Structural Concepts (January 2014)
Structural Concepts (January 2014)
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STRUCTURAL CONCEPTS FOR STUDENTS OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES Harold P Fry Kent State University CONTENTS Introduction iX PART ONE THE EIGHT PARTS OF SPEECH I DEFINITIONS 3 AVerbs 3 1 Transitive Verbs 3 2 Intransitive and Linking Verbs 3 B Nouns 5 1 Proper and Common Nouns 5 2 Concrete and Abstract Nouns 5 C Pronouns 5 1 Personal Pronouns 5 2 Possessive Pronouns 6 3 Re exive Pronouns 6 4 Reciprocal Pronouns 6 5 Intensive Pronouns 7 6 Interrogative Pronouns 7 7 Relative Pronouns 7 8 Demonstrative Pronouns 8 9 Impersonal Pronouns 8 l0 Indefmite Pronouns 9 D Adjectives 9 1 Limiting Adjectives 9 2 Possessive Adjectives 10 3 Interrogative Adjectives 10 4 Descriptive Adjectives 11 E Adverbs 11 F Prepositions 11 G Conjunctions 12 H Coordinating Conjunctions 12 1 Subordinating Conjunctions 12 I Interjections 13 EXERCISES TO CHAPTER I 14 AVerbs 14 B Nouns 15 C Pronouns 15 D Adjectives 17 E Adverbs 18 iii F Prepositions 18 G Conjunctions 19 H Interjections 19 II FORMS OF THE PARTS OF SPEECH 21 AVerbs 21 1 Principal Parts 21 a Infmitive 21 b Present Participle 23 c Past Tense 23 d Past Participle 23 e Summary Chart of Principal Parts 24 2 Mood 24 a Indicative Mood 24 b Imperative Mood 24 c Subjunctive Mood and Conditional 25 3 Voice 26 a Active Voice 26 b Passive Voice 26 4 Tense 27 a Present 28 b Present Progressive 28 c Present Emphatic 28 d Past 28 e Past Progressive 28 f Past Emphatic 29 g Future 29 h Future Progressive 29 i Future with to go 30 j Present Perfect 30 k Present Perfect Progressive 30 1 Past Perfect 30 m Past Perfect Progressive 31 n Future Perfect 31 o Future Perfect Progressive 31 p Present SubjunctiveConditional 32 q Past SubjunctiveConditional 32 Summary of Tenses 33 Chart Synopsis of the Verb to take 34 5 Modals 35 6 Gerunds 36 B Nouns 37 1 Gender 37 2 Number 37 3 Case 38 C Pronouns 38 iv 1 Personal Pronouns 39 2 Possessive Pronouns 39 3 Re exive Pronouns 40 4 Reciprocal Pronouns 41 5 Intensive Pronouns 41 6 Interrogative Pronouns 41 7 Relative Pronouns 42 8 Demonstrative Pronouns 43 9 Impersonal Pronouns 43 10 Indefmite Pronouns 43 D Adjectives 43 1 Limiting Adjectives 43 2 Possessive Adjectives 43 3 Interrogative Adjectives 44 4 Descriptive Adjectives 44 E Adverbs 45 F Prepositions 46 G Conjunctions 46 H Interjections 46 EXERCISES TO CHAPTER II 47 A Verbs 47 B Nouns 50 C Pronouns 50 D Adjectives 51 E Adverbs 52 F Prepositions Conjunctions and Interjections 52 III FUNCTIONS OF THE PARTS OF SPEECH 53 A Verbs 53 1 Main Verb as Finite Verb 53 2 Combinations Main Verb with AuxiliaryFmite Verb 5 3 a Auxiliary with the Infmitive 54 i to do 54 ii to go 54 iii Modals and modal replacements 54 b Auxiliary to be with the Present Participle 55 c Auxiliary with the Past Participle 55 i to have 55 ii to be 55 d Summary Chart of AuxiliaryMain Verb Combinations 56 3 Infmitive Phrase 56 4 Present and Past Participles as Descriptive Words 57 a Participles as Adjectives 57 b Participles as Adverbs 57 5 The Participial Phrase 57 6 Verb Functioning as a Noun The Gerund 58 B Nouns 58 1 Subject 58 2 Object ofVerb 58 3 Object of Preposition 59 4 Predicate Noun 60 5 Possessive 60 6 Appositive 60 7 Survey of the CaseFunction Relationship 60 C Pronouns 61 1 Personal Pronouns 61 2 Possessive Pronouns 61 3 Re exive Pronouns 61 4 Reciprocal Pronouns 61 5 Intensive Pronouns 61 6 Interrogative Pronouns 62 7 Relative Pronouns 62 8 Demonstrative Pronouns 63 9 Impersonal Pronouns 63 10 Indefmite Pronouns 63 D Adjectives 63 1 Attributive Adjectives 64 2 Predicate Adjectives 64 E Adverbs 64 F Prepositions 64 G Conjunctions 65 H Interjections 66 I Expletives 66 EXERCISES TO CHAPTER III 67 A Verbs 67 B Nouns 68 C Pronouns 68 D Adjectives 69 E Adverbs 69 F Prepositions 70 G Conjunctions 70 H Interjections 70 I Expletives 70 J General Crossing Boundaries between Parts of Speech 70 PART TWO SENTENCE PARTS AND TYPES 73 I SENTENCE PARTS 75 A The Subject of a Clause Sentence 7 5 1 Simple Subject 76 2 Compound Subject 76 3 Complete Subject 76 B The Predicate of a ClauseSentence 76 vi C The Phrase 77 D The Ellipse 78 E The Clause 78 1 Independent Clause 79 2 Dependent Clause 79 EXERCISES TO CHAPTER I 80 A The Subject 80 B The Predicate 81 C The Phrase 83 D The Ellipse 83 E The Clause 83 F Identifying Structures 83 II SENTENCE TYPES 85 A The Simple Sentence 85 B The Compound Sentence 85 C The Complex Sentence 85 D The Compound Complex Sentence 86 1 One Dependent Clause with two Independent Clauses 86 2 One Independent Clause with two Dependent Clauses 86 EXERCISES TO CHAPTER II 87 Vii Viii INTRODUCTION You are or soon will be engaged in studying a language different from the one you grew up using Perhaps you never worked with another language before and you are nding this experience frustrating or exciting or you have any of a number of reactions in between Perhaps you are continuing to study a language you began earlier or possibly you have tumed to a different language than before Your earlier experience may have been good indifferent or bad It is a goal of this manual to help make your experience with a foreign language as exciting challenging and effective as possible One means toward this goal is to develop a picture of what you are working with In learning a language any language you are dealing with the most complex invention of the human mind Languages developed tens of thousands of years ago as a tool for conveying meaning through the medium of sound All human languages are tools to express a need a thought a feeling a waming or some other message No one knows precisely how when or where human language developed who the first speakers were or even what the earliest language sounded like languages were spoken and became highly developed over thousands of years before anyone thought of fmding a way and several different ways have been developed to reduce the sounds to a written form and so there are no documents of the original forms Even socalled primitive languages being discovered today in remote places of the earth are highly developed systems Attempts to reconstruct earlier language forms depend on written documents and are the subject of historical and comparative linguistics Using written documents which can be dated at least approximately these linguists have been able to demonstrate relationships among and developments in various languages and language groups but they can offer only theories on the origins of language Of course linguists study many other aspects of language besides origin and change Two of these are phonetics and phonology Phonetics describes speech sounds as distinct from other human sounds such as crying laughter or sneezing by determining first what an individual sound is and then how one sound differs from another Just as not all sounds produced by humans are speech sounds in the same way not all languages use the same range of speech sounds For example English does not use the sound represented in French by y and in German by u while French and German both lack the sounds represented in English by th as in thank father Likewise sounds do not occur in the same order in al languages the study of the pattem of sounds is the eld of phonology The sound represented in English by ts occurs in English most frequently at the end of a word and never at the beginning for example hats or rats while in German where it is represented by Z it can occur at the beginning in the middle or at the end of a word for example zu Bezirk Franz We noted earlier that languages use sounds to convey meaning and the study of meaning belongs to the field of semantics Sounds sometimes individual sounds and sometimes groups of sounds make up words phrases clauses and sentences Both the ix choice and the function of these words are important in determining whether the meaning the speaker intends to convey is clear or ambiguous The sentence She cannot bear children is ambiguous because the word bear has two different meanings thus one can interpret it to mean either that she can t stand children or that she can t conceive Something like this happens when the word is not intended literally as in the sentence Walls have ears where ears is used as a metaphor Of course there are also other expressions which can hardly be taken literally as in He likes to throw his weight around or We really hauled them over the coals Such expressions are known as idioms and each language has its treasury of them The function of the word can also cause problems as in John saw Joan walking to the store It is unclear whether John or Joan was walking to the store because we do not know whose activity is described by the word walking We have looked brie y at the fields of phonetics phonology and semantics including idiomatics because they are essential aspects of the study of any language but we will not be primarily concerned with them here We will be dealing with other matters which fall into the realms of morphology and syntax Morphology has to do with the rules for constructing words in any language This includes the formation of new words and the changing of word structure with prefixes and endings on nouns adjectives and verbs In English the prefix un placed in front of a word will reverse or negate the meaning of the word uncommon undo Some pre xes in English are always attached to the word as above but occasionally they are detached to do over as distinct from to overdo Endings in English serve a variety of functions among other things an ending can generally have to do with grammar and will distinguish a plural noun from the singular hats vs hat with a verb an es ending is found only in one form of the present tense dodoes saysays while ed indicates past time saysaid playplayed From these few examples you probably sense that morphology has something to do with what we generally call grammar and you are right Languages other than English rely heavily on such endings to show how a given word is used in a sentence Such languages change or in ect a word by putting endings on it and these endings are elements of in ectional morphology In addition to morphology we will be dealing with matters of syntax Syntax involves all the rules which govem how words are arranged to compose a sentence These rules are not the same in every language English is primarily a syntactical language that is the function of the words in a sentence is determined by the arrangement of the words and few variations are possible For example one can say The boy kissed the girl but one cannot say Kissed the boy the girl or The girl the boy kissed if one alters the original to say The girl kissed the boy which is possible one has changed the meaning by indicating that the other participant is the active one In other languages such as German the in ectional endings on the words not the arrangement of the words will govern and re ect the function of the words in the sentence As a result these languages offer a greater variety of possible sentence structure than English does Through your years of using English almost unconsciously you have become programmed to expect that the first word in the sentence if not an adverb or a preposition must be the subject Few other languages are as rigid in structure as English is and one of the things you will have to do in leaming another language is to loosen that rigidity it will take quite a bit of practice You will have to reprogram yourself to anticipate the possibility that the first word in the sentence may be the direct or indirect object something that rarely happens in English but is quite common in other languages The word grammar popped into a sentence a while back Linguists defme this word to designate all the rules that explain how a language works For them grammar really is phonetics phonology semantics morphology and syntax We all carry around in our heads programmed in since early childhood and developed during years of schooling our own grammars of English We all know what sounds or feels right even though we may not always be able to say why it sounds or feels right if we did not have this grammatical knowledge of English we could not make any sense to each other and the same is true for speakers of all other languages Thus in leaming another language you are learning its grammar in the sense that you come to understand its phonetics the sounds used in it its phonology the patters of sounds it uses its semantics the meanings of individual words phrases and idioms its morphology its rules for constructing words including its rules for endings and its syntax the various possibilities it offers for word arrangement in sentences including statements questions and commands This is a complex and demanding task there can be no doubt about that It is the task you have before you in the foreign language course you are or will be enrolled in By the way if you are interested in a more detailed discussion of the nature of language its biological and sociological connections and the like have a look at the book An Introduction to Language by Victoria Fromkin and Robert Rodman or some other work on general linguistics But you might ask is all this really necessary Can t I just go ahead and learn French or Spanish or Russian or Latin or Italian or whatever without all this extra baggage And the answer is Yes you probably can but it will require extra effort and time In the process you will also have to imitate your instructor do a lot of guessing and make a lot of mistakes as you construct sentences without the guidance of any rules In short you will have to learn that language the way you picked up English from early childhood You simply don t have that much time now and you probably don t want to accept such limitations at this point in your life You are not satisfied simply hearing the right way of saying something in a foreign language you want to know why it is the right way so that you have a path a rule to follow when making a comparable sentence on your own later In order to talk about why something is the right way you will be using grammatical terms to talk about the language as distinct from talking in the language and these grammatical terms represent the commonly accepted way of talking about languages You may have encountered at least some of them in school In order to help you understand and engage effectively in talking about the language you are studying we will be concentrating on the morphology and syntax of English This means that we will concentrate on the nature the forms and the functions of the parts of speech in various structures in English One major assumption we make is that you should be able to transfer to the language you are studying the knowledge you are developing here In the process of making that transfer to another language you can fmd assistance in the appropriate volume of a series of English Grammar for Students of published by Olivia and Hill Press This series includes the languages French German Italian Japanese Latin Russian and Spanish If you do not fmd any of these in the bookstore you can obtain the volume you need online from wwwoliviahillcom xi Just a few words about this manual It is divided into two parts each of which contains individual chapters with explanations and examples Study the material as it is presented and familiarize yourself with the eight parts of speech their forms and functions and with the parts and types of sentences Although we begin with the individual parts of speech and their subtypes it soon becomes very clear that we are assuming the existence of larger structures which consist of various combinations of these parts At the end of each chapter you will fmd exercises intended to give you an opportunity to put the items discussed in that chapter into practice These exercises should help you understand the material better and support you in your work in the foreign language you have chosen to study Additionally as each item is discussed here you might check on that item in the volume of English Grammmar that you are using to help apply this knowledge to the language you are studying Although this should be enough to get you started perhaps it would not be a bad idea at this point to urge a particular approach on you as you pursue work with the language you have chosen to study especially if you are not using it yet It is this Be sure to make your work sessions brief intense frequent and regular By brief 1 mean absolutely no more than about 4550 minutes at a time preferably a bit less because the brain cannot effectively handle more than this much of the kind of work you will be doing You need to concentrate as intensely as you can and then you need to get away from it for a while to avoid overload As you concentrate be sure that you write and speak as much as you can because the more you write and speak the language the more you are imprinting its structures on your mind The more effectively you imprint those words and structures the more easily you will recall them when the need arises Your work periods need to be frequent and regular ideally about 30 minutes per session several sessions per day SEVEN DAYS A WEEK This may sound like a lot but if you schedule regular frequent intensive and brief sessions you won t have to cram or pull any allnighters We noted earlier that learning a language amounts to developing a variety of skills skills more complex than but not unlike those of an Olympic athlete or a concert pianist And how many athletes or pianists ever successfully wait and cram for the big event Neither should you And you won t have to IF you approach language study this way It will take discipline and it will take time No one will deny that But what will you have after the course is over and the money is paid if your only interest is the grade or fulfilling a requirement Your success in foreign language study depends on you your level of commitment and what you are willing to invest including readiness to work hard and to approach you instructor immediately when you sense problems arising Armed with that and a reasonable amount of luck you should succeed And here s wishing you the best along the way xii PART ONE THE EIGHT PARTS OF SPEECH DEFINITIONS FORMS AND FUNCTIONS I DEFINITIONS AVerbs We begin with verbs because the verb is the only essential element in a sentence no expression is a sentence without a verb A verb names an action or a state of being or development The main types of verbs are transitive intransitive and linking 1 Transitive Verbs The transitive verb always transfers action from the subject to the object Look at the following examples John is building a house I bought a newspaper The cat has washed itself Joan teaches English In each of these sentences the verb appears in bold print and names a particular activity which is transferred from the subject initiator of the action to the direct object receiver of the action Only those verbs allowing such transfer are transitive all transitive verbs have direct objects You will notice that the subjects in the first two sentences John and I designate something different from the direct object a house and a newspaper while in the third sentence the subject the cat and the object itself designate the same thing The connection between subject and direct object involves transfer of action this is quite different from the connection between subject and predicate noun as we will see in a moment 2 Intransitive and Linking Verbs The second type of verb is called mtransitive because it does NOT transfer the action of the verb from the subject to an object indeed such a verb has no object Look at these examples John walks fast I spoke yesterday The cat ran upstairs She looked at him curiously Here you see that the verbs bold are followed by something that tells you how when or where the action took place these words are not objects they are adverbs see below section E and there is no transfer of the action not even in the last example which involves a prepositional phrase more about them later also A subcategory of intransitive verb is the linking verb English has few such verbs to be to become and to seem are the most common linking verbs All of them link two concepts about a given person or thing It is essential that you understand the difference between this relationship involving the concept linkage and the subject object relationship we observed above with the transitive verbs Examine the following examples Mrs Smith is a lawyer Jim is going to be an engineer With your talent you can become a star In the f1rst sentence Mrs Smith and a lawyer are two concepts associated with the same woman one designates her name the other specifies her profession These two concepts are linked together or set equal to each other by means of the verb is In the same way Jim and an engineer are linked together by the verb is going to be while you and a star are linked together by the verb become In all three sentences the second concept is called a predicate noun the predicate is the part of the sentence that begins with the verb we will talk more about it in Part Two because it is a noun in the predicate which names a concept parallel or equivalent to the subject Being equivalent to each other these two concepts are connected in a way different from the transfer provided by a transitive verb As a result there is a difference between the predicate noun following a linking verb and the object of a transitive verb the subject of a linking verb is not doing anything to the predicate noun the subject and the predicate noun are the same person or thing but the subject of a transitive verb does something to its object The difference between direct object and predicate noun is very important many foreign languages show this difference by means of a different case form we will talk about the matter of case and the functions words play in sentences in Chapter II of this Part The linking verb also connects the subject with description She is intelligent The sky looks threatening Bob seems sure of himself In these instances we are dealing with predicate adjectives intelligent threatening sure they are called predicate adjectives because they describe the subject from their position in the predicate more about predicate adjectives in Chapter III To summarize the major types of verbs are transitive with objects and intransitive with no objects linking verbs with predicate nounspronouns and adjectives are a subtype of intransitive verbs This can also be stated in the form of equations Verb Object action transfer from subject Transitive Verb 0 Object no transfer adverb may be present Intransitive Verb Predicate nounpronoun or Predicate adjective Linking Verb B Nouns A noun names a person or a thing There are two ways to classify nouns One way is to distinguish between proper nouns and common nouns the other distinguishes between concrete and abstract nouns 1 Proper and Common Nouns Proper nouns name one specific person place or thing and in English are capitalized as for example Rachel Mr Wilson The White House Greece Atlanta Grand Canyon Mississippi River Queen Anne Common nouns by contrast name a member of any class of person place or thing In English they are NOT capitalized except at the beginning of a sentence or quotation Some such nouns are noun Verb lawyer nationality love peace girl man house city canyon river 2 Concrete and Abstract Nouns A second way to classify nouns is to distinguish between concrete and abstract nouns All proper nouns are concrete nouns that is they all name one person place or thing that is perceivable by any of the five senses Some common nouns are concrete girl house river but others are abstract because they name a quality or idea in the above list the words nationality love and peace are abstract nouns In sum While Verbs name an action nouns name people places or things Nouns can be classified as common and proper nouns depending on whether name one specific personthing or a member of that group of persons or things nouns may also be classified as concrete or abstract depending on whether the personthing named exists in the world of reality or is an idea or quality C Pronouns A pronoun is a word used in place of one or more nouns or even a whole sentence Like the noun it will name a person place thing or an idea or thought There are ten different kinds of pronouns 1 Personal Pronouns The personal pronoun replaces a noun which names one or more particular persons places things or ideas we use personal pronouns so that we don t have to repeat the noun again and again English has twelve words which belong to the category of personal pronouns 1 me we us first person or the personpeople doing the talking you second person or the personpeople being talked to and he him she her it they them third person or the personpeople being talked about In this way Dr Jones may be replaced by hehim if Dr Jones is a man and by sheher if Dr Jones is a woman the girl must be replaced with sheher and the boy with hehim but the child is likely to be replaced with it In English we most often replace nouns referring to things love shoe window with it a ship or boat is usually she We will deal with these differences between I and me we and us etc later Note these examples This is Bill Smith he is my friend and I like him very much John and Mary had a baby but they haven t given it a name yet 2 Possessive Pronouns A possessive pronoun replaces a noun that shows possession or ownership in English most of these words end with s The English possessive pronouns are mine ours yours his hers its and theirs Please note that while the nouns that show possession will have an s ending the possessive PRONOUNS do NOT have the apostrophe Is that your book Yes that one is mine This isn t my album is it yours Jane used J ohn s car while he fixed hers 3 Re exive Pronouns A re exive pronoun is usually an object pronoun as such it will be the object of a verb or of a preposition Such a noun is called re exive because it re ects the meaning back to the subject In English these pronouns end with the suffix self singular or selves plural and include the words myself ourselves yourself yourselves himself herself itself and themselves From the sentences below you can see that the subject and the re exive pronoun always name the same person or thing The cat is washing itself John has built himself a house The kids got themselves into a peck of trouble I bought myself a newspaper Do you always talk to yourself There are however a few situations where this type of pronoun is not an object but a predicate pronoun following a linking verb He was not himself at the game today Shari doesn t seem herself when she is with Jim 4 Reciprocal Pronouns A reciprocal pronoun is always an object pronoun unlike the re exive the reciprocal pronoun indicates a twoway or mutual relationship betweenamong the personsthings which make up the subject the re exive points back to the subject In English it takes the form of two expressions each other and one another The subject of the verb will ALWAYS be PLURAL Mary and Joe gave each other a kiss Do they always ght with each other Little children you should love one another 5 Intensive Pronouns The intensive pronoun emphasizes or intensifies a noun or pronoun which is either the subject or the object This pronoun is often stress when we speak Like the re exive pronoun it ends with self or selves unlike the re exive pronoun the intensive pronoun may immediately follow the word it intensifies although it can also come later in the sentence I can do that myself or I myself can do that Sharon drove the car herself Or Sharon herself drove the car Bill and Ellen prepared the meal themselves We saw the President himself 6 Interrogative Pronouns An interrogative pronoun asks a question It can name a person or thing and indicate subject object or possession When asking about a person English uses who whom and whose for things what Some examples Who is that can be shortened to Who s that Who bought the owers Who will fix my car Whom do you see Whom did they help To whom did they say it For whom is she looking From whom did you get the roses Today is her birthday whose is tomorrow This is my book whose do you have What is going on What do you have there In what shall I put this To what to you attribute his death Please note how all of these sentences are put together there is no noun after the who whom whose or what Also note the difference between this and the interrogative adjective below section D 3 CC 77 CC 7 Relative Pronouns The relative pronoun is a connecting pronoun it relates back to a noun or pronoun in an earlier clause called the antecedent because it precedes ante means before the relative pronoun and at the same time it introduces or begins another clause Thus the relative pronoun serves two functions namely to connect with something before it and to initiate something new If the antecedent is singular the relative pronoun will be singular as well if the antecedent is plural so is the relative pronoun If the antecedent names a person the relative pronoun in English is who whom though we often also use the word that or whose if the antecedent names a thing the relative pronoun in English is which though again we often use the word that If you fmd the word that in a sentence and you can replace it with either who or which without changing the meaning of the sentence then you are clearly dealing with a relative pronoun The relative pronoun and its antecedent stand in two separate clauses each of these words has its own function in its own clause and we will deal more with the matter of function later below Chapters II and III Again we will be proper and use whom where we should In the examples below the antecedent is in italics while the relative pronoun is in bold print The man who is standing there is Mike s uncle Joan lives with the girl whom you saw yesterday George Washington who was America s first president was also a general Old Mr Barnes whose wife is in Denmark just had a stroke The people to whom they give money don t really need it The lady whose husband works for you just called The car which you bought is a lemon They tore down the hotel which had stood here for 50 years Here is the package for which you have been waiting I can t fmd the book to which Professor Jones referred You will notice that sometimes a comma sets of the relative clause and sometimes there is no comma As a general rule the comma is used in English when the relative clause provides information that is not absolutely necessary to determine which person or thing is meant by the relative clause as in the examples above the name already specifies the individual and the relative pronoun introduces a nonrestrictive clause In other instances more information is necessary and the relative pronoun introduces a restrictive clause which need not be set off with a comma Other languages may have other rules regarding commas and other marks of punctuation 8 Demonstrative Pronouns The demonstrative pronoun points to someone or something in particular either close by this these or farther away that those Like other pronouns it stands by itself rather than with a noun as we will see below these words can also be used as adjectives Examples of the demonstrative pronoun This is my house That is his car Are these your children Those belong to Gretchen 9 Impersonal Pronouns While the personal pronoun item 1 above designates one particular person or thing the impersonal pronoun refers to anybody rather than to one specific person or group of persons Formal English uses the word one as an impersonal pronoun but informally we use you in an impersonal way as when we give directions to someone and the word they to refer impersonally to some group of people eg police legislature etc Examples of the impersonal pronoun When one sees a red traf c light one should stop One doesn t do that sort of thing here To get from here to the post office you go to the first light and make a left then you go three blocks and tum right They are raising taxes again They ought to do more to fight all this crime Please not that the first example above uses the word one in both parts of the sentence because the two word refer to the same anyone The word he can NOT be used in the second part of the sentence because one is impersonal while he is a personal pronoun Trying to use these two words together is like trying to put the square peg in the round hole it doesn t t 10 Inde nite Pronouns The indefinite pronoun refers to an unspecified member of a group of persons or things sometimes it is specified with the demonstrative adjective this or that in front as for example Did you bring the or any pictures Yes I have one here Which picture does she like That one One of the teachers was sick today They cut down one of his favorite trees In summary There are ten types of pronouns personal possessive re exive reciprocal intensive interrogative relative demonstrative impersonal and indefmite Some types of pronoun share a form one serving as both impersonal and indefinite who as both interrogative and relative myself for example as both re exive and intensive while other types personal possessive and reciprocal have forms distinctive to them D Adjectives From the root meaning of the word an adjective is something thrown at a noun or pronoun it describes the noun or pronoun in one of several ways There are four major categories of adjectives 1 Limiting Adjectives Limiting adjectives describe a noun in terms of number of quantity generality or specificity or relative location The defmite article the and the indefmite articles a and an belong in this category as do the demonstrative adjectives thisthese and thatthose The is called a defmite article because you are talking about one speci c person or thing or group of persons or things when you use it For example Mr Smith is the man I was talking to I was talking to just one man and his name is Mr Smith Are these the people you mean You were talking about one particular group of people here is a group and I m wondering if you mean this particular group While the defmite article has only one form and designates ONE particular person or thing the indefinite article a or an designates AN Y MEMBER of a given category of persons or things A is used before a word beginning with a consonant b d k etc or beginning with the ysound as in university while an is used before a word beginning with a vowel a e i o u or a silent h an hour For example Mr Smith is a man I know I know many men and Mr Smith is one of them Henry dies of an unknown illness Speaker has no idea which illness did Henry in The words a and an can be used ONLY with singular nouns if the noun is plural these articles simply drop out they can sometimes be replaced by the word some 2 Mr Smith and Dr Gordon are men I know Henry and George died of A unknown illnesses 2 Possessive Adjectives Possessive adjectives may be thought of as a kind of limiting adjective because they limit the noun in terms of ownership The possessive adjectives look much like the possessive pronouns but they play a different role because they stand in front oj not in place o the noun English has seven possessive adjectives my our your his her its and their Only his and its have exactly the same form for possessive pronouns and possessive adjectives compare above section C 2 Is this Bill s book Yes that is his book Have you seen my car Where are your keys Their arms are strong Her children are very bright Why does a dog chase its tail Please note that possessive adjectives unlike nouns NEVER have an apostrophe the most important word in this connection is its distinct from it s it is 3 Interrogative Adjectives Like the interrogative pronouns above section C 6 interrogative adjectives ask a question about a person or thing unlike those pronouns they stand in front of the noun while the pronouns stand in place of the noun In English we use the words whose and which for this purpose in colloquial English we also use the word what a word which in many other languages can be used only as an interrogative pronoun Their purpose is to direct inquiry to one particular member of a given category For example Whose book is that Whose car did she borrow Which lm do you like best She never can decide which dress to wear What Which book is he reading He didn t tell me what which train he s coming on Which boy hit you What kind of music does she like Be careful to distinguish between whose on the one hand and who s on the other they are NOT interchangeable Who s is always a contraction of who is or who has Who s there Who s been there before this form is never possessive despite the presence of the apostrophe The possessive adjective is whose Compare these sentences with the example sentences under the interrogative pronouns above What differences do you see 10 4 Descriptive Adjectives A descriptive adjective names a particular quality or characteristic of the noun this quality characteristic may be size large short thick temperature hot cold warm color red chartreuse purple taste sour salty or anything of this sort The descriptive adjective will always follow the limiting possessive or interrogative adjective if these are present He prefers cold beer Active people live longer We sell antique furniture She was driving a new red car They have got to be the smartest kids in town Which tattered coat do you mean Have you seen their cute little puppies To sum up There are four types of adjectives namely limiting the articles thisthat possessive my her interrogative whose which and descriptive E Adverbs An adverb describes a verb an adjective or another adverb it indicates when at what time for how long where in what place how in what way manner or how intensely too very an event occurs Please note that the notion of intensity does NOT include the notion of how many this is the concept of number such as three or ve thousand and that amounts to an adjective describing a noun An adverb may be one word John slept well how We arrived late when She lives there where My brother is too how much young for that An adverb may be two words such as They have been working all day Will we see you next week They had their ftieth anniversary last year An adverb may take the form of a phrase such as We re going into town where I ll see you in September when She s going by car how George has been working here for five years how long In sum an adverb indicates when how how long how much or where something happens F Prepositions A preposition usually but not always designates a relationship in time or space between a noun or pronoun and another word in the sentence The noun or pronoun is the object of the preposition everything between the preposition and its object makes up a prepositional phrase Here are a few examples the preposition is in bold print and the rest of the prepositional phrase is in italics ll Tom oored him with one blow Let us begin at the beginning He s been working here since last April I m looking for my history book She slept on the hard oak oor Some prepositions belong in xed combinations with verbs to hope for to wait for to depend on to compare with or with adjectives angry at wild about dear to G Conjunctions Conjunctions join words phrases and clauses There are two ways of joining and each way will call for a different kind of conjunction 1 Coordinating Conjunctions Coordinating conjunctions join words phrases and clauses on an equal basis in the sense that words phrases and clauses of the same type are equally important or equally complete One noun is equal to another one adjective is equal to another one phrase is equal to another only with clauses must one be more careful The most common coordinating conjunctions are and but for and the pairs neithernor Some examples of their connective role Words Either Jane or Barbara will show us the way Bill and Ellen were married last week She moaned and groaned Do you prefer red or blue Phrases We went up the stairs and into the attic She s ying to Frankfurt or to Rome Clauses I asked him to come but he couldn t Are you ying or are you driving Coordinating conjunctions generally will NOT begin a sentence the only ones that can are either and neither 2 Subordinating Conjunctions Subordinating conjunctions join only entire clauses on an unequal basis because clauses unlike words and phrases either express a complete thought and can stand alone like those above or they need assistance in completing the thought Clauses introduced by a subordinating conjunction are called subordinate or dependent clauses and cannot stand alone the thought they express is incomplete and needs a main or independent clause to complete it Some of the most frequently used subordinating conjunctions in English are if whenever because although whether and that Here are a few examples They don t know whether they can come I know that they will be there Whenever I wash the car it rains We ll all have a good time if Joe shows up 12 Please note that the expressions whether they can come that they will be there whenever I wash the car and if Joe shows up cannot stand by themselves you would be waiting for someone to say more if he or she stopped after coming out with one of these You would wonder what happens whenever I wash the car This is true of ALL subordinate clauses As these examples indicate one other feature distinguishing the subordinating conjunctions from their coordinating comrades is the fact that subordinating conjunctions Q1 begin a sentence it doesn t matter whether you begin with the main complete independent clause or the subordinate incomplete dependent clause In sum Conjunctions or joining words have two types coordinating joining individual words phrases and clauses on an equal basis and subordinating joining clauses on an unequal basis H Interjections Interjections are exclamatorjy words or phrases which express an emotion like surprise oh excitement wow hey anger rats or some other fourletter word and the like Such words are separated from the rest of the sentence with a mark of punctuation usually an exclamation point or possibly a comma Wow did you see that My but you have grown Ah There you are TO SUMMARIZE THIS CHAPTER The eight parts of speech include verbs nouns pronouns adjectives prepositions conjunctions and interjections There are transitive intransitive and linking verbs noun categories include common and proper concrete and abstract Pronouns exist in ten subtypes personal possessive re exive reciprocal intensive interrogative relative demonstrative impersonal and indefinite Adjective have four types limiting possessive interrogative and descriptive There are only two types of conjunction namely coordinating and subordinating Be sure that you can distinguish among the parts of speech and their various subtypes One step toward this goal is to complete the exercises below When you have done that and are certain how nouns differ from verbs or what the different kinds of pronoun are we can examine the forms that these parts of speech can assume If you understand the contents of this very basic chapter you will have fewer problems with the items which follow 13 EXERCISES A Verbs 1 What is a verb 2 What is the difference between a transitive and an intransitive verb 3 List 10 transitive verbs not verbs in the eXa1nples 4 Construct a sentence using each of the 10 verbs above 5 List 6 intransitive verbs not from the examples 14 6 Construct a sentence with each of these Verbs 7 List three linking Verbs 8 Construct two sentences with each of the linking Verbs B Nouns 1 What is a noun 2 What is a proper noun 3 What is a common noun 4 Common nouns are abstract nouns always sometimes never 5 Proper nouns are concrete nouns always sometimes never 6 What distinguishes a concrete noun from an abstract noun C Pronouns 1 What is a pronoun 15 2 Which person first second or third does each of the following designate student you us family kids them me we 3 Give the personal pronoun parallel to each of the following nouns more than one if appropriate Mrs Smith professor baby Charles foreigners actress Dr Evans statesmen the Titanic fork 4 Fill in the correct re exive pronoun Mary bumed on the stove We39ll blow up if we re not careful Sandy can you see doing that Bill and Lisa looked at in the mirror I wrote a note 5 How are re exive pronouns and intensive pronouns a alike and b different a b Write a sentence exemplifying each type re exive intensive 6 How are interrogative pronouns and relative pronouns a alike and b different a b Write a sentence exemplifying each type intensive relative 16 7 Fill in the correct relative pronoun The man wife is ill just came in The people to you sold the car are bringing it back My uncle always goes hunting has bought another dog The car I wanted was sold yesterday 8 Can you explain why the third sentence above has a comma while the others do not 9 List the interrogative pronouns and construct a sentence with each 10 List the demonstrative pronouns and construct a sentence with each 1 1 Show how the word one can be used a as an impersonal pronoun and b as an indefmite pronoun impersonal indefmite D Adjectives 1 What is the difference between the defmite and the indefmite article Write sentences giving an example of each 2 Explain the difference between the possessive adjective and the possessive pronoun 17 Give three examples 3 Demonstrate the difference between the interrogative adjective and the interrogative pronoun with three examples 4 What kinds of information does the descriptive adjective provide Give an example from each of four different categories E Adverbs 1 What kinds of information does an adverb provide 2 Give two examples of each type of information 3 How is the adverb different from the adjective F Prepositions 1 List eight prepositions 2 Construct one prepositional phrase each with any four of these 18 G Conjunctions 1 List four coordinating conjunctions 2 List six subordinating conjunctions 3 How do these two types of conjunction differ from each other H Interjections 1 List ve interjections 2 What do these words add to a sentence 19 20 II FORMS OF THE EIGHT PARTS OF SPEECH Words belonging to most of the parts of speech we encountered in the last chapter often change their appearance or form as they are used in different ways in groups of words or in whole sentences For instance am is were and been are all forms of the verb to be when speaking of a woman we sometimes use the pronoun she and sometimes her or we may describe a person as being smart smarter or smartest either alone or in comparison with others In this chapter we examine the variety of forms associated with the various parts of speech as well as a number of concepts related to the issue of forms A Verbs Right at the outset we need to be certain to associate certain concepts with verbs which as we said above designate an action or a state of being or development The concepts we are dealing with here are directly related to verb forms so you need to know them and manipulate them easily They are principal parts mood voice and tense Let s look at them one by one 1 Principal Parts of Verbs The principal parts constitute an outline of the possible forms the verb can assume and you need to know them in order to be able to use the verb as a command a possibility or as a question or statement in the present past or future These principal parts are the in nitive the present participle the past tense and the past participle They are most important for socalled irregular verbs These verbs change intemally to distinguish between present and past time while socalled regular verbs simply add ea in English for the same purpose a The In nitive The infinitive is the basic form of the verb the one most easily found in a dictionary Usually it is accompanied in English by the word to as in to be or to see Its name which should be associated immediately with the adjective in nite indicates that it is without end or ending that includes grammatical endings see the Introduction and that it is not tied to a particular time or subject The verb forms which do have endings to indicate the subject and the time of the action are called fmite verbs because they are limited in these ways and we will talk about fmite verbs shortly Some examples of sentences with infmitives are to go 21 We are ready to go Does he know how to do that The orchestra started to play just as the rain stopped She shouldn t y in this weather I can t take it any more Notice that the work to is present in some instances but not in others it is always omitted with modals the last two sentences above for modal auxiliary verbs see below section 5 It is useful to be aware of the fact that the in nitive forms above are called present infinitives to distinguish them from perfect infinitives which indicate the completion of the action and can be constructed for any verb Some examples Present In nitive Perfect Infinitive to be to have been to have to have had to go to have gone to take to have taken to see to have seen to love to have loved In sentences It is better to have loved and to have lost than never to have loved at all They should have been here an hour ago John would have gone the extra mile The present infmitive and the perfect infmitive refer to the whole of the action named by the verb In the case of nearly every verb in English one can also construct the present and the perfect progressive infmitives to refer to an activity in progress All such infmitives involve the verb to be and this verb is the only one which has no progressive form Examples Present Progressive In nitive Perfect Progressive In nitive to be having to have been having to be going to have been going to be seeing to have been seeing to be loving to have been loving In sentences We must be going now She is alleged to have been seeing him for three years He must have been driving at least 80 miles per hour While the perfect infmitive can be constructed for any verb and the examples above should enable you to do this with any verb that comes to mind only transitive verbs are capable of forming what is called the passive infinitive see below section 3 for more detail about the passive voice The passive in nitive exists in both present and perfect forms but NO progressive form exists in the passive and involves the verb to be 22 Present Passive Infinitive Perfect Passive In nitive to be taken to have been taken to be seen to have been seen to be loved to have been loved In sentences This work can be done in two hours The job is to be posted tomorrow George should have been taken to the hospital immediately Why didn t you put the letter where it might have been seen Please take care to note that there are as many as six in nitive for1ns present present progressive perfect perfect progressive present passive and perfect passive Transitive verbs have all these forms intransitive and linking verbs lack the passive forms and the linking verb to be lacks the progressive form as well b The Present Participle Perhaps without realizing it you saw several examples of the present participle above in the discussion of the progressive infmitives Look at the words which end with ing as you review those lists those words are present participles In fact the chief feature of the present participle like that of the gerund see below is the ending ing This form may either stand alone or work with other verb forms as we shall see shortly Examples Is he seeing her She was combing her hair I saw them driving down the street We sat there watching the sun go down c The Past Tense Without going into detail at this point for more detail see section 4 below the past tense is one of the forms English uses to talk about an event in past time It is especially important to know the past tense of socalled irregular verbs which change their vowels to form the past tense like went or saw rather than adding ea like learned or said Some examples Did you see that We went to the zoo She took the cake and ate it They found him under the table I played by the rules He said that he couldn t swim d The Past Participle Like the present participle the past participle may stand alone or work with other verb forms in fact you saw a number of past participles in the lists of perfect and perfect passive infmitives To go is the in nitive went is the past tense and gone is the past participle In the same way done is the past participle of to do and played is the past participle of to play Some examples of past participles 23 Have you eaten already She has been taken to the airport The award was presented at yesterday s ceremony I saw the broken glass e A Summary Chart of Principal Parts While some verbs change considerably from the in nitive to the past tense to the past participle and there is a bit of system to the way many change in English and some other languages others change very little This list gives an indication of the kinds of change that occur in English you can and should add others In nitive Present Participle Past Tense Past Participle y ying ew own take taking took taken eat eating ate eaten think thinking thought thought be being was been swim swimming swam swum write writing wrote written In sum The principal parts of a verb include the infmitive the past tense and the present and past participles Each of these forms will be needed for particular constructions and you need to know them well both in English and in the foreign language you are studying 2 The Mood The term mood comes from the Latin modus which means way or manner or mode The mood of a verb indicates the way a speaker is saying something whether he is stating or asking about a fact giving a command or talking about or wishing for an unreal condition or situation These are the only three modes or moods of speech their names are indicative imperative and subjunctive or conditional Let s look at them separately a The Indicative Mood The indicative mood is used to state or ask about a fact anyone or anything in reality let s not get into philosophical issues of what reality is but take it in the common sense meaning With the indicative mood we make statements and ask questions about facts or hypotheses in present past and future time Some examples Lenny is going home When will you nish this project I ve had about as much of this as I can stand He just doesn t understand They were there all day If I have enough time I will walk there Do you see what I mean b The Imperative Mood The imperative mod is used to give a command that is we use the imperative mood to tell some one talking to them not about them to do something Examples 24 Go home Get back Finish this project now Be there at 10 Notice that the person who is to do these things is not named in English we generally omit the word you and as a result we leave the subject initiator understood English also uses the same form regardless of whether the command is directed at one person or more than one Other languages may construct commands differently The imperative forms above are used for commands directed at one or more persons not including the speaker When the speaker is to be included in the activity we 9 77 use the present infmitive together with let s Let s go home Let s nish this project now Let s be there on time for a change c The Subjunctive Mood and the Conditional In order to understand and work well with the subjunctive it is necessary to understand the difference between real and unreal conditions Real conditions involve formulations of the sort found in philosophical and scienti c hypotheses where the speaker does not know what the facts of a particular case actually are but can predict the consequences in the event that certain criteria are met In such a case the speaker uses the indicative mood note the example above If I have enough time I will walk there to express a real condition In the case of an unreal condition by contrast the speaker does know that the facts run counter to the case being discussed Consequently the subjunctive mood is used to express situations that are known not to exist in reality The speaker does not state this knowledge in so many words but rather uses the forms of the subjunctive mood in either present or past time to imply it to fold it into the meaning of the sentence Examples In present time If I had enough time I would walk there Indication speaker KNOWS FOR A FACT that there is not enough time the condition is NOT real In past time If Anne had gone to bed earlier she wouldn t be tired now Indication speaker knows that Anne went to bed late and had a short night with the result that she is tired now also makes the assumption that longer sleep means greater rest Contrast this with a real past time situation If Anne has gone to bed she is asleep by now Indication speaker does NOT know whether or not Anne has gone to bed thus setting up a real condition speaker knows or assumes that Anne tends to sleep easily and well Wishes also involve something which does not exist at the time of the utterance and are therefore expressed in the subjunctive Examples I wish I had more time If only she could see this If only they were here 25 A form which works together with the subjunctive is the conditional This always consists of would together with the infmitive in English and it usually does NOT appear in the if part of the sentence You see examples of thils in the second part of the unreal condition sentences above would walk and wouldn t be Note that the subjunctive usually consists of one word in the present tense while the conditional consists of two We will see examples of pasttime forms below In sum Each of the three moods has its own distinctive form The indicative mood deals with real conditions in the real world the imperative with or without let s gives commands and the subjunctiveconditional expresses contrarytofact situations 3 Voice There are two voices of the verb each of which indicates a distinctive relationship between the verb and its subject These are active voice and passive voice As with the principal parts and the moods we will look at each separately a Active Voice In the active voice the subject of the verb either initiates the action named by the verb or is engaged in the state or condition which the verb denotes Some examples Ruth has pretty eyes They have closed the shops George took the wrong tum She shouldn t have opened the gift Will re or ice destroy the earth We are donating the pro ts to charity Would you have stayed there Your coat is hanging in the closet In all of these instances the subject starts the events to occur Ruth is the person who has those eyes they unnamed persons are causing the shops to be closed George and no one else is responsible for the fact that the wrong tum occurred and so on In all of the sentences but the last two the activity is transferred from the subject to the object by means of a transitive verb in the last two sentences the verb is intransitive b Passive Voice In the passive voice the subject receives the action named by the verb rather than initiating it Please note that NOT ALL verbs have a passive voice form the passive voice can be constructed ONLY with transitive verbs which have a direct object in the active voice Passive voice always consists in English of a form of to be plus the past participle of the verb designating the activity If you compare the following sentences with those above under the active voice you will notice that the subject of the passive voice sentence plays the same role as the direct object of the active voice sentence it is the receiver of the action The shops have been closed The gift shouldn t have been opened The wrong tum was taken Will the earth be destroyed by re or ice The pro ts are being donated to charity 26 All the sentences above except the fourth do not indicate who or what is responsible for the activity for example who closed the shops Who is donating pro ts to charity In these sentences the initiator actor or agent is omitted and such omission is frequent in passive voice sentences One fmds such sentences very often in bureaucratic texts committee reports etc The passive voice without agent expressed is a means of hiding responsibility for the action as in It was decided that who decided This is why William Safire established as one of his witty Rules for Writers the statement that The passive voice should be avoided When the agent is named in a passive voice sentence in English however it is preceded with the preposition by as in The shops have been closed by the police or The wrong tum was taken by the bus driver In sum Active voice is characterized by an active initiating subject passive voice tends to occur more frequently in the written than in the spoken language and is characterized by a subject which receives the action instead of initiating it while the verb always consists of a form of to be plus the past participle of the main verb You have probably noticed that passive voice sentences tend to involve more words than active voice sentences 4 The Tense The word tense designates a verb form which is used to indicate a particular time past present future in a particular way Although there are only three different time concepts English has a total of 3 7 different verb tense forms including both active and passive voice and indicative and subjunctive mood and each of these verb tense forms indicates something different We will look at them separately and summarize them in chart form on page 34 Please keep in mind that items a through 0 below are in the indicative mood while items p and q deal with the subjunctive and conditional The imperative conveys commands which are to be executed more or less immediately ie in the present and therefore does not distinguish among various tenses a The Present Tense Simple Present Tense The present tense is a oneword form used to indicate an action or condition in present time The action indicated may be a onetime occurrence or it may involve repetition but the oneword form indicates that the whole actioncondition occurs or runs its course Examples Ted has a bad cold The Cleveland Symphony performs every Saturday We stay here on weekends The overture is followed by the first act Note that this form cannot be used for questions or negations except in the passive voice or when the verb is a form of to be Are you mad Is he a lawyer I am not sleepy Never Stay you here 27 b The Present Progressive Tense While the simple present tense expresses the whole of the action or condition the present progressive indicates that the action or condition is in process or progress and continues to exist at the time of the statement it may also be used to indicate future time The progressive form consists of the verb to be in the present tense plus the present participle of the main verb For example Ted is having a bad time of it The Cleveland Symphony is performing this Saturday We are staying here over the weekend The overture is being played too slowly for my taste Note that the progressive form is needed for some questions Is Ted having a bad time of it Are you staying here Never Has Ted a bad time of it Stay you here Performs the orchestra on Saturday It is equally useful in negative statementsquestions Ted isn t having a bad time of it Aren t you staying here c The Present Emphatic Tense This form emphasizes that the action really occurs it consists of the present tense of to do plus the infinitive of the main verb as for example Ted does have a bad cold he s not just making an excuse We do stay here on weekends we don t go elsewhere The Cleveland Symphony does perform on Saturday doesn t it Note that the emphatic form is needed for negations and questions Why don t you try this Do youDoes she really believe that Never Believe you that Unlike the other present and other tense forms however the emphatic permits NO passive voice construction in standard English d The Past Tense Simple Past The past tense or simple past tense two terms for the same thing designates an action or condition in past time Like the simple present tense it covers the entire course of the action As we have seen it is also the third principal part of the verb Regular verbs generally form it by adding ed irregular verbs involve a change in the vowel ran took saw or a change which is more radical bought went was Some examples Ted had a bad cold The Cleveland Symphony performed on Saturday We stayed here on weekends Joe took your bike She ate my sandwich The overture was followed by the first act Note that this form cannot be used for questions or negations except with the verb to be Were you sick yesterday Was Lincoln the 15th or the 16th President Never Took Joe your bike e The Past Progressive Tense Like the present progressive the past progressive consists of to be though in its simple past tense plus the present participle of the main verb It designates an action in process at a given point in past time For example 28 Ted was having a bad time of it yesterday or when I walked in The Cleveland Symphony was performing a piece by Brahms We were staying there The overture was being played too slowly for my taste Note that this form can make questions and negations Was Ted having a bad time of it Was the overture being played too slowly They weren t going anywhere f The Past Emphatic Tense The past emphatic is comparable to the present emphatic in that it consists of the verb to do here in the past tense form did along with the in nitive of the main verb and emphasizes a complete action or condition in past time Examples Ted did have a bad cold yessir he certainly did The Cleveland Symphony did perform on Saturday We did stay here Note that the past emphatic can form questions and negations Did Ted have a bad cold Did the Cleveland Symphony perform on Saturday No we didn t stay there last weekend g The Future Tense T he future tense indicates an action that is not occurring now but will at some later time most often it consists of will plus the infmitive of the main verb as in these sentences Ted will have a bad cold if he doesn t get out of those wet clothes The Cleveland Symphony will perform on Saturday We will stay here The overture will be followed by the first act This form can be used to construct questions Will Ted have a bad cold Will we stay here In negative statements the words will not can be and often are contracted into the one word won t negative questions must use this oneword form I will not won t play with you any more Won t you visit us on Saturday Why won t Charlie take you to the prom h The Future Progressive Tense Like the other two progressive forms above this one also uses the verb to be here in the future tense will be plus the present participle of the main verb It designates an event in progress at some point in the future Examples The Cleveland Symphony will be performing on Saturday We will be staying here She will be taking us to the zoo These can be tumed into questions and negatives 29 i The Future with to go The future and the future progressive not only signify future time but are also speci cally future tense forms In the instance of the future with to go we are dealing with a structure that signifies the future even though its form is actually present tense This involves the present progressive of to go followed by the infinitive of the main verb Compare these sentences with those under item g above Ted is going to have a bad cold The Cleveland Symphony is going to perform on Saturday We are going to stay here The overture is going to be followed by the first act Note that these too can be negated and tumed into questions What differences in meaning if any do you note between the future forms under g and these forms j The Present Perfect Tense T he present perfect tense designates an action which occurred in past time and is complete or over with from the standpoint of the present The word present in the name indicates the time from which the action is being viewed and talked about the word perfect simply indicates the completion of the action Compare the sentences below with those listed under the past tense item d above and see if you can detect any difference in meaning Ted has had a bad cold The Cleveland Symphony has performed on Saturday We have stayed here The overture has been followed by the first act Note these can be transformed into questions and negations k The Present Perfect Progressive Tense Like the progressive forms above this one also emphasizes the continuing or repetitive character of the action unlike the other forms this one stresses the continuation of the action from its beginning in the past on into the present Again we fmd the verb to be here in the present perfect form havehas been plus the present participle of the main verb Ted has been having a hard time of it The Cleveland Symphony has been performing on Saturdays for years We have been staying here since 1974 These examples can be transformed into questions and negatives note that there are NO passive voice forms 1 The Past Perfect Tense The past perfect tense indicates a completed action from the standpoint of the past to show this the sentence often includes a clause in simple past tense to specify the point in time from which the action is viewed and spoken about The action stated in the past perfect has already occurred thus it takes place earlier ie further back in time than the action stated in the simple past tense Look at these examples and compare 30 them with the past tense sentences above under d and the present perfect tense sentences under j Ted had had a bad cold The Cleveland Symphony had performed on Saturday We had stayed here The letter had been Written Note that these can be used for questions and negatives Each of these sentences could be extended to include a pasttime indicator Ted had had a bad cold when he came down with pneumonia The Cleveland Symphony had performed its concert on Saturday when the rain started The letter had been Written by the time that Mr Jones returned from lunch m The Past Perfect Progressive Tense The past perfect progressive introduces the progressive or continuing element into the past perfect Again the action is viewed from a point in the past and at that time an action begun even earlier continued to persist Look at these examples Ted had been having a bad time of it The Cleveland Symphony had been performing on Saturday We had been staying here Note that negatives and questions are possible but that passive voice constructions are not Now include a situation expressed in the simple past and you get something like these sentences compare them with the past progressive in section e and the present perfect progressive in section k Ted had been having a bad time of it when his friend stepped in to help The Cleveland Symphony had been performing on Saturday when a change in the conductor s schedule no longer permitted it We had been staying here every summer until Hurricane Bruce totally demolished the place n The Future Perfect Tense This form is not used very often in English but other languages to use it so it s Worth knowing about In this instance we are talking about an action which will be completed at some point in the future that future point may or may not be speci ed in the sentence A few examples Ted will have nished that project by Monday Next year they will have been married for 50 years We will have stayed there 20 years by the time you fmish school 0 The Future Perfect Progressive Tense You guessed it action continuing into the future but NOT completed from a point often unspecified This too is not commonly used in English but it does exist 31 If this lasts until Monday we will have been meeting for 10 weeks By this time tomorrow they will have been dancing for 52 continuous hours Again no passive forms are possible but one can construct questions and negatives p The Present SubjunctivePresent Conditional Tense As we noted above the subjunctive expresses an unreal situation one which con icts with the known facts without facts there is no basis for subjunctive Facts however can exist only now in the present or in the past There are no future facts there can only be projections or assumptions because the future has not happened yet As a result the subjunctive along with its companion the conditional has only a present and a past tense The present tense subjunctive expresses unreal situations in present time but looks like the past tense indicative In fact the present subjunctive the if clauses in the sentences below is derived from the simple past indicative Meanwhile the present tense conditional the other clause in each of the sentences below consists of would plus the present in nitive of the main verb Examples If I were you I would be happy If he had enough money he would buy her a pearl necklace She would get there in time if she left now Would you take her to the dance if you knew her better If he were found guilty he would face the death penalty To repeat for emphasis here these sentences are talking about unreal eventssituations in present time none of these situations really exists I am not you and thus I presumably am not happy he does not have the money so he isn t buying the necklace The other sentences are to be interpreted in the same way q The Past SubjunctivePast Conditional Tense Just as the present subjunctive looks like the past indicative to talk about unreal situations in present time the past tense subjunctive looks like the past perfect indicative as it talks about unreal situations in past time And in fact the past subjunctive is derived from the past perfect indicative while the past tense conditional uses would with the perfect infinitive Look at these sentences and compare them to the present subjunctive sentences just above If I had been you I would have been happy If he had had enough money he would have bought her a pearl necklace She would have gotten there in time if she had left at 7 30 Would you have taken her to the dance last week if you had known her better If he had been found guilty he would have faced the death penalty To repeat for emphasis These sentences are talking about unreal events in past time none of these situations ever really existed I never was you never will be either which is probably why I wasn t happy he didn t have the money so he didn t buy the necklace and so on 32 The examples above are typical of the most frequent usage of the subjunctive and conditional tenses in English present conditional with present subjunctive and past conditional with past subjunctive However there are instances in which an event in the past has consequences in the present The sentence used earlier to introduce the concept of the subjunctive mood exemplifies this situation If Anne had gone to bed earlier e g last night she would not be tired now Other sentences of the same sort can be constructed almost infmitely The oor would not be so messy now if you had cleaned off your shoes when you came in If I had read the assignment before class I would understand the professor s lecture And so on Summary of Tenses see chart page 34 If we quickly review all the tense forms in English including the simple progressive and emphatic variations in both active and passive voice to the extent that they exist or can be constructed we note that English has for many transitive verbs a total of 37 different tense forms Although other languages tend to have far fewer forms and to construct them differently it is important that you be familiar with them and be able to manipulate them especially the more common ones One way to gain familiarity with them is to construct sentences using forms like the ones above or on the following page but with other verbs of your selection 33 033 cams cmwBqdwamd dxB 920 mm ave o mm E62 m5Urorgt mv3 303 W Emmmki u acio cww 33 com cm m M D 0 9 M cw PE 9 uEvnV 585 m a V W CQ cWQ i w 9 3 V 8 5 63 2 58 l U B cwmg cmig cwma cwxg Cwtwm QgtwU t3 mVgtoLiLGgtL gtO 2 333 1 033 cmxag mv M 96 wumtwa U p 33 mm 9 cmmgVomgt mgto ooEmmmmm 909 E0 2039 E0 w gtgt D A E2 E 2 M 23 U6 mwrmQmmmugtgt 933 mo cB mgt V63 Rom S 5 Qviuw Q l1wwWwmwQrMaU CCU EU CLO iO Cmwm hQ ezmmog gtLU wimmog gtLUlt wzmmoa gtLUlt QLOLQCQ gtmm15 i Bgc m I 0 a 1 c it 1 1 0 15 U x 9 OH 3 E m giocxm lt Mmrltni 33gt mwQ 34 5 Modals A Particular Group of Verbs There are several verbs in English which deserve attention as a group the modals Modals are helping or auxiliary verbs which indicate the relationship or attitude of the subject to the activity denoted by the main verb There are ve such relationships in English you may fmd more in other languages ability can permissi0n possibility may necessityrequirement must obligation shall and intention will please note that will is most often used today to express future time The conjugation of these verbs is incomplete in English can shall and will have forms for only the present and past indicative and present subjunctive may has only the present indicative and subjunctive and must has only the present indicative This contrasts sharply with many other languages where conjugation is more complete As a result replacement forms for all these verbs have evolved in English and the replacement forms exist in virtually all tenses For can there is to be able to for may we have to be allowedpermitted to only to express permission for must we use to have to for shall to be supposed to and for will there is to want to conveys desire rather than intent Both the modals and their replacement forms may be used with the infmitive of the main verb or leave the infmitive understood note that all of the replacement forms use the word to In sentences they operate as follows in the individual tenses items in brackets generally do not occur in English today either at all or at least not in this meaning note also which forms of the modals do not exist at all MODAL REPLACEMENT FORM Present Tom can read Tom is able to read She may watch a movie She is permitted to watch a movie Bill must work now Bill has to work now You shall not do that You are not supposed to do that Joe will not buy the bike Joe does not want to buy the bike won t Past Tom could read Tom was able to read She might watch a movie She was permitted to watch a movie Bill had to work yesterday You were not supposed to do that Joe would not buy the bike Joe did not want to buy the bike Future Tom will be able to read She will be permitted to watch a movie Bill will have to work tomorrow will be supposed to Joe will want to buy the bike Present Perfect Tom has been able to read She has been permitted to watch a movie Bill has had to work all day 35 has been supposed to Joe has Wanted to buy the bike Past Perfect Tom had been able to read She had been permitted to watch a movie Bill had had to work all day had been supposed to Joe had Wanted to buy the bike Future Perfect Tom will have been able to read She will have been permitted to watch a movie Bill will have had to work hard will have been supposed to Joe will have Wanted to buy the bike Present Subjunctive Tom could read Tom would be able to read She might Watch a movie She would be permitted to watch a movie Bill would have to work all day You shouldought not do that Would be supposed to Joe would Want to buy the bike Past Subjunctive Tom could have read Tom would have been able to read She might have watched a movie She would have been permitted to watch Bill would have had to work all day You should not have done that Would have been supposed to Joe would have Wanted to buy the bike In sum The modals can may must shall and Will together with their replacement forms do not exist in all tenses Compare the present tense forms with the others Do you see where gaps exist Do you see how the modal forms are replaced whether or not the replacement forms exist 6 Gerunds The geruna looks like the present participle because it always ends with ing it plays a different role from that of the present participle but more about that later Chapter III section 6 Here are some examples of gerunds compare them with the present participles above section 1 b Skiing is fun Seeing is believing He is good at making things of wood I can hear the moaning of the wind In sum Like present participles gerunds are formed by adding ing to the infmitive of the verb they differ only in function 36 B Nouns Just as we associate certain concepts such as tense mood and voice with verbs and their forms there are certain concepts which must be associated with nouns and pronouns too for that matter These are the concepts of gender number and case 1 Gender The term gender refers to the distinction among masculine feminine and neuter which really means neither While nouns in other languages tend to follow the grammatical gender assigned to them and denoted by the form of the article if the language uses one ahnost all English nouns have natural gender This means that as a general rule we associate masculine gender with male humans and animals feminine gender with female humans and animals and neuter with inanimate objects However there are words like ship or country with which we associate the idea of she while terms like doctor teacher or professor can refer to either women or men Certain other nouns distinguish between male and female by means of a suffix a syllable at the end for example executor vs executrix steward vs stewardess major vs majorette 2 Number The concept of number is rather simple there is either one personthing or there are several assuming of course that there are any at all In the instance of one person or thing we use the term singular where more than one person or thing exists we use the term plural When we do not know who or what is acting or being acted upon we always assume the singular in English Who is not are coming What moves faster than a speeding train English has several different ways to distinguish between a singular and a plural noun Of course the most common way is to add s to the noun cheekcheeks pillowpillows dogdogs motherinlawmothersmlaw passerbypassersby Some words require es for the plural potatopotatoes fox foxes mixmixes J ones J oneses In some instances the last part of the word must be changed before adding the s and there are different rules that apply Sometimes one must change a final y to i and then add es citycities ladyladies y ies robberyrobberies Many words not all which end with f will require changing the f to 12 before es is added calf calves halfhalves BUT roofroofs Some words which end with s need to double the s before es is added busbusses In the case of words which English has adopted from other languages we sometimes follow the rules of those languages and sometimes follow the rules of English 37 Some words which come from Latin or Greek where they ended in um replace the singular ending with a datumdata mediummedia Words from French which end in eau may follow either the French rule of adding x or the English rule of adding 5 chateauchateaux or chateaus beaubeaux or beaus There are also words in English which do not change at all to form the plural sheep deer and fish are examples of this eXcept that the form shes designates multiple varieties of sh The last group of nouns includes those which change internally rather than adding or changing an ending Here we fmd words like footfeet goose geese mousemice louse lice manmen Then there is the pair childchildren 3 Case The term case refers to the form of a noun or pronoun which shows its function in a sentence English has three cases and each one serves a particular set of functions We will be dealing with the matter of function in Chapter 111 so it will be enough at this point simply to name the cases and indicate the forms the words have in these cases The three cases are nominative objective and possessive Only in the possessive case does the noun have a distinctive form In the possessive singular one adds s to the word in the plural S is the ending if the plural form ends with 5 Otherwise one follows the rule for the singular Examples NominativeObj ective Possessive Singular Plural goat goat s goats rascal rascal s rascals book book s books lady lady s ladies man man s men s Will this goat s owner please step forward only one goat no matter how many owners These rascals names are Bill Joe and Ed there is more than one rascal Your book s cover is coming off Your books covers are coming off I like that man s tie Please show me to the men s room To summarize With respect to the form of nouns then number and case are more important than gender because most nouns do not vary in form to show gender unless a suf x is added nouns do have forms to distinguish plural from singular in most instances and possessive from the nominative and objective cases C Pronouns When we first looked at pronouns in Chapter I we were interested in what a pronoun is and said we would consider the different forms of the pronouns later now is the time to consider those different forms Since pronouns replace nouns it should not be surprising that variations in the form of pronouns are determined by one or more of the 38 concepts of gender number and case We will deal with the pronouns in the same order as above beginning with the personal pronouns 1 Personal Pronouns a Gender The only personal pronouns which have a form to show gender are in the third person singular he she it The gender or sex of the speaker first person I we and the addressee second person you is either easily determined from the context or insigni cant The issue of gender arises with pronouns as with nouns only in the singular b Number Only pronouns in the first and third persons show a difference between singular and plural the word you is used for the second person both singular and plural Singular Plural first person I we third person he she it they c Case Personal pronouns show differences of case more than nouns do in fact they do have for the most part an objective case form This distinguishes the object pronoun from the subject of the sentence which is always in the nominative case The possessive case is the domain of the possessive pronoun 1 person nominative I we objective me us 3rd person nominative he she they objective him her them These are the only forms that vary by case you and it have the same form for nominative and objective cases Some examples I have a new bike They gave me the money We are going swimming Can you see us in the picture He likes her and she likes him 2 Possessive Pronouns a Gender As with personal pronouns variation of form according to gender occurs only in the third person singular of possessive pronouns his hers its Since these words are used to express possession they have only this one form no matter how they are used in any sentence Examples 39 This is my book and that is hers I ve found my book but Joe can t nd his b Number Here too the distinction between singular and plural exists and the difference in form involves only the first and third persons yours can refer to one person or several Singular Plural lst person mine ours 3rd person his hers its theirs c Case Note that the possessive pronoun has a strong tendency to end with s there is N O apostrophe In this connection we should also note that an important distinction exists between its and it s the first is the neuter possessive pronoun or possessive adjective while the second is a contraction for it is or it has it s hot it is hot it s got to get better it has got to get better Possession is all these pronouns show so they exist only in the possessive case Be careful to distinguish as well between these possessive pronouns which replace nouns and the possessive adjective which describe and stand next to nouns This book is mine but This is my book That car is hers but That is her car This hotel is very famous but I have forgotten its name 3 Re exive Pronouns a Gender As with other pronouns re exive pronouns gender distinctions show up only in the third person singular himself herself itself b Number Again the distinction is between singular and plural but here ALL persons are involved because of the difference between self and selves Singular Plural 1 person myself ourselves 2nd person yourself yourselves 3rd person himself herself themselves itself c Case Since re exive pronouns are object pronouns they exist only in the objective case hence there is no variation of case form 40 4 Reciprocal Pronouns The reciprocal pronouns each other and one another refer to more than one person or thing and thus must be used with a plural subject each item of which is referred to individually by these pronouns They have no variation of form to designate any distinction of gender or number As for the matter of case the distinctive possessive form is constructed with s They like each other s clothing habits character etc 5 Intensive Pronouns The variation of form with respect to gender and number is identical to that of the re exive pronouns see above item 3 Since these pronouns can stand parallel to either the subject or the object the one form serves as both nominative and objective case Chapter III will bring more detail about the way these forms are applied Intensive pronouns are not used parallel to possessives and accordingly there is no possessive case form 6 Interrogative Pronouns a Gender Interrogative pronouns ask questions about an unknown person or thing While there is no variation according to gender with respect to persons there are different forms for persons on the one hand who and things on the other what Who brought that What have you done b Number Number is always singular when inquiring about an unknown Who is coming to the party What brings you here today c Case Apart from distinguishing between people and things the only variation of form is based on case and that only with who Thus we have the forms nominative who objective whom possessive whose It is very common in colloquial spoken English to use who as an object pronoun as in the questions Who did you see or Who are they talking to even though this is not considered proper English and all of us do it without thinking Let us try to think and use whom rather than who when we should even though it sounds stiff prim and proper you will nd it helpful to do so when working with a foreign language where this proper form is not stiff but really essential You can see the difference more clearly by examining the parallel structure of questions and answers if 41 the answer uses the word he the parallel question needs who however if the answer uses the word him the parallel question needs whom as for example is standing over there He is standing over there Who did you see last night You did see him last night Whom Who is there Whom were they visiting For whom was she waiting I borrowed Jack s coat whose do you have The last example above raises the opportunity to point out an important difference between two words which sound alike but are spelled differently and have different meanings These are the words whose and who s The first whose can function as either a possessive interrogative adjective or a possessive interrogative pronoun and as we have seen as a relative pronoun as well the second who s by contrast is the contraction or short form for who is or who has Look at the sentence groups below and note the difference between the two forms Possessive interrogative adjective Whose book do you have Whose watch is that Possessive interrogative pronoun I m reading my book whose are you reading Our car is being repaired whose can we borrow for the aftemoon Contraction Who s that Who s his new girlfriend Who s going to the party Who s been taken to the hospital Who s got the lucky number 7 Relative Pronouns The relative pronoun distinguishes only between people who that and things which that there are no forms to speci z gender or number One form covers all genders and designates singular and plural the antecedent not the pronoun determines number and gender if any As in the instance of the interrogative pronoun above item 6 distinctive forms for case exist only among the words designating people namely who whom and whose Some examples Do you know the man who is standing over there The woman with whom you were talking yesterday just called The movie that I saw last night was very good The books which you ordered have arrived Mr Bryson whose wife is ill just went home 42 8 Demonstrative Pronouns Distinctive forms for gender and case do not exist here number is the only important issue as these forms reveal Singular Plural this these that those 9 Impersonal Pronouns Owing to their very nature the impersonal pronouns one you and they have no distinctive form for gender they also have only a nominative case form one can nd instances of an objective case them and a possessive case their While you and they are plural one is obviously singular Please remember that good English does not permit substitution of he for one or his for one s because he is a personal pronoun while one is an impersonal pronoun Some examples One doesn t do that here If one knows the rules one should follow them One s conscience should be one s guide You have to take the bitter with the sweet You never know They are out to get him It s a case of them against us 10 Inde nite Pronouns Like the demonstrative pronoun the inde nite pronoun exists in singular one and plural ones but there are no distinctive forms for gender or case Do you know any good jokes Yes here are a few great ones Or Not really I know only one One of my brothers lives in Hong Kong She gave it to one of her aunts D Adjectives 1 Limiting Adjectives Where there are variations of form among the limiting adjectives they are due only to the difference between singular and plural The has only one form and a and an exist only in the singular Likewise this and that are singular while these and those are plural compare the demonstrative pronoun above The man has bought the oranges A girl bought an apple This man bought these oranges That girl bought those apples 2 Possessive Adjectives The gender of possessive adjectives is designated only by the third person singular terms his her and its With respect to number the adjectives my her his and its refer to a singular person but that singular person may possess one or more 43 things the form of these possessive adjectives does NOT change in any way regardless of the number of things possessed The possessive adjective your may be singular or plural the adjectives our and their are always plural In all these instances the things possessed may be singular or plural and the forms of the adjectives remain the same My book is there with her notes Is your brother staying for a week The dog was chasing its tail Our father found a new job in this land of our fathers 3 Interrogative Adjectives The interrogative adjectives which what and whose obviously distinguish between people and things but they do not change their forms to designate gender number or case Which author wrote that book Which authors do you like best Whose coat do you have 4 Descriptive Adjectives In English descriptive adjectives change their form only to indicate comparison The three forms are known as positive comparative and superlative Positive refers to the name of the quality examples good much hot large intelligent used do describe a person or thing or to compare two individuals or groups of individuals on an equal basis In such comparison this basic form of the adjective is preceded and followed by the word as This cake is as good as that one I have as much money as you have Is her coffee as hot as his Comparative indicates an unequal comparison between two persons or things The comparative form of the adjective tends to end with er and is followed by the word than This cake is better than that one I have more money than you have Is her coffee hotter than his I prefer a larger car Edna is more intelligent than George Superlative indicates the greatest degree of inequality in a comparison of three or more persons or things The superlative form of the adjective tends to end with est This is the best cake I have the most money Her coffee is the hottest This is the largest car Edna is the most intelligent person in our class From these examples you can see that English has several ways of forming the comparative and superlative of adjectives Most words simply add er for the comparative and est for the superlative 44 Positive Comparative Superlative large larger largest great greater greatest green greener greenest short shorter shortest Others need to double the last consonant before adding er and est big bigger biggest red redder reddest hot hotter hottest Those which end in y change the y to 1 before adding er and est tasty tastier tastiest ready readier readie st lovely lovelier loveliest Some must put the words more and most in front of the positive form nearly all of these words have three or more syllables frequent more frequent most frequent intelligent more intelligent most intelligent beautiful more beautiful most beautiful agreeable more agreeable most agreeable Some words are quite irregular much more most good better best bad worse worst Do be careful Some adjectives have different forms varying with the meaning The word little in the sense of size is regular little littler littlest but in the sense of quantity is irregular little less least Some adjectives have meanings which render this kind of comparison meaningless One such word is circular an object is either circular or it is not it cannot be more or less circular than any other object E Adverbs Because they are descriptive words adjectives and adverbs are very similar in many Ways In fact many though not all adverbs can be derived from adjectives simply by adding 0 Zy to the adjective socialsocially handyhandily This is not always true however friendly for example can only be an adjective Like adjectives adverbs vary their form only for comparison and they follow the same rules Because so many adverbs end in ly and have several syllables you will fmd the use of more and most quite common 45 Positive Comparative Superlative well better best loudly more loudly most loudly intelligently more intelligently most intelligently F Prepositions Prepositions do not change their form for any reason These words can however be used as nouns and in this instance an s is added They know the ins and outs In such a situation the word is no longer a preposition but a noun G Conjunctions As in the instance of prepositions conjunctions do not change their form unless they are used as nouns There are no ifs ands or buts She explained the whys and wherefores H Interjections In the same way interjections when used as nouns can be made plural the oohs and ahs of the crowd This gives you a survey of the different forms that can be assumed by the eight parts of speech and the concepts to be associated with them If you are uncertain about any of this please review the material above and work through the exercises again before moving on to Chapter 111 where we will deal with the circumstances under which these forms are used 46 EXERCISES A Verbs 1 What are the principal parts of verbs 2 Why are these principal parts important 3 Give the missing principal parts of the verbs below do breaking see blown slew sitting lay found 4 How many in nitive forms exist What are their names Can any given verb assume all these in nitive forms Explain 5 What is meant by the mood of a verb What are the three moods and what does each express 47 Construct one sentence in each mood with the verb to write 6 What is the difference between the active and the passive voice 7 What is the passive voice equivalent of the following sentences Joe throws the ball We watched the children He will take the picture They have found the boy Sally told the story Tom has made the salad 1 am mailing the letter Have you seen her 8 What is the active voice equivalent of the following sentences The keys were laid on the table by my mother Will the trial be shown by all the networks She has been brought here by us Bill is being sent by the university The city was destroyed by fire 9 How is tense different from time 10 What are the three ways of talking about an action in present time Give an example of each 11 Distinguish among the simple past the present perfect and the past perfect 48 12 Using the verb to sell construct a sentence in each of the following tenses simple past past progressive past emphatic present perfect present perfect progressive past perfect 13 What are the four ways of talking about an action in future time Give an example of each 14 What is the difference between subjunctive and conditional forms Give an example in each of the two tenses 15 What is a modal auxiliary Name the modals and their replacement forms 16 Which tenses do the following modal auxiliaries lack see example sentences on pp 3536 can may must How are the gaps lled 49 17 How are the present participles and gerunds a similar to and b different from each other Write sentences using the Verb to run a as a present participle and b as a gerund B Nouns 1 To what does the term gender refer What is natural gender How if at all do nouns show gender in English 2 Nouns are either singular or plural give the plural for the following house missionary louse woman child dictum tableau tomato 3 What cases exist in English 4 What cases inVolVes a change in the form of the noun What changes C Pronouns 1 With respect to effect on form is the concept of case more important or less important for pronouns than nouns Explain 2 Which kinds of pronoun Vary their form to show case 3 Which kinds of pronoun Vary their form to show gender 50 4 Which kinds of pronoun have separate singular and plural forms in the second person 5 Why are relative and interrogative pronouns easily confused in English In what ways are relative and interrogative pronouns different from each other 6 Explain the difference between the pairs of forms below and give examples to demonstrate that difference itsit s her hers whowhom who s who se D Adjectives 1 Why does English sometimes use a and sometimes an What is the plural of a boy 2 How many individuals groups are involved when the comparative form is used 3 Give the comparative and superlative of the following cold early levelheaded foreign boring little not much 4 Try to list two adjectives besides circular whose meaning makes the use of comparative and superlative unnecessary 51 E Adverbs 1 By what change in form can you make an adverb from an adjective Are all words in this form adverbs Defend your answer using examples F Prepositions Conjunctions and Interjections 1 How if at all does the issue of form apply to these words Explain 52 III FUNCTIONS OF THE PARTS OF SPEECH Few of the eight parts of speech occur alone Most often they are used as parts of a larger construction a phrase an ellipse a clause or a sentence We will deal in detail with these constructions in Part Two for now it is enough to be aware that these constructions do exist As one element in such constructions each of the eight parts of speech in one of the forms we encountered in Chapter II has a speci c range of functions or roles to play Let us take them in the same order as above beginning with verbs A Verbs Verbs can function in any of six ways They either stand alone or work together with another verb form or another part of speech 1 Main Verb as Finite Verb In many instances you will fmd only one verb form in the clause or sentence This one word form expresses the action or state of being with no assistance from any other verb form It agrees in person and number with the subject and also indicates the tense Because such a verb form is limited in these ways it is called a finite verb Some examples She really believes that Take this book to Mrs Smith We never snore I found it in the closet We urged them to come He was my friend 2 Combinations Main Verb with AuxiliaryFinite Verb Even more frequently you will see two or three verb forms working together to form a particular mood voice and tense as the numerous examples in Chapter II demonstrate Where this is the case the last verb is always the main verb it is never a finite verb but one of three other forms in nitive present participle or past participle T he finite verb in such constructions is always an auxiliary or helping verb The most common auxiliary or helping verbs in English are to do to go to be to have as well as the modal auxiliaries can may must shall and will and their replacement forms The auxiliary verb helps the main verb in several different ways Where more than one auxiliary verb form is present only the first one shows person number and time and is therefore a fmite verb Only certain combinations of auxiliary verbs and specific main verb forms are possible which combination one chooses depends on the structure one wishes to build Since the main verb will be an infmitive a present 53 participle or a past participle we will examine these combinations to see which auxiliary is used with each form and what construction each combination yields a Auxiliary Verb with the Infinitive i to do The auxiliary to do is used in present and past tenses only with the present active in nitive to construct questions and negatives as well as emphatic statements Do you see him Never See you him I don t come here often Didn t they fmd the children Yes she does work here He did wash the dishes didn t he ii to go The auxiliary to go in its progressive forms combines with the active or passive infinitive of the main verb to yield a future construction This construction may be either a statement or a question Examples 1 am going to walk home What are you going to do about it Is she going to take the medicine The les are going to be opened tomorrow Please note that the past progressive forms of to go with the infmitive tend to express intent or expectation in past time as in He was going to watch TV but nothing good was on iii Modals and Modal Replacements The modal auxiliaries and their replacement forms can be used with any form of the infinitive While the modal plus in nitive can be used to construct a question or a negative the replacement forms to have to and to want to unlike the three others which include the verb to be require the additional assistance of to do May I go now She can t sing very well You must fmish that by Monday They are supposed to arrive at 5 o clock He must have done well You could have worked harder This letter was supposed to be typed The weapon could have been thrown into the river But We don t want to leave just yet Does she have to be driven to Chicago He is supposed to be getting married next week We have to be going soon Notice that modals and their replacements can be used with all six types of infmitives present and perfect active and present and perfect passive as well as the progressive infmitives With respect to the meaning conveyed it is also worth recalling that the auxiliary will with the infinitive forms the future They will be here at 5 o clock Will you tell me about it tomorrow He will bring the wine The film will be shown this evening 54 In addition the auxiliary would subjunctive form of will with any in nitive forms the conditional it is also used for polite requests and inquiry about possibility If I were you I would try it If they knew you were coming they would prepare a grand reception Would you please help me Would John know about that If he had been taken to the hospital immediately he would have been treated before the damage was permanent Please note that would can also be used with a negative in the simple past tense sense to mean did not want to in such a case the main verb is usually left understood I asked him to come but he would not b The Auxiliary to be with the Present Participle Active voice progressive forms are constructed by combining the auxiliary to be in a given tense with the present participle of the main verb We are taking a break He was coughing violently They will be leaving in about 10 minutes She has been living here for ve years Note that this form is also used for questions and negations What are you doing Where was she going No they haven t been paying their rent regularly With that kind of attitude he certainly will not be working here long c The Auxiliary with the Past Participle i to have When used with the past participle the auxiliary verb to have forms the active voice perfect tenses in both statements and questions Have you seen him Have they gone to the movies He had taken all the pictures on the lm She will have completed the project by Friday ii to be The passive voice is constructed by combining the auxiliary to be with the past participle of the main verb Vitamin C was discovered in the eighteenth century This book has been translated into nearly every language in the world Unless a stay of execution is granted the murderer will be executed tomorrow at 7 00 am T he progressive forms of the passive voice present and past require to be plus the present participle of to be and the past participle of the main verb 55 Mrs Smith is being taken to the hospital by ambulance The children were being taunted by bullies d Summary Chart of AuxiliaryMain Verb Combinations to do present past infinitive pres active emphatic forms to go present progressive infinitive all forms future to go past progressive infinitive all forms intent in past time modal or replacement infinitive all forms modal construction will will not won t infinitive all forms future tense would infinitive all forms conditional would infinitive negative refusal neg intent to be any tense present participle progressive forms to be any tense incl progressive past participle passive voice to have present past future past participle perfect tenses 3 The In nitive Phrase The verb forms we have seen so far have involved fmite verbs which either stand alone or operate in combination with other verbs and by de nition are limited to a particular time and subject The in nitive by contrast is not timebound although it can designate an actioncondition in its entirety present active in nitive currently or previously in progress present or perfect progressive in nitive or completed perfect active in nitive We have also seen how one can construct a present passive and a perfect passive in nitive but these are most often used like their active voice counterparts with modals and their replacement forms Frequently we have occasion to use the in nitive preceded by to with one or more other words to form an in nitive phrase The other words may be an adverb a noun or pronoun the object of the infmitive which may also be described by an article and one or more adjectives In the sentence I don t have time to do that now the last four words constitute an in nitive phrase to do is the infmitive the demonstrative pronoun that is the object of the in nitive and now is an adverb of time Infmitive phrases generally follow expressions such as it is too lateearly X doesn t have enough timemoneydesire I don t know howwhenwhere we are ready or verbs such as to start to try to remember to leam to forget The car is starting to move We were trying to help them I forgot to water the plants this week He has fmally learned how to tie his shoes 56 We saw earlier that progressives can occur with certain modal replacements She is supposed to be nishing her project in a week The infmitive can also be used in other ways as in the familiar line from Shakespeare s Hamlet To be or not to be that is the question 4 Present and Past Participles as Descriptive Words a Participles as Adjectives We noted above item 2 bd that the present and past participles are often used with auxiliary verbs These participles can also stand alone when they do they can describe a noun or pronoun just the way any other adjective does Present Participles I want a room with running water We gave a glowing report about your work Past Participles He listened from behind the closed door He s suffering from a slipped disc One of each She stood there looking at the broken pitcher b Participles as Adverbs Both the present and past participle can form adverbs by adding 132 They then describe the verb and indicate how something occurs ie they are adverbs of manner She spoke very disarmingly They wrote glowingly about their vacation He walked very surefootedly across the rickety bridge I mistakenly thought he was your brother 5 The Participial Phrase In the instances just cited present and past participles function alone to describe nouns pronouns and verbs However like the in nitive above item 3 participles can also function with groups of other words to form a phrase The participial phrase functions as an adjective if it describes a noun or pronoun Present Participles We saw them driving down the street He heard me chopping wood You ll never fmd these kids listening to Mozart Past Participles Taken by surprise the thief called for help Worn out by the 20mile hike I took a shower and went to bed 57 6 Verb Functioning as a Noun The Gerund Essentially the gerund is a verb form ending in ing which plays the part of a noun in a sentence it can assume virtually every role that any other noun can see below section B For example Skiing is fun Seeing is believing Do you really enjoy baking 1 can t stand washing dishes He is good at making things of wood Of all the verb forms in English the gerund holds perhaps the greatest potential for causing confusion It is so to speak neither fish nor fowl neither totally verb nor totally noun but a combination of both It is a noun which retains its verbal nature If it is derived from a transitive verb like the gerunds washing and making in the examples above it can have an object dishes and things respectively At the same time its nounnature makes the gerund washing to be the object of the verb stand Thus the third sentence above has two objects washing is the object of the verb stand and dishes is the object of the verbal aspect of the gerund washing B Nouns Nouns can serve any of six functions in a sentence subject object direct or indirect of a verb object of a preposition predicate noun possessive and appositive There is a direct relationship between the function the noun serves and the case used for that function Since there are more functions than cases it is useful to note the functions associated with each case 1 Subject The subject in an active voice clause or sentence names the initiator or the action in a passive voice clause or sentence the subject is the receiver of the action In both instances the subject is in the nominative case Active Voice This photographer takes excellent pictures he does very good work My car burns a lot of oil Sally broke her glasses so she can t see to drive A large number of people gathered to hear the speech Passive Voice This picture was taken in 1932 Joe s father was seriously injured Marvin has been cited for disorderly conduct The offering will be collected by the ushers 2 Object of the Verb Transitive verbs can have two kinds of object direct and indirect In English both are always in the objective case The direct object is the person or thing directly receiving the action designated by a verb in the active voice The verb requiring an object may be the main verb an in nitive a participle or a gerund 58 Main Verb I bought a pen We are building a house She sent her son to school Infmitive I want to buy this suit The dentist asked to see the Xrays Participle We found them playing a card game Gerund She can t stop watching TV They enjoy playing cards While the direct object is the direct recipient of the action the indirect object is the bene ciary of that action and is usually a person Notice that it precedes the direct object as long as the direct object is expressed as a noun I bought my brother a pen the pen is what I bought and my brother is the person bene ting from that action We are building our neighbors a house She gave her boyfriend a lecture about arriving on time He showed his parents the videos from his vacation trip If the order of the objects is reversed and the order must be reversed when the direct object is expressed as a pronoun English requires the insertion the preposition to or C for I bought a pen for my brother Note that we must use this order when saying I bought it for my brother 3 Object of a Preposition A noun can also serve as the object of a preposition and again it is in the objective case The preposition and its object together with any and all words between them constitute a prepositional phrase Although there are some set phrases in English nearly any noun can be the object of any preposition Some prepositional phrases in my opinion before 12 o clock for the old lady by car with ketchup and mustard toward the nearest town Most frequently these prepositional phrases function in sentences as adverbs because they tend to provide information about when time how manner or where place the action occurs For instance in the sentence He cut his meat with a knife the phrase tells us how he cut the meat and thus functions as an adverb of matter There are also instances where the phrase functions as an adjective because it describes a noun or pronoun in the sentence as in The house on the corner was sold to Jake Smith While the phrase does indicate the location of the house in this formulation it describes the house and thus functions as an adjective The phrase is really a truncated or shortened 59 version of a relative clause in that more complete version The house which stands on the comer was sold to Jake Smith the phrase describes the verb stands and functions as an adverb 4 Predicate Noun While the direct object receives the action transmitted from the subject by means of the verb the predicate noun represents another concept about the subject and is linked to the subject by a linking verb to be to become to seem Linking verbs in fact play the same role in sentences as the equal sign plays in an algebraic equation Because this kind of link sets the subject and predicate noun equal and parallel to each other predicate nouns are in the nominative case like the subjects to which they are linked Some examples Joe is an architect Helen is going to be a lawyer He remained a bachelor by choice Francoise wants to become an American citizen 5 Possessive All nouns can show ownership or possession possession is shown in English by the apostrophe and s possessive case form My wife s brother is a pharmacist The country s inhabitants ed the disaster Myra s son had an accident Tomorrow s schedule includes a visit to Three Mile Island English can also show possession by means of a prepositional phrase involving of generally not with a name The brother of my wife is a pharmacist The inhabitants of the country ed the disaster 6 Appositive The appositive gives additional information about a word in the sentence and stands parallel to it accordingly it is in the same case as the word it parallels If the parallel word is the subject the appositive is in the nominative case along with the subject if the parallel word is the object the appositive is also in the objective case Do you know Mr Smith the man in the brown suit Rachael the girl right behind you asked me to talk to you 7 Survey of the CaseFunction Relationship Nominative subject predicate noun appositive Objective direct indirect object of verb object of preposition appositive Possessive possessorowner 60 C Pronouns As replacements for nouns pronouns can serve many of the functions that nouns serve but no type of pronoun can serve all six functions as the survey below demonstrates 1 Personal Pronouns As we saw in Chapter II personal pronouns have both nominative and objective case forms they can serve all functions except possession and apposition I gave him the pen or I gave it to him Why don t you tell us about her We haven t found them yet Just between you and me If I were you Whatever became of him It is I 2 Possessive Pronouns Since possessive pronouns are in the possessive case they express possession place them in a sentence and you see that they function as subject predicate noun or object This is my book his is on the table and that is hers can you bring yours tomorrow I bought a sweater for my uncle what did they buy for theirs Please remember the difference between the boldprint words in the sentences above possessive pronouns which stand in place of nouns and words like my or her or their possessive adjectives which stand in front of nouns 3 Re exive Pronouns Re exives generally serve as object direct or indirect object of a verb or object of a preposition but they also may appear as a predicate pronoun He cut himself while shaving She bought herself a new car They keep to themselves a lot He is not himself today 4 Reciprocal Pronouns Reciprocal pronouns generally serve as objects of verbs or prepositions but they can also show possession They like each other one another very much Who introduced you to each other We haven t always understood each other s customs 5 Intensive Pronouns Intensive pronouns are appositives most often paralleling subjects or objects I can do that myself 1 myself can do that in apposition to the subject 61 I told Bill himself app to object Fay gave the document to the boss himself app to object of preposition 6 Interrogative Pronouns Interrogatives most commonly serve as subjects objects and in the case of persons possessives Who is there What gave you that idea Whom did she visit About whomwhat did they ask Whose is this 7 Relative Pronouns A relative pronoun always refers back to an antecedent see Chapters 1 and II which may be a noun or a pronoun and which will have its own function in the main clause The relative pronoun introduces the relative clause and has its own function in the relative clause The function of the relative pronoun in its relative clause may be the same as the function of the antecedent in the main clause but it is also possible that the functions of the two words will be different The relative pronoun and its antecedent must both be either singular or plural because they both refer to the same persons or things Since the function of the antecedent and the relative pronoun need not be identical they also need not have the same case as these examples show the relative clause is set off with brackets the relative pronoun appears bold and the antecedent appears in italics The man who is standing there is my uncle ant rel pr subj subj Do you know the man who is standing there ant rel pr obj subj I work with the man whose wife won the lottery ant rel prn objprep possess The people whom you met at the party are my neighbors ant rel pr subj obj I never met the people about whom she is talking ant rel pr obj objprep 62 This is the sweater that I bought for my uncle ant rel pr pred noun obj These sentences should give you an idea of the different possibilities that exist no attempt has been made to exhaust all of them Please note that the last three sentences above could read The people you met at the party are my neighbors I never met the people she is talking about and This is the sweater I bought for my uncle Whenever the relative pronoun functions as an object but only when if functions as an object we can omit it in casual English In good English usage we should not but we often do end a sentence with a preposition I never met the people she is talking about Other languages have different rules goveming these matters and you will need to heed them 8 Demonstrative Pronouns Like most other pronouns demonstratives function primarily as subjects and objects of verbs and prepositions Some examples This is Mr Smith Where did you buy those Just look at that Please get me more of these 9 Impersonal Pronouns These pronouns generally appear as the subject of the clause or as a possessive occasionally they appear as an indirect object One doesn t do that here One should know and protect one s rights Such behavior can give one a bad reputation They are raising the price of stamps again Remember that personal and impersonal pronouns cannot be used interchangeably 10 Inde nite Pronouns The inde nite pronoun may function as subject object or predicate pronoun One of my brothers lives in Hong Kong He told one of his rotten jokes She is one of the new American Airlines pilots They were talking about one of the govemor s pet projects D Adjectives When discussing adjectives in Chapter I we distinguished among four different types of adjective on the basis of the way these word describe the noun limiting possessive interrogative and descriptive At that point we noted that there is another way of classifying adjectives namely by function In terms of function there are two types of aajective attributive and predicate adjective 63 1 Attributive Adjectives The attributive adjective stands in front of the noun in English wherever the noun may be in the sentence Limiting possessive and interrogative adjectives always belong in this category descriptive adjectives often function this way as well The old man went home She likes her new dress Which romantic opera did you see They have been talking about a new German lm 2 Predicate Adjectives As its name indicates the predicate adjective stands in the predicate behind a linking verb and describes the subject rzourzprorzourz from this more distant position The sky is blue We are all getting older This car is cheapest Laura seems less intellectual than her sister E Adverbs The adverb may stand in the subject or the predicate Its function is to provide information about how manner how much intensity extent when time or where place something happens As it fulfills this function the adverb describes a verb an adjective attributive or predicate or another adverb unlike the adjective the adverb will never describe a noun or pronoun How Manner Mary sings well John slept soundly Bill works hard All describe the verb How Much Intensity Extent Mary sings very well John slept so soundly that he didn t hear the alarm Bill works hard enough It was too late to call All but the last of these describe an adverb in the last instance late is a predicate adjective When Time Soon it will be spring They work at night He hasn t been himself lately All describe the verb Where Place Write your name here They live in Akron I put the keys on the table All describe the verb F Prepositions Prepositions as we have seen are not used alone but with nouns or pronouns which serve as objects of these prepositions in the form of prepositional phrases Such phrases frequently indicate the time manner location or lengthintensity of an action and in such situations the whole phrase functions as an adverb Some examples 64 The keys lying on the table where are yours Swimming immediately after a meal when can be dangerous I run for an hour how long every day He types with only two ngers how We have also noted that prepositional phrases can describe nouns and in these instances they function as adjectives An example or two The keys on the table belong to my brother He danced with the woman in the red dress All items with a red tag are on sale Apart from the general rule cited above there are three prepositions which deserve particular attention because they introduce phrases which serve a different function from that of adverb or adjective We noted that the preposition of can be used to indicate possession though usually not with a person s name The name of the hotel the conductor of the orchestra the location of the treasure In addition of is used to indicate a portion or quantity a bouquet of roses a handful of money three glasses of beer one piece of cake five minutes of your time The other two prepositions are to and for These as we noted earlier are used to designate the indirect object when it follows the direct object As a result we can express the indirect object in two ways I bought my sister a sweater or I bought a sweater for my sister She gave the children some chocolate or She gave some chocolate to the children Please note that these prepositions MUST be used when the indirect object follows the direct object however when the two objects appear in their normal order indirect object first NO preposition is used G Conjunctions Conjunctions have the function of joining words into groups joining phrases and joining clauses Lists of adjectives and nouns are commonly joined with a coordinating conjunction cold and clammy skin clears cool and refreshing water bell book and candle eyes nose ears and throat your money or your life Conjunctions also join phrases and clauses subordinating conjunctions occur only with clauses 65 into the boat and onto the lake over the river and through the woods Are you going or will you stay here I will go if you do It rained after he washed the car H Interjections Interjections express an emotion They are usually followed by a comma or an exclamation point and do not count as part of the clause or sentence Aha I ve found you Oh what a lovely ring Ah there it is I Expletives An expletive is a word or group of words which belongs to one or another of the parts of speech and has the function of being mere filler in a clause or sentence The parts of speech which most frequently serve the function of expletive in English are the pronoun it and the adverb there They add nothing to the sense or the grammatical structure of the sentence in which they appear Study these examples It is easy to say that Why don t you make it clear what you want to do There are 32 seats in this room In the first sentence the subject is actually the infmitive phrase to say that the word it is simply a filler Similarly it is not really needed as the object of the verb make in the second sentence the clause what you want to do serves that function In the same way the sentence 32 seats are in this room is just as complete without the word there as it is with it This completes the discussion of the eight parts of speech in terms of their nature and types their forms and their functions By now you should have a clearer picture of what they are which forms exist and how these forms are used in English It is hoped that this will aid you in pursuing your study of another language Please be sure to complete the exercises on the following pages before continuing on to Part Two 66 EXERCISES A Verbs 1 What makes a nite verb nite Give an example of a fmite verb 2 Can a fmite verb be used with any other verb form Explain 3 Can a nite verb express negation or a question in English Explain 4 Is an auxiliary verb always a nite verb Explain 5 What construction does each of the following verb form combinations yield Write an English sentence exemplifying each one to do in nitive to be past participle can present passive in nitive to be present participle to have past participle 6 What is an infmitive phrase Give two examples 7 Show with examples how participles can function as aafectives present participle past participle 8 Show with examples how participles can function as adverbs present participle past participle 67 9 What is a participial phrase give an example with a present participle give an example with a past participle 10 What is a gerund What is it about gerunds that makes them tricky Write two sentences each with a gerund B Nouns 1 What six functions might a noun serve in a sentenceclause 2 What is an appositive Give an example 3 Indicate which of the six functions listed above isare related to each of these cases nominative objective possessive 4 Construct sentences with a noun serving each of the six functions C Pronouns 1 What functions can a pronoun serve in a clausesentence 2 Construct sentences with a personal pronoun serving each function listed above 68 3 Construct a sentence with a relative clause in which the relative pronoun is used as the subject direct object object of a preposition 4 Which pronouns will never function as a subject Give at least one example in a sentence 5 Demonstrate your understanding of the difference between an impersonal pronoun and an inde nite pronoun by constructing two sentences with one each 6 Which type of pronoun serves only as an appositive Construct sentences in which this pronoun is an appositive to the subject object D Adjectives 1 What are the two functions an adjective can serve 2 Give an example of each E Adverbs 1 While adjectives describe nouns and pronouns adverbs describe name 3 parts of speech 2 What kinds of information do adverbs provide Give an example of these with one sentence each 69 F Prepositions 1 Can a preposition stand alone in a sentence Explain 2 What function do prepositions serve G Conjunctions 1 What function do conjunctions serve 2 How do conjunctions serve this function H Interjections 1 What function do interjections serve 2 Can you think of any interjections consisting of more than one word List three I Expletives 1 What is an expletive 2 How can you tell if a sentenceclause has an expletive 3 Write two eXamples so1nething different from those on page 66 J General Crossing Boundaries between Parts of Speech 1 Explain in detail the function of the word that in each of the following sentences Did you know that Do you know that man 70 Did you know that George will retire next week He bought the car that you wanted 2 Explain in detail the function of the word what in each of the following sentences What are you doing What show did they watch I couldn t hear what he said 3 How is the word who used in each of the following We know the woman who got the job Who is your boss Who are they talking to 4 Explain the function of the underlined word in each sentence below and give the reason for the differences in spelling where appropriate That is lg book That book is E Who s afraid of the big bad wolf Whose hat is this Arthur found a sword and its name was Excalibur only makebelieve 71 You tell me your dream and I ll tell you mine 5 Fill the blank with either you and I or you and me and explain your choice Bob asked if can come to the party Just between the man is a fool She gave the key to the apartment Shall we tell them that had a good time Charlie saw dancing at the disco 72 PART TWO SENTENCES PARTS AND TYPES 73 74 I SENTENCE PARTS Up to this point we have been concerned with the eight parts of speech individually in terms of their nature their forms and their functions in the larger structures in which they appear Now we tum to examine these larger structures which cannot exist without them namely phrases ellipses clauses and sentences As we will see a clause can be identical with a sentence a phrase can exist within a sentence or clause while an ellipse is an abbreviated sentence While some clauses and sentences include phrases there are two elements which distinguish a clause or sentence from the other structures a subject and a predicate We turn to these first and then we will discuss phrases and ellipses concluding with a distinction between the two types of clause For the moment we are thinking of a sentence as consisting of one clause A The Subject of the ClauseSentence The subject is the person or thing that exists becomes acts or is acted upon It always agrees in person and number with the finite verb if the subject is first person singular the fmite verb will also be first person singular I am if the subject is third person singular the fmite verb is also third person singular the man has taken Mary is I am your new neighbor The man has taken his son to the hospital We have seen this movie at least 10 times Mary is always on time The rocket was launched at 1142 am The subject need not be the first nounpronoun in the sentence in questions it will follow the fmite verb Is Mary always on time Where do you think you are going Who are they talking to When did he leave What has she done The subject is not the first noun or pronoun in the sentence when it begins with phrases such as In the middle of the night she awake with a start After dinner the guests retired to the drawing room Fourscore and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation The subject need not even appear in the sentence In commands the subject you is left understood in English 75 Take this to Mr Smith Be home by 5 o clock Give me a break Don t come back without the money If you are not certain which word is the subject always look for the fmite verb it will help you fmd the subject if a subject can be found It is important to remember that the subject may be one word or several words Because of this grammarians speak of simple compound and complete subjects 1 Simple Subject The simple subject is one noun or pronoun which serves as the subject Like any subject it is always in the nominative case and agrees with the fmite verb Bob has always done that I want you to go The horses are hitched up In the middle of the night she awoke with a start Just between you and me he is a fool 2 Compound Subject A compound subject involves two or more simple subjects joined by a co ordinating conjunction most commonly and they are in the nominative case and agree with the fmite verb Bill and Jane have ten minutes to fmish The verb is plural because it is a matter of two people together Either Tom or Joe has taken my hat Here the verb is singular because each of the two subjects is considered separately 3 Complete Subject The complete subject includes the simple or compound subject and any aajectives or adverbs that describe the subject In addition the complete subject can include one or more of items 5 to 9 listed below under Predicate Some examples My old wornout jacket was fmally thrown out The large book on the diningroom table belongs to George In these sentences jacket and book are the simple subjects In sum The subject whether or not it is expressed consists of one or more nouns andor pronouns which will agree in person and number with the fmite verb The sentence or clause will have a simple or compound subject which may also include other words or phrases to constitute a complete subject B The Predicate of a ClauseSentence The predicate includes everything from the verb to the end of the clausesentence unless you are dealing with a question in this instance the subject follows the fmite verb The predicate can include one or more but never all of the following elements 76 1 verb it will aways be there in a form that agrees in person and number with the subject I am she does 2 predicate nounpronoun or predicate adjective this occurs only when the verb is a linking verb Mary is a lawyer It is 1 His hair used to be brown 3 direct object found after a transitive verb in an active voice clause it designates the recipient of the action Susie bought a new car We visited them 4 indirect object found after a transitive verb in an active voice clause it designates the beneficiary of the action and may precede or follow the direct object Susie bought her brother a watch OR Susie bought it for her brother if the direct object is a pronoun the indirect object must follow it Susie bought it for her brother Susie bought it for him 5 attributive aajective any type describes any noun in the predicate ie the predicate noun direct or indirect object Mary is a superb lawyer She bought this new car We gave the little children some candy 6 adverb one or more may be one or more words or even a phrase He works here She does very nicely I ve been waiting for an hour 7 prepositional phrase tends to function as an adverb He gave her a bouquet of owers They never come on time We will wait in the car 8 participial phrase this begins with the participle and functions as an adjective 1 last saw them driving down the road 9 infinitive phrase this begins with the infmitive and to and may be followed by an object andor an adjectiveadverb He certainly knows how to be dif cult She started to paint a beautiful picture The orchestra began to play the overture 10 agent this occurs ONLY in a passive voice clause begins with the preposition by and indicates whowhat is causing the subject to be acted upon The bank was robbed by three masked men Hamburg was attacked by allied bombers in WWII often missing from committee reports minutes and the like where one fmds expressions such as It was decided by whom that 11 interjection occasionally especially in literature this is set off from the rest with a comma or exclamation point I have alas lost all my children As mentioned earlier elements such as attributive adjective adverb prepositional phrase participial phrase and infinitive phrase can also occur in the subject of the sentence At any rate the eleven items above are all potential candidates for membership in a predicate but you will never fmd all of them in the same predicate a long sentence that would be Furthermore there is some limitation on the order in which they can appear for example the direct object when a noun follows the indirect object as in I gave John the money not I gave the money John but I gave it to John Likewise adverbs in English when all occur generally follow the sequence place manner time as in She came here place in a rage manner yesterday time They took him to jail place in handcuffs manner two hours ago time C The Phrase A phrase is a group of words which belong together on the basis of their meaning As we have seen above there are three types of phrase prepositional participial and infinitive Unlike the sentence or clause a phrase does not have both a subject and a 77 predicate prepositional phrases have no verbs thus no predicate while participial and mfmitives do have verbs but lack subjects because their verbs are not nite verbs Some examples Prepositional Phrases in my opinion before 12 o clock for the old lady with ketchup and mustard toward the nearest town from Oscar by car Participial Phrases driving down the street chopping wood listening to Mozart taken by surprise wom out by the hike dragged through the mud Infmitive Phrases to take a nap to water the plants to be or not to be to move in a new direction Of the three the participial and the prepositional phrase require particular care because their position in the sentence can cause ambiguity or even absurdity in the last instance we are dealing with what is often called a misplaced or dangling modifier Some examples I saw John and Mary walking down the street Ambiguous who was walking down the street Possibly John and Mary if the speaker means she was walking down the street and caught sight of John and Mary it is clearer to say Walking down the street I saw John and Mary The man drove the car with the red tie Here it appears that the car is wearing the red tie or that the red tie is the means of driving the car it should read The man with the red tie drove the car D The Ellipse The ellipse is a structure which does not qualify as a complete clause because a major element especially the finite verb is missing or simply left understood Although it may appear to be only a phrase a reconstruction of the portion left understood will clarify its true function In the following examples the part usually left understood is placed in brackets I ll be there in a minute We ll see you soon Are you OK Did you eat yet E The Clause As we have observed a clause always has a subject possibly left understood and a predicate and is thus more complex than a phrase or an ellipse It may be simple or very elaborately structured with many of the elements indicated above There are two major types of clause namely independent and dependent 78 1 Independent Clause The independent clause expresses a complete thought and thus can stand by itself It has a subject possibly left understood as in a command and a predicate thus the independent clause may constitute a complete sentence It may also be connected to one or more other independent clauses by one or more coordinatmg conjunctions A few examples I m going Bill and Ellen have taken their son to college He has made his position very clear independent clause 1 and he won t state it again independent clause 2 I came I saw and I conquered 2 Dependent Clause Dependent clauses are introduced by a subordinating conjunction or a relative pronoun They do not express a complete thought and therefore cannot stand alone the way that independent clauses can instead they need an independent clause to complete them The dependent clauses are in bold print in the following examples I m going home when I nish this Bill and Ellen who are my neighbors have taken their son to college He has made his position very clear and he won t state it again even if you ask him nicely In these particular sentences it would be difficult to change the order of the clauses there are cases however in which the arrangement makes little difference When it rains we play pingpong in the garage Or We play pingpong in the garage when it rains Because she dresses well people think she s rich Or People think she s rich because she dresses well In sum All clauses consist of a subject and a predicate and thus some clauses independent clauses can be identical with the concept of a sentence However since there are different kinds of clauses there are also different kinds of sentences and this matter is discussed in the next and last and brief chapter The phrase may constitute one element of a clause or sentence while the ellipse is an abbreviated clause a clause with one element missing or left understood To be certain that these matters are clear complete the exercises below before tuming to the last chapter 79 EXERCISES A The Subject 1 What is the subject 2 Can the subject ever be omitted Explain 3 Give two different examples of situations where the subject does not begin the sentence 4 How complicated can a subject be Can it consist of more than one word Explain 5 Indicate the subject in the sentences below as follows Circle the complete subject underline the simple subjects write compound to the left of the sentence if a compound subject is present and indicate with A and a circle where a subject has been left understood Be sure that you do ALL these things as appropriate Your mother wears army boots In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth When will I ever understand this Bring me the Forsyth le After listening to the speaker s ranting patiently for more than twenty minutes the audience burst into loud jeers 80 Neither Ed nor Bill understands that problem Go tell it on the mountains Who asked you Fourscore and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation conceived in liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal Ask Steve whether Ann and Pete are on the train The recently renovated hotel at the comer of 6th and Vine will be used as a youth center Friends Romans and countrymen lend me your ears All of us had a good time at the party Your sisters Evelyn and Joan were responsible Beneath the surface lie many serious problems What did she know and when did she know it B The Predicate 1 What part of speech does one always need for a predicate 2 What elements does one fmd in the predicate but never in the subject 81 3 The following pairs cannot appear in the same predicate explain why in each instance direct objectpredicate noun predicate nounagent 4 Indicate the predicate in the sentences below as follows Circle the entire predicate mark the verb with V and specify any auxiliary verb present mark the direct object with d o and write compound to the left of the sentence if a compound object is present mark the indirect object with i o mark a predicate noun with p n a predicate pronoun with p p and a predicate adjective with p a Be sure to do ALL these things as appropriate I gave him the shirt off my back Mrs Jones has remained stable all night Dan will be an architect one of these days The undesired proselytizing of young people by cults is one of the major problems of our society She ordered Bill and Joe to leave Who are you talking to We have shown our friends the Cleveland Zoo Would you order me a double hamburger and fries What is going on here The quality of mercy is not strained Give me your tired your poor your huddled masses 82 Ray has just bought one of those new hybrid cars C Phrases 1 What are the three types of phrase 2 Write a sentence giving an example of each of these underlining the phrase in each instance D Ellipses 1 What is an ellipse 2 Give three examples 3 Find one in the introduction to this manual E Clauses 1 What is a clause 2 How is a clause different from a phrase 3 What are the different types of clause 4 How are they different from each other F Identifying Structures Where you fmd a clause in the expressions below specify whether it is dependent or independent circle the subject and underline the predicate Where you fmd a phrase specify what kind it is indicate the missing elements of an ellipse See you tomorrow On top of old Smokey Do you want to go to the movies or shall we stay here 83 Bring me a cup of coffee Seeking experienced of ce managers They need that like a hole in the head She Walked in after he had finished speaking 84 II SENTENCE TYPES As we observed in the preceding chapter a clause and a sentence may be identical if the clause is an independent clause We might add that if only independent clauses existed we would have fewer kinds of sentence structure The fact that dependent clauses also exist and by nature cannot stand alone increases the number of kinds of sentence structure We now conclude our examination of structural concepts with a very brief survey of the Ways in which clauses Work singly and in combinations to form four different types of sentence namely simple compound complex and compound complex A The Simple Sentence The simple sentence is identical with the independent clause It may be short or long complicated with various elements or relatively simple but it has only one complete independent clause Some examples I m going home Betty bought the car Are you crazy The boss has gone for the day Bill took the car to a dealer and sold it for 200 In just a little over a month the film has been seen by more than 30 million people B The Compound Sentence The compound sentence consists of two or more independent clauses joined by one or more coordinating conjunctions All clauses in such a sentence are complete thought units Examples I m going and you ll stay here Joe will go shing or he ll play golf Betty bought the car but her brother wrecked it C The Complex Sentence The complex sentence consists of one independent clause and one dependent clause joined to each other by means of a subordinating conjunction or a relative pronoun Generally speaking the order of the clauses is not important although one does not begin a sentence in English with a relative pronoun one major exception to this is Whoever as in Whoever laughs last laughs best Betty bought the car which she had Wanted for years I ll go when I nish this Joe will go fishing if it doesn t rain If it doesn t rain Joe will go shing 85 D The Compound Complex Sentence While the complex sentence consists of two clauses the compound complex sentence consists of a minimum of three clauses these may be either two independent clauses and one dependent clause or one independent clause and two dependent clauses The two clauses of the same type are joined to each other by a coordinating conjunction In the examples below the dependent clauses appear in bold type 1 One Dependent Clause with Two Independent Clauses When I nish writing this you can type it up and I ll start the next project After Bill cut the wood John held it in place and Joe nailed it fast 2 One Independent Clause with Two Dependent Clauses She got an A either because she worked hard or because she knew how to study ef ciently Bill will be promoted if he does a good job and when there is a vacancy With this we have completed the discussion of the parts and types of sentences in English We have seen the Various parts of speech and the ways in which they can be used to construct ellipses phrases subjects predicates clauses and sentences When you have completed the exercises below you should have a good understanding of the terminology as well as of the workings of English grammar and you should be in an excellent position to transfer that understanding to your study of a foreign language I hope that you have enjoyed and pro ted from this study of structural concepts and that it will serve you well as you pursue work in another language The best of luck to you 86 EXERCISES 1 What are the types of sentence 2 Which type of sentence does each of the following represent Explain your answer Brad and Tom have gone to work Experts agree that a century of mass marketing is giving way to a new age of target marketing State universities play a signi cant role in communities and should bene t from business and industry in the community Scoring has become like pulling teeth for some teams He might be a movie star if things had gone according to plan She is a bureaucrat but she does not work in an office all day long In the not too distant future consumers will face the prospect that a computer someplace is compiling a record of everything that they purchase every place that they go and everything that they do 3 Find an example of each sentence type in the introduction and write it below 87 4 Construct two of your own for each type don t copy from the examples 88 0 39EZiiIIquotEiJBaE E L 39 H 39 Ph 800 7729601 wwwCoursePacksEtccom
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