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Chapter 1 book notes ( and lecture)

by: Gabriela Saint-Louis

Chapter 1 book notes ( and lecture) 1101

Marketplace > George Washington University > 1101 > Chapter 1 book notes and lecture
Gabriela Saint-Louis
GPA 3.04
Introduction to Public Health and Health Services
Tamara Henry

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About this Document

This is a combination of notes from chapter one as well as a few additions from class lecture.
Introduction to Public Health and Health Services
Tamara Henry
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gabriela Saint-Louis on Wednesday January 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 1101 at George Washington University taught by Tamara Henry in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 282 views.


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Date Created: 01/28/15
Chapter 1 Public Health the Population Health Approach Public health in our daily lives improvement over time water chlorination hand washing and indoor plumbing eliminated transmission of bacterial diseases teeth brushing owing and uoridation of water impact on the dental health of all Refrigerator one of the most important advances in food safety 0 Public pressure for food safety in large part brought about creation of US FDA Radiation Safety Highway safety Environment quality of air we breathe Concernschallenges Globalization increases potential for the spread of existing and emerging diseases and raises concerns about the safety of products we use Climate change and ongoing environmental deterioration produce new territory for quotoldquot diseases ex malaria dengue fever Overuse of technologies ex antibiotics encouraged the emergence of resistant bacteria 19005 increase in life expectancy of almost 30 years in developed countries due mostly t public health efforts 0 Epidemic of obesity threatens to slow down or reverse this dprogress Challenges of 21St century public health 0 Protection of health and continued improvement in quality of life not just quantity of years individuals are living What do we mean bv quotPublic Healthquot Addressing the needs of vulnerable populations has always been a cornerstone of public health Public Health efforts often focus on the most vulnerable populations from reducing exposure to lead paint in deteriorating buildings to food supplementation to prevent birth defects and goiters The concerns of society as a whole are always in the forefront of public health 0 Constantly changing and the methods for addressing them keep expanding 2 de nitions of public health 1 Early 19005 a Public health is the science and art of pre venting disease prolonging life and promoting health through organized community effort 2 Recent years a The substance of public health is the quotorganized community efforts aimed at the prevention of disease and the promotion of health The concept of public health in the 20005 is beginning to undergo important changes in a number of ways Goal of prolonging life emphasis on the quality of life Protection of health promoting health when it is at risk Use of technologiesl offering new ways to communicate Expansion in intervention options increasing awareness of potential hams and costs of intervention programs evidence based public health Collaboration of both public health and clinical care private partnerships Efforts to simultaneously examine multiple problems and multiple solutions rather than one problem or one solution at a time New 215 century de nition of public health the totality ofal evidence based public and private efforts that preserve and promote health and prevent disease disability and death 0 Examination of full range of environmental social and economic determinants of health not just those traditionally addressed by public health and clinical health care a An examination of the full range of interventions to address health issues including the structure and function of healthcare delivery systems plus the role of public policies that affect health even when health is not their intended effect How has the approach of public health changed over time Earliest human civilizations integrated concepts of prevention into their culture religion and laws 0 Prohibition against speci c food pork beef and seafood Customs for food preparation including of cially designated methods of killing cattle and methods of cooking Prohibition against alcohol or its limited use for religious ceremony efforts to control behavior and prevent disease Prohibition of cannibalism the most universal of food taboos has strong grounding in the protection of health Earliest civilizations have viewed sexual practices as having health consequences 0 Male circumcision premarital abstinence and marital delity have all been shown to have impacts on health 0 Quarantine or isolation of individuals with disease or exposed to disease has been practiced for thousands of years Notion that isolation could protect individuals and societies led to some of the the earliest organized efforts to prevent the spread of disease 0 Early vaccination English physician developed rst vaccine small ox p Widespread use of vaccinations was slow to develop partially because there was not adequate scienti c basis ot explain the reason for its success at the time Public Health Awareness began to emerge in Europe and the United States in the mid18005 US public health movement has origins in Europe in the mid 18005 Concepts of disease as the consequence of social conditions took root in the 1830405 This movement which put fort the idea that disease emerges from social conditions of inequality produced the concept of social justice While early organized public health efforts paid special attention to vulnerable members of society they also focused on the hazards that affected everyone such as contamination of the environment Hygiene movement this focus on sanitation and public health Made major strides in controlling communicable disease such as tb cholera and waterborne diseases Fundamental concepts of epidemiology developed during same era John Snow 18505 father of epidemiology Helped establish the importance of careful data collection and documentation of rates of disease before and after an intervention in order to evaluate effectiveness Known for termination of cholera epidemic efforts to close down the broad street pump which supplied water contaminated by cholera to a district of London b lgnaz Semmelweis Austrian physician Used same approach to control puerperal fever or fever of childbirth then a major cause of infant mortality lnstituted a hand0washing procedure and was able to document a dramatic reduction int eh frequency of puerperal feven Was unable to convince many of his contemporaries to acctpt intervention without a clear mechanism of action c Mid 18005 in England development of birth and death records or vital statistic Controversy over how to de ne cause of death 1 Edwin Chadwick argued that speci c pathological conditions or diseases should be the basis for the cause of death 2 William Farr argued that underlying factors including what we would today call risk factors and social conditions should be seen as the actual causes of death The methods of public health were already being established before the development of the germ theory of disease by Louis Pasteur and his European colleagues in the mid18005 After Civil War 1872 The American Public Health Association APHA was formed with these two most important functions being 1 Advocacy for adoption by the government of the most current scienti c advances relevant to public health 2 Public education on how to improve community health The biological revolution of the late 18005 and early 19005 that resulted from the germ theory of disease laid the groundwork for the modern era of public health How would you de ne Health class responses The absence of disease General Well being Life expectancy Physical and mental status Emotional stability Social relationships Economic status Risk behavior Environmental factors 7 dimensions of health Physical Mental Emotional Environmental the built environment what individuals are born in time and place Sputual Intellectual Social Health Wealth Mental Health now vs then Back in the day diagnosis of mental disorders you39d be quarantined and put aside from society ex schizophrenia lnsensitivity to certain disorders Perceptions Stigmatized label that we cannot move forward from people are so fearful of being labeled with stigma Those who are insured are most likely to talk to their doctors about how they are feeling and therefore more likely to be diagnosed Economically it39s not always possible to pay for mental illness drugs which are very expensive Socio economic disparities vs those who are insured and those that aren t What are we referring to when we say quotpublic healthquot Entails part of what the government is obligated to do to make sure you39re safe as well as community involvement Achieve parody across the board goal of public health practioners Government subsidies Socioecological framework a concentric circle with different levels 39 PWF I Individual level speci c high risk diseases lifestyle etc Interpersonal level Organizational level ex school worksite etc Community level Public policy level issues cost time Important for researchers start looking at the interpersonal level people who directly in uence your behavior


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