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Environmental Law

by: Colin Stayna-Wynter

Environmental Law SUST 1001

Colin Stayna-Wynter
GPA 3.2
Introduction to Sustainibility
Ms. Benton-Short

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Introduction to Sustainibility
Ms. Benton-Short
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Colin Stayna-Wynter on Tuesday January 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SUST 1001 at George Washington University taught by Ms. Benton-Short in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 154 views.

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Date Created: 01/27/15
The Presidencv Formal Powers 0 Commander in Chief Both war chief and head of foreign affairs 0 War Powers Act PostVietnam policy of the president sending troops then they must notify Congress who can call back these troops within 60 days 0 Chief executive can appoint a cabinet 0 Take care clause take care and faithfully execute the law The enforcer of the law 0 Legislator veto legislation A negative power which prevents action 0 1921 president proses budget and Congress votes on it 0 President proposes Congress disposes 0 Bargain with Congress over new policylaw 0 Going public publicly telling citizens to urge their Congress members to vote a certain way 0 Executive orders president ordering a part of the executive branch to do something can be overturned by Congress Presidential in uence depends on 0 Way the election turned out landslide vs close battle 0 Unified or divided government 0 Unified or divided party 0 National or international crisis 0 Various national or international events with indirect in uence The Bureaucracy 0 Includes all federal employees most federal employees work for the executive branch 0 Amount of federal employees has remained stable since 196039s 0 Create laws and rules to accomplish a task 0 Shields lawmakers from controversial actions of the bureaucracy even if they created it 0 Creates an institutional home for a policy 0 Particularized control can intervene and have oversight not actively monitor 0 Transfer power over policy to bureaucracy O Principalagent problem giving power to someone else does not ensure they do everything the way you want 0 Agency loss gap between agent39s actions and principal39s vision Bureaucratic Structure Over Time 0 Elitism well educated individuals from the right families take over 0 Spoils system win election receive the spoils of war which is appointing your people 0 Weber39s features of a bureaucracy O Hierarchy division of labor and abstract rules Bureaucratic Structure 0 Civil service on the basis of merit thanks to Pendleton Act of 1883 O Experts stay long after the official who appointed them and resist changes from new bosses 0 Bureaucrats becomes allies with those who support their agency 0 Going native appointee joins bureaucratic culture and favors its agenda over the president39s 0 President is unable to politicize the bureaucracy 0 They are simply retroactive fixes for mistakes The J udiciarv 0 Solves coordination problems caused by different interpretations of the law 0 Deals with federal law treaties and Constitutional violations Original jurisdiction over disputes between states the Federal and state government or when foreign leaders ambassadors are involved 0 Granting cert 4 justices agree to hear a case 0 Concurring opinion agrees with majority opinion and adds more reasoning behind the decision In uenced by precedent personal preference strategic behavior and public opinion 0 Strategic behavior may compromise or structure argument to create a coalition Power of the Supreme Court 0 Court39s decision39s are rarely overturned 0 Lack of elections allow court to take a stance without fear of repercussions 0 Power limited by enumerated rights and penumbra of those rights 0 Court can not enforce it39s own decisions 0 Lacks the power of the purse or sword 0 Creates and issue of compliance Political Parties 0 Party in the electorate as an organization and in government 0 Work to win elections and in uence the way people think 0 Creates durable coalitions thus easing the coordination problem albeit slightly 0 Winner take all system makes it hard for small independent candidates 0 Duverger39s law in a winner take all system strategic voting will reduce the candidates to the two most likely to win people won39t vote for the independent because they have no chance even if they agree with them 0 Political machines of the 19th century rewarded loyalists 0 Primary elections gave more power to voters in the party in the 20th century 0 Parties provide staff and other resources to candidates Interest Groups 0 Group participates in politics on behalf of member39s interest 0 Response to disturbance or other groups 0 Disturbance theory groups are formed after a disturbance to the status quo 0 Government may implicitly encourage a group to defend the government program from which members benefit from 0 Collective action and free rider problem in any group 0 Rare individual sacrifices for the group 0 Moral social and material incentives to join and donate Economic groups business labor unions trade and professional Noneconomic groups civil rights environmental antiwar 0 Insider strategy lobbying direct communication with government 0 Outsider strategy grassroots lobbying members pressure government direct action protests and litigation 0 Pluralism there39s a checkbook for every cause All views are represented to the government 0 Contrary view money talks Interest of wealthy is well represented 0 Possibility of corruption which came first the money or the vote The Media 0 Private companies with little government regulation 0 News headlines focused on interesting topis crime health Shift in coverage called Penny Press 0 Government issues permits to broadcast and limits indecent content 0 Right to equal time candidates can run ads anywhere and broadcasters have to accept their ads 0 ConsumerProducer blur who is readingwho is creating the news exsharing via social media 0 Media consolidation causes both homogenized and product differentiation 0 President has information advantage because he is often on the news thus sets agenda 0 Intraparty con ict is juicy to media novelty and con ict Newsmaking 0 Decline in revenue leads to inclusion of soft news 0 Efficiency through reporters in hot areas and expertise in the field 0 Pack journalism journalists all follow the same thing together httpswwwyoutubecomwatchvSB4oPPfFJbU 0 Authoritative source define coverage ex president speaker of the house 0 Attempts to provide objectivity to encompass a wider audience 0 Autonomous media scrutinizes politicians words and actions Effect of Media 0 Persuasion and agenda setting 0 Based on exposure and attentiveness then acceptance of information 0 constant coverage makes us believe issue is important that Malaysian plane is the most important thing ever according to CNN 0 Provides Information which can be used for collective action 0 Government watchdogs who monitor actions of politicians Public Opinion 0 Opinions come from formative years socialization and big events 0 Opinion of citizens which government finds relevant and important 0 3 dimensions of public opinion direction position and intensity 0 Approve or disapprove along a spectrum and degree of passion on issue 0 Predisposition towards topic or general belief on the issue in uences opinion 0 Bradly effect social desirability when polled People tend to lack specific knowledge and use heuristics to guess 0 EX partisanship life experiences opinion leaders past offices held background Dynamic representative politicians follow public opinion Root of Public Opinion Predisposition from socialization during early years of adolescence Information from media and politicians Attentiveness decides whether information is received People average out the most accessible considerations to answer Campaigns All activities to in uence government letters donations calls voting PBC Probability of your vote deciding benefitscost of voting 0 P0 and B0 so voting is essentially only a cost Ability know the importance know how have the time and money Motivation interest in politics and encouraged by others Opportunity able to complete tasks in order to vote or helped by others someone drives you Political Participation Competitive elections and political parties encourage voting Party machines reformed in late 180039s led in decrease in voting Grassroots canvassing effective even after 2000s Higher turnout generally better for Democrats Groups who participate more get policies they like more often 0 Elderly people vote and get Social Security Campaigns solidify party identification Political campaigns and elections Election date known in advance and primaries encourage early campaigns Donations are capped at 2700 per election but campaign spending is unlimited 0 Restricting campaign spending reduces information given to public Party identification is becoming stronger over time causing less votes to be available Retrospective voting vote based on current situation usually economy Prospective voting who will be best for the future People tend to adjust perceptions of candidates and their views after knowing who they will vote for based on party Campaigns bring voter39s choices in line with prior views rally voters to go and vote Remind voters of national issues Change mind of undecided id candidate has an information advantage information gets to voter from one candidate better than the other


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