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GEOL 101 The Climate System 1 & 2

by: Natalee Stanton

GEOL 101 The Climate System 1 & 2 101-017

Marketplace > University of South Carolina > Geology > 101-017 > GEOL 101 The Climate System 1 2
Natalee Stanton

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These notes will cover the PowerPoints, the professors notes, and the answers to the sample exam questions.
Geology 101-017
Class Notes
Geology 101
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Natalee Stanton on Tuesday March 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 101-017 at University of South Carolina taught by in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Geology 101-017 in Geology at University of South Carolina.


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Date Created: 03/29/16
GEOL 101 The Climate System   Climate – describes the average surface conditions and their variation during daily,  yearly, and long­ term cycles of solar heating  Climate system ­ includes all parts of the earth system and all of the interactions in  space and time  I. Consequences of climate system change include: ­ Global warming or cooling ­ Sea­level rise or fall ­ Changes in weather patterns ­ Productivity in the oceans ­ Size of distribution of crop regions  II. The 5 Main Components of Earth’s Climate System  1. Atmosphere zones ­ Troposphere ­ Stratosphere ­ Mesosphere ­ Thermosphere  ­ Nitrogen – 78% ­ Oxygen – 21%  = 99% 2. Hydrosphere – water system  ­ Global ocean   Circulates by 2 major currents system   All connected  ­ Continual water   Lakes  River  Groundwater 3. Cryosphere – frozen  ­ Polar ice caps ­ Glaciers ­ Floating ice, sea ice ­ Frozen lakes and rivers ­ Permafrost   Water frozen into to the ground   Alaska   Antarctica – only continental –scale ice sheet   Climate System II 4. Lithosphere ­ Land surface3 absorbs and returns solar energy  ­ Topography affects wind and rain patterns  ­ Volcanism affects atmospheric dust and gas levels ­ Configuration of continents impacts oceanic circulation  5. Biosphere ­ All organisms living on or near Earth’s surface  ­ Includes  Plants and animals  Microbes  Terrestrial and marine  Life forms in the subsurface III. The Greenhouse Effect ­ Solar energy output ­ sun  50% as visible light  Infrared   Ultraviolet ­ Solar radiant energy balance on earth  Planet absorbs and radiates the same amount to maintain a  balance ­ Earths greenhouse atmosphere  Solar energy passes through  95% is water vapor ­ Where does co2 come form  Burning of fossils fuels – 75  Land clearing ­ 15  Manufacturing ­ 7  Fuel wood  ­ 3 IV. Human perturbations of the carbon system ­ Humans add carbon o the atmosphere ­ Plants and air­sea gas exchange removes some of it ­ There is a net annual increases Sample Exam Questions Which of the following statements about the MOHO is false?  a. The Moho marks the top of the outer core b. The Moho separates  denser rocks below from less dense rocks above c. The Moho separates the crust form the mantle  d. The speed of seismic waves increases as they pass down through the Moho. Which of the following is not a greenhouse gas? a. Carbon dioxide b. Methane c. Sulfur dioxide d. Water vapor The earth albedo is the fraction of __.  a. The Earth’s surface that is covered by land b. The earth’s surface that is covered by oceans c. Solar energy absorbed by the Earth’s surface d. Solar energy reflected by the Earth’s surface


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