 250
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Chapter 11 : Managing Individual Differences & Behavior Supervising People as People Vocabulary: Absenteeism: when an employee doesn’t show up for work Affective Component of an Attitude: the feelings or emotions one has about a situation Americans with Disabilities Act: prohibits discrimination against the disabled Attitude: a learned predisposition toward a given object Behavior: their actions and judgments Behavioral Component of an Attitude: aka the intentional component; refers to how one intends or expects to behave toward a situation Big Five Personality Dimensions: extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness to experience Buffers: aka administrative changes, that managers can make to reduce the stressors that lead to employee burnout Burnout: a state of emotional, mental, and even physical exhaustion Causal Attribution: the activity of inferring causes for observed behavior Cognitive Component of an Attitude: the beliefs and knowledge one has about a situation Cognitive Dissonance: to describe the psychological discomfort a person experiences between his or her cognitive attitude and incompatible behavior Core Selfevaluation: a broad personality trait comprising four positive individual traits self efficacy, selfesteem, locus of control, and emotional stability Counterproductive Work Behaviors (CWB): types of behavior that harm employees and the organization as a whole Diversity: all the ways people are unlike and alike – the difference and similarities in age, gender, race, religion, ethnicity, sexual orientation, capabilities, and socioeconomic background Emotional Intelligence: the ability to monitor your and others’ feelings and to use this information to guide your thinking and actions Emotional Stability: the extent to which people feel secure and unworried and how likely they are to experience negative emotions under pressure Employee Assistance Programs: a host of programs aimed at helping employees to cope with stress, burnout, substance abuse, healthrelated problems, family and marital issues, and any general problem that negatively influences job performance Employee Engagement: an individual’s involvement, satisfaction, and enthusiasm for work Ethnocentrism: the belief that one’s native country, culture, abilities, or behavior is superior to those of another culture External Dimensions of Diversity: an element of choice; they consist of the personal characteristics that people acquire, discard, or modify throughout their lives: educational background, marital status, parental status, religion, income, geographic location, work experience, recreational habits, appearance, personal habits Fundamental Attribution Bias: people attribute another person’s behavior to his or her personal characteristics rather than to situational factors Glass Ceiling: the metaphor for an invisible barrier preventing women and minorities from being promoted to top executive jobs Halo Effect: we form an impression of an individual based on a single trait Chapter 11 : Managing Individual Differences & Behavior Supervising People as People Holistic Wellness Program: focuses on selfresponsibility, nutritional awareness, relaxation techniques, physical fitness, and environmental awareness Internal Dimensions of Diversity: those human differences that exert a powerful, sustained effect throughout every stage of our lives: gender, age, ethnicity, race sexual orientation, physical abilities Job Satisfaction: the extent to which you feel positive or negative about various aspects of your work Learned Helplessness: the debilitating lack of faith in one’s ability to control one’s environment Locus of Control: indicates how much people believe they control their fate through their own efforts Onboarding: programs that help employees to integrate and transition to new jobs by making them familiar with corporate policies, procedures, culture, and politics by clarifying workrole related expectations and responsibilities Organizational Behavior: dedicated to better understanding and management of people at work Organizational Citizenship Behaviors: those employee behaviors that are no directly part of employees’ job descriptions – that exceed their workrole requirements Organizational Commitment: the extent to which an employee identifies with an organization and is committed to its goals Perception: the process of interpreting and understanding one’s environment Personality: the stable psychological traits and behavioral attributes that give a person his or her identity Proactive Personality: someone who is more apt to take initiative and persevere to influence the environment Recency Effect: the tendency to remember recent information better than earlier information Roles: sets of behaviors that people expect of occupants or a position Selfefficacy: the belief in one’s personal ability to do a task Selfesteem: the extent to which people like or dislike themselves, their overall selfevaluation Selffulfilling Prophecy: aka the Pygmalion effect, describes the phenomenon in which people’s expectations of themselves or others lead them to behave in ways that make those expectations come true Selfserving Bias: people tend to take more personal responsibility for success than for failure Stereotyping: the tendency to attribute to an individual that characteristics one believes are typical of the group to which that individual belongs Stress: the tension people feel when they are facing or enduring extraordinary demands, constraints, or opportunities and are uncertain about their ability to handle them effectively Stressor: the source of stress Turnover: when employees leave their jobs Type A Behavior Pattern: they are involved in a chronic, determined struggle to accomplish more in less time Underemployed: working at jobs that require less education than they have Values: abstract ideal that guide one’s thinking and behavior across all situations Chapter 11 : Managing Individual Differences & Behavior Supervising People as People 11.1 Personality & Individual Behavior Leading is defined as motivating, directing, and otherwise influencing people to work hard to achieve the organization’s goal As a manager, you need to understand personality attributed because they affect how people perceive and act within the organization The Big Five Personality Dimensions Extroversion o How outgoing, talkative, sociable, and assertive a person is Agreeableness o How trusting, goodnatured, cooperative, and softhearted one is Conscientiousness o How dependable, responsible, achievementoriented, and persistent one is Emotional stability o How relaxed, secure, and unworried one is Openness to experience o How intellectual, imaginative, curious, and broadminded one is Do Personality Tests Work for the Workplace? Two findings from a personality test is o Extroversion – the outgoing personality Success for management and salespeople Stronger predictor of job performance than agreeableness o Conscientiousness the dependable personality Strong work ethic Strongest positive correlation with job performance and training performance Tips to help managers avoid abuses and discrimination lawsuits when using personality and psychological testing: Chapter 11 : Managing Individual Differences & Behavior Supervising People as People Core SelfEvaluations 1. Selfefficacy: “I can/can’t do this task” a. High expectations of selfefficacy have been linked with all kinds of positives: not only success in varied physical and mental tasks but also reduced anxiety and increased tolerance for pain b. Low selfefficacy is associated with learned helplessness c. Among the implications for managers: i. Assign jobs accordingly ii. Develop selfefficacy 2. Selfesteem: “I like/dislike myself” a. People with high selfesteem i. More apt to handle failure better, to emphasize the positive, to take more risks, and to choose more conventional jobs b. People with low selfesteem i. Confronted with failure have been found to have focused on their weaknesses and to have had primarily negative thoughts ii. More dependent on others and are more apt to be influenced by them and less likely to take independent positions c. Some ways managers can build employee selfesteem are 3. Locus of Control: “I am/am not the captain of my fate” a. Internal locus of control: you believe you control your own destiny Chapter 11 : Managing Individual Differences & Behavior Supervising People as People b. External locus of control: you believe external forces control you c. Two important implications for managers: i. Expect different degrees of structure and compliance for each type ii. Employ different reward systems for each type 4. Emotional stability: “I’m fairly secure/insecure when working under pressure” a. People with low levels of emotional stability are more prone to anxiety b. People with high levels tend to show better job performances Emotional Intelligence: Understanding Your Emotions & the Emotions of Other Emotional intelligence has been defined as “the ability to carry out accurate reasoning about emotions and the ability to use emotions and emotional knowledge to enhance thought Why High EI Is Important Can Your Raise Your EI? Two suggestions for improvement is to o Develop awareness of your EI level o Learn about areas needing improvement 11.2 Values, Attitudes, & Behavior Formal aspects: goals, policies, hierarchy, structure Informal aspects: values, attitudes, personalities, perceptions, conflicts, culture Organizational Behavior: Trying to Explain & Predict Workplace Behavior Organizational behavior tries to help managers explain workplace behavior as well as predict it Organization behavior looks at o Individual behavior Values, attitudes, personality, perception, and learning o Group behavior Norms, roles, and teams Values: What Are Your Consistent Beliefs & Feelings about All Things? Chapter 11 : Managing Individual Differences & Behavior Supervising People as People Lifelong behavior patterns are dictated by values that are fairly well set by the time people are in their early teens One’s values can be reshaped by significant lifealtering events o Having a child o Business failure o Surviving the death of a loved one o War o Serious health threat Attitudes: What Are Your Consistent Beliefs & Feelings about Specific Things? Three components of attitudes: affective, cognitive, & behavioral The affect component – “I feel” The cognitive component – “I believe” The behavioral component – “I intend” o All three are manifested at any given time. When attitudes & reality collide: consistency & cognitive Dissonance o 1957, Leon Festinger, cognitive dissonance o How people deal with discomfort depends on three factors Importance Control Rewards o Ways to reduce cognitive dissonance Change your attitude and/or behavior Belittle the importance of the inconsistent behavior Find consonant elements that outweigh the dissonant ones Behavior: How Values & Attitudes Affect People’s Actions & Judgments Values (global) and attitudes (specific) are generally in harmony, but not always Together, values and attitudes influence people’s workplace behavior 11.3 Perception & Individual Behavior Four Steps in the Perceptual Process Four Distortions in Perception 1. Sterotyping: “Those Sorts of People Are Pretty Much the Same” Chapter 11 : Managing Individual Differences & Behavior Supervising People as People a. Sexrole stereotypes b. Age stereotypes c. Race/ethnicity stereotypes 2. The Halo Effect: “One Trait Tells Me All I Need To Know” 3. The Recency Effect: “The Most Recent Impressions Are the Ones That Count” 4. Causal Attributions a. As a manager, you need to be alert of two attributional tendencies that can distort one’s interpretation of observed behavior: i. Fundamental attribution bias ii. Selfserving bias The SelfFulfilling Prophecy, of Pygmalion Effect When you expect employees to perform badly, they probably will When you expect employees to perform well, they probably will 11.4 WorkRelated Attitudes & Behaviors Managers Need to Deal With Attitudes affect behavior Three types of attitudes managers are particularly interested in 1. Employee engagement: how connected are you with your work? 2. Job satisfaction: how much do you like or dislike your job? 3. Organizational commitment Important Workplace Behaviors Types of behavior o Performance and productivity o Absenteeism and turnover o Organizational citizenship behaviors o Counterproductive work behaviors 1. Evaluating behavior when employees are working: performance and productivity 2. Evaluating behavior when employees are not working: absenteeism & turnover 3. Evaluating behavior that exceeds work roles: organizational citizenship behaviors 4. Evaluating behavior that harms the organization: counterproductive work behaviors 11.5 The New Diversified Workforce How to Think about Diversity: Which Differences Are Important? Four layers of diversity: o Personality o Internal dimensions o External dimensions o Organizational dimensions Chapter 11 : Managing Individual Differences & Behavior Supervising People as People Trends in Workforce Diversity Age: More Older People in the Workfore Gender: More Women Working Race & Ethnicity: More People of Color in the Workforce Sexual Orientation: LGBT People Become More Visible People with Differing Physical & Mental Abilities Education Levels: Mismatches between Education & Workforce Needs o College graduates may be in jobs for which they are overqualified o Highschool dropouts and others may not have the literacy skills needed for many jobs Barriers to Diversity Resistance to change is an attitude that all managers face from time to time. They include 1. Stereotypes & prejudices 2. Fear of discrimination against majority group members 3. Resistance to diversity program priorities 4. Unsupportive social atmosphere 5. Lack of support from family demands 6. Lack of support for careerbuilding steps Chapter 11 : Managing Individual Differences & Behavior Supervising People as People 11.6 Understanding Stress & Individual Behavior The Toll of Workplace Stress Work stress can cause conflicts at work, make you fatigued all the time, and generate problems like insomnia, backaches, headaches, and chest pain Work stress can also put managers at risk. Workplace stress diminishes positive emotions, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and job performance. It can increase alcohol and illicit drug use, overreacting, and job turnover How Does Stress Work Stress has both physical and emotional components Stress is “the nonspecific response of the body to nay demand made upon it” – Hans Selye; Canadian researcher Sources of JobRelated Stress 1. Demands created by individual differences: the stress created by genetic or personality characteristics 2. Individual task demands: the stress created by the job itself 3. Individual role demands: the stress created by others’ expectations of you a. Role conflict b. Role overload c. Role ambiguity 4. Group demands: the stress created by coworkers and managers 5. Organizational demands: the stress created by the environment & culture 6. Nonwork demands: the stress created by forces outside the organization The Consequences of Stress Positive stress is constructive and can energize you. It affects you increase in effort, creativity, and performance Negative stress is destructive. It affects you by creating poorerquality work, dissatisfaction, errors, absenteeism, and turnover Symptoms of stress Physiological signs o Sweaty palms o Restlessness o Backaches o Headaches o Upset stomach o Nausea o Hypertension o Heart attacks Psychological signs o Boredom Chapter 11 : Managing Individual Differences & Behavior Supervising People as People o Irritability o Nervousness o Anger o Anxiety o Hostility o Depression Behavioral signs o Sleeplessness o Changes in eating habits o Increase in smoking/alcohol/drug abuse Reducing Stressors in the Organization Some ways include o Roll out employee assistance programs o Recommend a holistic wellness approach o Create a supportive environment o Mae jobs interesting o Make career counseling available
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