HDFS 3440: Chapter 2 Notes
HDFS 3440: Chapter 2 Notes 3440
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caroline Bacevice on Tuesday January 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 3440 at Ohio State University taught by Katye Miller in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 119 views. For similar materials see Human Sexuality in Human Development at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 01/27/15
Human Sexuality Chapter 2 The Goals of Sexology Goals similar to scientists in other disciplines understanding predicting controlling or in uencing the events of the subject matter Example of how research leads directly to behavior control 0 Understanding how adolescents make decisions about contraceptive use has resulted in the development of schoolbasedsexeducation programs many of which are linked to family planning clinic services Alfred Kinsey the first researcher to conduct an extensive general survey of American sexual behaviors took place only in the late 1940s and early 1950s Nonexperimental Research Methods Case Studies 0 Case study a nonexperimental research method that examines either a single subject or a small group of subjects individually and in depth 0 Advantages to researchers I Flexibility of data gathering procedure I Offers opportunity to acquire insight into specific behaviors o Disadvantages I Sacrifices some control I Can be difficult to generalize I A case study is not suitable for many kinds of research questions Surveys 0 Survey sample small group used to draw inferences or conclusions about a much larger group with a particular characteristic called a target population 0 Choosing the Sample I Representative sample a type of limited research sample that provides an accurate representation of a larger target population of interest Also called a probability sample I Random sample selected from a larger population using randomized procedures I A study sample cannot be truly representative unless it re ects all the important subgroups in the target population 0 Questionnaires and Interviews I Questionnaires tend to be quicker and cheaper to administer They also are more anonymous so subjects are more likely to answer honestly I Interviews are more exible the questions can be varied and can also be easily explained 0 Problems of Sex Survey Research I Nonresponse the refusal to participate in a research study I Self selection the bias introduced into research study results because of participants willingness to respond I A problem in a sex survey research has to do with the accuracy of a subject s response The tendency to provide socially desirable responses can involve people who consciously or unconsciously conceal certain about their sexual histories because they view them as abnormal foolish or painful to remember I Demographic bias a kind of sampling bias in which certain segments of society such as White middle class white collar workers are disproportionately represented in a study population 0 The Kinsey Report I Sample of 5300 White males and 5940 White females Both from rural and urban areas in each state and represented a range of ages marital statuses occupations education levels and religions I African Americans and other races were completely omitted I Findings that sexual behavior is in uenced by educational level and that heterosexuality or homosexuality is often not an allornone proposition 0 The National Health and Social Life Survey I The outbreak ofAIDS in the 1980s occurred at a time when the US public health community was ill informed about the contemporary sexual practices of the citizenry I The research team Edward Laumann Iohn Gagnon Robert Michael and Stuart Michaels I Survey of 20000 people I In 1991 Congress introduced legislation that effectively eliminated federal funding for such studies I Study titles the National Health and Social Life Survey Most comprehensive info about adult sexual behavior since Kinsey o The National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior I Conducted by Michael Reece Debby Herbenick 1 Dennis Fortenberry Brian Dodge Stephanie Sanders and Vanessa Schick in 2010 o Surveys about Pornography and Alcohol Use I Study involved 222 male nonoffender college students who were administered a questionnaire regarding their use of pornography and their selfreported likelihood of committing rape or using sexual force I Exposure to sexually violent media can increase tolerance for sexually aggressive behavior greater acceptance of the myth that women want to be raped reduced sensitivity to rpe victims desensitization to violence against women and an increased probability of committing rape I 20000 Americans in a survey 60 stated that alcohol helped put them in the moodquot for sex which was significantly higher proportion of women for this response Direct Observation 0 0 Method of research in which subjects are observed as they go about their activities William Masters and Virginia Iohnson used direct observation in a lab setting to learn about physiological changes during sexual arousal Functional magnetic resonance imaging a tool used to observe record and map areas of the brain that are activated when individuals are exposed to visual erotica The Experimental Method Experimental research research conducted in precisely controlled laboratory conditions so that subjects reactions can be reliably measured Independent variable in an experimental research design a condition or component that is under the control of the researcher who manipulated of determines its value Dependent variable in an experimental research design an outcome or resulting behavior that the experimenter observes and records but does not control Because researchers can control variables precisely they are able to draw conclusions about causal relationships to a degree not possible with other research methods Technologies in Sex Research Electronic Devices for Measuring Sexual Arousal O O The penile strain gauge is a exible loop that looks something like a rubber band with a wire attatched The vaginal photoplethysmograph is a device designed to measure the increased vaginal blood volume The clitoral photoplethysmograph assesses clitoral blood volume and has recently been shown to be a sensitive tool for measuring genital arousal in women o The vaginal myograph and rectal myograph are implements inserted into the vagina or rectum that measures muscular activity in the pelvic area Computerized Assessment of Sexual Behavior 0 A Self Administered Questionnaire provides an alternative survey method that can overcome difficulties by providing a more private and potentially less threatening means of reporting sensitive behavior 0 Two method for computer interviews keys on a keyboard or audio Sex Research in Cyberspace o Cyberspace questionnaires are cheaper because they eliminate printing costs decrease need for staff and do not require distribution and collection costs 0 People responding to electronic surveys are less in uenced by social desirability and more inclined to share information that they might not disclose through written questionnaires and interviews 0 The Internet provides limitless potential 0 Digital divide Internet users are still not representative of the general US population Internet users tend to be younger better educated and more af uent that nonusers Ethical Guidelines for Human Sex Research Researchers share a common commitment to maintaining the welfare dignity rights wellbeing and safety of their human subjects The ethical guidelines require that no pressure or coercion be applied to ensure the participation of volunteers in research and that researchers avoid procedures that might cause physical or psychological harm to human subjects Researchers need informed consent Issue of deception still controversial Evaluating Research Some Questions to Ask What are the researchers credentials Are the investigators professionally trained Are they affiliated with reputable institutions Through what type of media were the results published What approach or type of method was used and were proper scientific procedures adhered to Were a sufficient number of subjects used and is there any reason to suspect bias in the selection method