Lecture notes 1.20.15
Lecture notes 1.20.15 BSC 215
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This 4 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by Alyssa Haney on Tuesday January 27, 2015. The One Day of Notes belongs to BSC 215 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Jason Pienaar in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 192 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology in Biological Sciences at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 01/27/15
Chapter 2 continued Clicker Quiz 11515 Which of the following lists of elements make up 985 of the human body If oxygen s most common isotope has an atomic mass of 16 how many electrons does it have When it comes to radioactive isotopes alpha are most dangerous True or False Why is carbon considered a building block for biomolecules VVater Most abundant inorganic molecule in cells 6080 High heat capacity 0 Absorbs and releases a lot of heat before changing its own temperature High heat vaporization o Participates in hydrolysis and dehydration reactions Adhesive and cohesive o Lubricant for organs keeps dissolved chemicals together in the body Polar solvent 0 Facilitates dissociation of polar molecules Water is universal solvent 0 Hydration spheres keep ions dissociated 0 Allow movement and interaction with other ions Acids Releases H ions into solution HA All acids are electrolytes Ionize and dissociate in water Proton donors HA in solution determines acidity HCl 9 HA Clquot Bases All bases are electrolytes ionize and dissociate in water Proton acceptor Dissociate hydroxyl ions into solution OHquot OHA determines alkalinity pH Scale Negative logarithm base lo of hydrogen ion concentration in solution 0 Increase HA decrease pH increase acidity o Decrease HA increase pH increase alkalinity pH Buffers 0 blood pH levels 0 6 death 7 acidosis 735 normal 745 alkadosis 78 death 9 o Buffers are molecules that prevent rapid shifts in pH 0 Weak acids and bases that maintain equilibrium I Release Hquot when pH rises I Bind Hquot when pH falls I eg carbonic acid in blood I H2C03 9 HCOBA 3 pH rises addition of strong base 3 reverse pH falls addition of strong acid Energy and Biochemistry o Membrane potential potential energy and ion flow kinetic energy 0 ATP potential chemical energy free energy energy available to do work Biochem Major reactions 0 Chemical reaction 0 Covalent or ionic bonds formed or broke Reactions 9 products Decomposition AB 9 AB Synthesis AB 9 AB Exchange AB CD 9 AC BD Reversible AB lt gt AB all are reversible OOOOO Biochem Metabolism o Metabolism all chemical reactions in body 0 Catabolism I Exergonic I Breaking covalent bonds I Requires ATP 0 Anabolism I Endergonic I Forming chemical bonds Biochem Redox reactions 0 Oxidation o Molecules that lose electrons o Requires oxidizing agents electron acceptors eg oxygen 0 Reduction 0 Molecules gain electrons o Requires reducing agents electron donors I O oxidation I is I L loss I R Reduction I is I G gain Organic Compounds 0 Carbon backbones and fictional groups Functional Groups 0 C O P N H o Hydroxyl carbs OH 0 Methyl lipids and amino acids CH3 0 Carboxyl lipids and amino acids COOH 0 Amino amino acids 0 Phosphate nucleic acids Monomers and Polymers 0 Polymers macromolecule made of repeating identical or similar subunits monomers o eg DNA RNA protiens carbs o monomer monomer polymer dimer Carbohydrates o Glucose hexose monosaccharide o Fructose hexose monosaccharide o Galactose hexose monosaccharide o Deoxyribose DNA 0 Ribose RNA 0 Contain carbon hydrogen and oxygen 0 1C2H1O CH20n o Monomers monosaccharides o Discaaharides must be hydrolyzed before body can use them 0 Glycogen a polysaccharide o Mainly in liver also sythesised in muscles brain uterus and vagina 0 Plants starch and cellulose Lipids 0 Contain C H O o C and H gt O I eg tristearin C57H11006 o 5 major types 0 Fatty acids triglycerides phospholipids cholesterol and eicosanoids Lipids Fatty acids 0 Carbon chain carboxyl group at one end methyl group at the other 0 Saturated maximum hydrogen animal fats butter 0 Unsaturated CC bonds plant fats olive oil 0 Polyunsaturated many CC bonds