Week Two Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Vanessa Alpert on Wednesday January 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PY 370 at a university taught by Dr. Sheila R. Black in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 183 views.
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Date Created: 01/28/15
1202015 Chapter 2 The Renaissance What was the Renaissance Discoveries in Science Scientific Method you may be able to apply this to the mind Beautiful Art Davinci Shakespeare Scienti c Discoveries Gutenberg Printing Press John Broughton s Psychologia or An Account of the Nature of the Rational Soul Copernicus heliocentric discovery believed the earth revolved around the sun Galileoand the telescope could provide imperical evidence through the telescope that what Copernicus was saying about the sun earth and planets was actually true Newton used scientific method to develop law of psychics Inductive vs Deductive Reasoning Inductive start with bits and pieces of information form a hypothesis Deductive check logical given premises correct ex All men are bald Tom is a man so he must be bald Contributions of Philosophers DescartesRationalistNativist Eccentric Doubted everything Without proof doubted existence of world and himselfis he dreaming or no I think therefore I am If he thinks than he does exist Dualism soul and body considered the body the machine Forerunner of Nativismsome notions are innate born with innate capacity to appreciate God etc Animals vs Humanswould subject animals to surgery W no anesthesia Summoned to help Queen who wanted to have fun Without annoying God She was not very interested in Philosophy as he was Associationism In psychology the theory that the mind learns by combining simple irreducible elements through association thought about in the 17th century came to this conclusion by observing human beings Hobbes Associationism Associations between elements of the mind could occur through habit wishes and repetition Probably best known for his view of mankind Individuals are aggressive animals Individuals act in their own selfinterest The life of man is solitary poor nasty brutish and short because they are too involved in their own selfinterest so they are this way to others Locke everything learned through experience Noted as the first British Empiricist Rejected Descartes s notions of innate ideas and pure speculation as a means of injury he felt that whatever discoveries you may come about through speculation needed to be confirmed by evidence he did not want a science not based on imperical evidence Advocated the observational experimental scientific method used by Newton Harvey if people used scientific method they could figure out if the mind operates in a lawful way Locke s empiricism cont d Lock s notions of human understanding Just as Newton had conceived of the universe as a huge clockwork wrules Locked wanted to see if there were rules that governed the human mind Locke wanted to refract consciousness into its most basic elements just as Newton had reductionistic and atomistic Human mind is a blank slate All knowledge comes through experience Two types of knowledge form ideas Sensation hard red loud cold sweet Re ection ideas of our own mental representations perceiving 9 6 remembering abstracting and thinking Locke s empiricism cont d The association of ideas Combining simple ideas into complex ideas Bringing two simple ideas together and seeing the relation between them Abstraction separating simple ideas from other ideas that accompany them Evidence to support Locke s contention that everything is learned The blind who receive sight there are countless records of people who have been blind and then receive sight during adolescenceadulthood and when this happens they are utterly confused with the environment because certain things are learned Berkeley Believed that knowledge comes form experience Subjective idealism or radical immaterialism Existence of external world depends on perception Can something exist if it is never perceived God perceives it thus it does exist David Hume believed in associationism Pneumatic Philosophy Distinguished bt impressions and ideas When impression and ideas occur together they become associated The idea begins to resemble the impression Three ideas of association Contiguity in time and place Cause and effect Resemblance 19th century Associationism James Mills father and John Stuart Mills son Interesting psychological dynamic bt father and son James Mills made John Stuart Mills study all day everyday which lead to a nervous breakdown amp didn t know a lot about life Academic rigor so intense that he John S Mills had no time for friends or playmates Advocate for women John Stuart Mills John Stuart Mill believed that you should make decisions that would benefit the most people not just yourself James and John Stuart Mills philosophy of Utilitarianism Like predecessors John S Mills believed that sensations lead to ideas Sensationsideascombination of simple ideas Utilitarian John S Mills Did advocate for psychology as a science John S Mills Alexander Bain Founded the Journal Mind main claim to fame focused on issues related to psychology A physiologist Interested in movements and habits Distrusted speculation and arm chair theorizing Sympathetic to the experimental method for advancing psychology 1222015 Questions Chapter 2 review 1 What did Descartes believe about ideas in the mind The mind possesses both innate and derived ideas 2 Which of the following ideas did Descartes suggest is innate in humans Ideas of self and God 3 Descartes viewed the human body as Similar to a hydraulic machine Designed by God Diff from animal bodies in that it can be controlled by the mind 4 What was Descartes opinion on animal dissection It was acceptable because animals lack selfawareness 5 Which position is most consistent with that of J ulien de La Mettrie Humans are nothing more than complex machines 6 What is Leviathan A book written by Hobbes that advocates the monarchy of a Godchosen king 7 Who suggested that the mighty frame of the world would not exist without a mind to perceive it Berkeley 8What statement about Gotfried Wilhelm con Leibriz rationalist is accurate He believed that the mind and body operate independently but in parallel 9Hume s associationism distinguishes between Impressions and ideas 10 James Mills theory of association of ideas can be described as mental while John S Mills can be described as mental Mechanics chemistry 11The philosophy that actions are wrong based on how much unhappiness they cause for others is called and was proposed by Utilitarianism John S Mill 12 The first journal devoted to psychological topics was founded by Mind Bain which was Side Notes Ptolemy Geocentric Modelthe fact that the sun revolved around the earth Epistemology the study of knowledge look for textbook website Kant Rationalist Nativist Space there is no reason that we need to allocate space for individuals its another capability humans have inborn time Categorical Imperative his ethical standard that he had think what the world would be like if everyone behaved like you in that situation and only do it if the world would be better off if everyone behaved like you If we learn everything by experience how is it that we can navigate the environment so well and learn language so easily his solution is that humans are born with some inborn capabilities such as a need to categorize Descartes and Dualism Descartes where is the seat of the mind Where is the brain and what role does it play I many people thought the mind was in the heart lead people to want to discover where in the body was the place responsible for thinkingfreewill Contributions to scientists studying the nervous system Michelangelodepicted the brain accurately Decapitationsdecapitated heads smiled scientists were able to show that that was just re ex after the head is gone you have absolutely no control over your behavior Veterans of War Brain injuries can you localize parts of the brain that are injured and figure out how that affects a particular function Animals subjected to dissections the legs of decapitated animals continued to move Spinal Cord Magendie dorsal and ventral roots of the spinal cord if the dorsal routes were injured in some way there was lack of sensation but when there was injury to ventral roots there was lack of movement important for work of sensation and perception in psychology Bell arguing in who was first in making these discoveries vs Magendie Whyttspinal cord amp frog s leg found out that if you decapitated a frog and stimulated the leg the leg would move It showed him that you didn t need a brain for a leg to move but you did need a spinal cord If you took head and spinal cordnothing would move led to realize importance of spinal cord Helmholtz Visual System Color Vision 3 nerve fiber s each specifically sensitive to different wave lengths tested this with participants buy having light that conformed to red blue and green and he found that if he mixed all these different wave lengths you can create all the colors of the rainbow he was correct Muscles Nerves and Electricity Importance of Galvani trying to show that electricity was responsible for neural impulses traveling through the NS which caused limbs to move and Du Boi Reymond s work Electricity generated by the brain and distributed throughout the body through NS Galvani Attached wire to lab roof and to frog s leg tie a wire to a frog s leg and have the wire connected to a roof that was likely to be striked by lightening and then the frog s leg should move he wanted to create a neural impulse through his own body blistered arm and put it in saline solution and connected a wire to his arm and he was able to demonstrate that electricity was traveling thorugh his arm and showing that your own bodybrain generate electricity Helmholtz and the neural impulse Myograph there is no time lapse between when your body sense pain and your reaction Short delay bt stimulation of neural impulse and movement Sadly he couldn t explain his work in a way that people could understand Phrenology shown to be inaccurate Franz Joseph Gall he could associate different areas of the brain with certain behaviors peoples eyes that popped out had better memories feel peoples heads for lumps that mean they are better are certain things and have certain personality traits based on the bumps no imperical evidence to back this up Johann Spurzheim main goal was to make money with Gall s ideas put on shows Comb s idealism did not just do it for the money he said things like slavery is wrong etc Money and Science Phrenology makes money Fowler and Wells took full advantage of it they were making money of phrenology Failure of Phernology Many authors do this that appearance can show personality no evidence to back this up Flourens Ablation remove part of the brain and then see how it behavedl if he removes the frontal lobes and the animal behaves a keratin way then it showed that the frontal lobes are responsible for that Action Proper each part of the brain is responsible for different functions Action brain as a whole functions together as a unit Localization of Function Importance of frontal lobes Phineas Gage his IQ was the same before and after explosion but his personality changed and John Harlow identified that frontal lobes were affected and are involved with selfcontrolsocial skills Language and the localization of Speech Broca Tan experienced brain damage to left frontal lobe and no longer could produce speech Broca began to think that the frontal lobes do control speech left frontal Wernlike
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