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Module 12 Notes

by: Krista Notetaker

Module 12 Notes LSLS 7060

Krista Notetaker
GPA 4.0

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These are the notes for module 12 that cover chapter 11 of our textbook: Functions of language. I have organized these notes to cover the headings throughout the chapter rather than the learning ou...
Applied Linguistics
Dr. Hye Pae
Class Notes
Functions of Language
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Krista Notetaker on Wednesday March 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to LSLS 7060 at University of Cincinnati taught by Dr. Hye Pae in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views.


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Date Created: 03/30/16
Module  12  Notes   Functions  of  Language   Written  by:  Krista  Anstead   March  2016     Learning  Outcomes   •   articulate  the  communicative  and  relational  aspects  of  language.   •    summarize  different  functions  of  language.   •    be  cognizant  of  cultural  differences  of  linguistic  meaning  and  language  use.   •    employ  cultural  analysis  in  lesson,  whenever  applicable.     Readings/References   Razfar,  A.  &  Rumenapp,  J.  (2014).  Functions  of  language.  In  Applying  linguistics  in  the     classroom:  A  sociocultural  approach  (pp.  224-­‐246).  New  York:  Routledge.     Chapter  11  Notes   Introduction   •   linguistic  universals:  common  features  of  phonology,  morphology,  and  syntax   o   viable  candidates  for  common  language  functions  shared  between  the  world’s   languages   o   based  on  biological  traits  contained  within  an  individual   •   cultural  universals/functional  universals:  based  on  the  idea  that  people  from  around  the   world  have  similar  needs,  problems,  and  purposes   •   Linguistic  ladder:  INSERT  INFO  HERE  FROM  CHAPTER  1   o   Sixth  rung:  pragmatics   §   Way  we  use  language  to  perform  cultural  functions  and  fulfill  personal   needs     Speech  Acts     •   Belief  that  when  we  use  language,  we  are  not  only  “saying  something”  but  also  “doing   something”   •   Purposes  of  talking:  asking  questions,  giving  information,  directing  others   •   Pieces  of  speech  acts   o   Supralinguistic  cues:  tone,  pitch,  gestures   o   Context   •   Searle’s  common  speech  acts   o   Representatives:  commits  speaker  to  the  truth   §   The  grass  is  green   o   Directives:  speaker  attempts  to  get  the  hearer  to  do  something   §   Can  you  close  the  window?   o   Commissives:  commits  the  speaker  to  some  future  action   §   I  promise  to  love  and  cherish  you   o   Expressives:  speaker  expresses  a  psychological  state   §   Thank  you  for  your  time.   o   Declarations:  world  conforms  to  what  the  speaker  says   §   I  now  pronounce  you  husband  and  wife   o   Categorized  in  terms  of  what  they  accomplish,  not  how  they  are  grammatically   structured   o   Suggests  that  all  questions  are  actually  directives,  since  they  are  attempts  to  get   the  hearer  to  do  something     Speech  events     •   Norms  and  rules  that  tell  us  how  to  speak  in  a  given  situation   •   Identifying  specific  norms  as  a  genre  of  speech   •   Can  extend  to  greetings,  business  meetings,  and  other  goal-­‐oriented  norm-­‐governed   activities   •   Speech  events  do  change  as  relationships  change   •   Range  of  language  functions  is  considerable,  and  naming  them  helps  ELLs  better   understand  how  speech  events  are  organized     Functions  of  language     •   Common  language  functions   o   Referential   §   Language  is  used  to  talk  about  something  else   §   Used  to  identify  objects  in  the  world   §   One  of  the  primary  uses  of  language   §   Can  be  verbal  or  nonverbal   §   used  to  establish  the  presence  of  something  within  social  interactions   o   Negation   §   Language  is  used  to  express  the  absence  of  something   §   Act  of  rejecting  a  proposition,  taking  an  opposite  stance  or  falsifying  a   claim   §   Act  of  negation  is  common  to  all  languages   §   Double  negatives   •   Spanish  uses  them  for  making  negation  more  unequivocal   •   English  uses  technical  logic  so  it  does  NOT  use  double  negatives   o   Influenced  by  philosophy,  logic,  mathematics,  and  science   •   Also  used  by  many  dialects  of  English   §   Used  worldwide,  however,  it  operates  on  a  variety  of  logics   §   One  of  the  fundamental  ways  that  children  discover  meaning  through   experience   o   Counting/quantifying   §   Language  is  used  to  talk  about  numbers  and  quantities   §   All  languages  of  the  world  have  some  type  of  quantifying  system,  or   number  system   •   Used  to  categorize,  group,  and  analyze  ideas   §   While  the  underlying  purpose  is  universal,  the  symbolic  system  is  local   §   Piraha  people   •   Perhaps  only  known  language  where  the  existence  of   quantification  and  numeracy  practices  is  contested   •   Has  grammatically-­‐built  in  citation  system   •   Concerned  only  with  that  which  is  in  their  immediate  context,  and   since  counting  and  quantifying  allows  for  comparison  across  time   and  space,  they  do  not  perceive  a  need  to  use  this   §   Underlying  value  and  purpose  is  precision   §   Found  in  systems  of  measurement   §   Mass  nouns  versus  count  nouns   •   Mass:  not  counted  as  individual  or  pieces,  nut  rather  are   quantified  in  block  measurements   o   Never  plural   o   Must  not  be  measured  and  cannot  be  counted  individually   o   Example:  sugar,  rice,  milk   o   Used  with:  number,  cup,  some,  little   •   Count  nouns:  can  be  counted  individually   o   Can  be  pluralized   o   Used  with:  number,  couple,  a,  few,  multiple   •   Mass  nouns  are  not  always  mass  nouns  due  to  cultural  usages   o   Sugar:  can  also  refer  to  sugar  cubes  or  types  of  sugar   instead  of  individual  grains   •   Mass  and  count  nouns  are  not  simply  discrete  categories  of   nouns,  but  rather  help  us  to  culturally  talk  about  significant   amounts  of  objects  that  need  to  be  measured   o   Greetings   §   Language  is  used  to  welcome  or  acknowledge  someone   §   Normative  language  function  found  in  all  observed  languages  of  the   world   §   Devised  in  order  to  accomplish  initial  contact  with  each  other   §   Depending  on  the  relationship  and  situation,  the  greetings  function  has  a   wide  range  of  implicit  and  explicit  rules   §   Affected  by  gender  norms  in  terms  of  physical  contact,  space,  and  what  is   considered  appropriate  practice   §   Also  affected  by  age,  status,  and  honorifics   §   Underlying  relationship  plays  a  significant  role  in  how  greeting  is   accomplished   §   Different  depending  on  the  region  –  urban  or  rural   §   Many  Spanish-­‐speaking  countries  greet  one  another  with  a  benediction   o   Terms  of  address   §   Language  may  be  used  to  index  social  status  or  solidarity  when   addressing  someone   §   How  we  address  another  person   §   One  of  the  most  pervasive  ways  terms  of  address  differentiate  status  is   through  the  variations  in  the  second  person  pronoun:  you   •   Spanish,  French,  and  Farsi  distinguish  between  formal  and   informal  uses  of  you   §   Use  of  formal  language  or  informal  language  can  be  used  to  mark   difference  or  build  solidarity  in  status   •   Decisions  based  on  solidarity,  not  status,  when  there  are   conflicting  levels  of  closeness  and  superiority   §   Decision  to  use  formal  title  or  a  first  name  basis  is  based  on  convergence   of  interpersonal  factors  and  societal  expectations   •   Relationships  also  change  over  time   §   Understanding  how  language  functions  as  a  marker  of  solidarity  and   status  is  critical  to  English  learning   o   Honorifics   §   Some  languages  have  special  forms  for  polite  language,  and  language   used  to  speak  to  someone  of  a  higher  status   §   Specialized  group  of  words,  or  lexicon,  that  is  used  for  the  sole  purpose  of   marking  social  indifference   §   Javanese,  Japanese,  and  Korean  have  very  highly  developed  honorific   systems   §   Only  some  languages  have  an  honorific  system  at  the  structural  level   §   People  use  language  functions  to  index,  or  point  to,  their  collective  ideas,   values,  and  ideologies  of  respect  and  honor   o   Reproduction   §   Narratives  and  cultural  ideas  of  reproduction  are  expressed  through   language   o   Affective   §   Language  is  used  to  express  emotions   o   Ontology   §   Language  is  used  to  talk  about  the  world  as  it  really  is   o   Epistemology   §   Language  is  used  to  talk  about  knowledge   o   Climate   §   Language  is  used  to  talk  about  the  weather  or  environment   o   Time   §   language  is  used  to  tell  and  talk  about  times,  dates,  and/or  historical   events   o   Narration   §   Language  is  used  to  tell  stories  that  reveal  social  identities  and  cultural   values   o   Transactions   §   Language  can  be  used  to  perform  transactions   o   Aesthetics     §   Language  can  be  used  to  talk  about  art  and  beauty   •   Metaphysical   o   Addresses  people’s  fundamental  need  to  make  sense  of  metaphysical   experiences   §   The  world  that  is  just  beyond  our  reach   o   People  seek  to  relate  beings,  or  higher  powers,  or  ultimate  realities  in  many   different  ways   §   Talk  addressed  to  God:  done  using  rituals,  respect  registers,  special   language,  and  pattern  prayers   o   One  of  the  most  common  language  functions  is  how  it  is  used  to  communicate   with  the  afterlife,  other  worlds,  and  other  dimensions   o   Function  to  interact  with  the  metaphysical  world  is  a  common,  if  not  universal,   function  of  language,  though  the  actual  speech  events  vary  drastically     Conclusion       •   Languages  have  these  functions  because  they  arise  from  people’s  needs  to  solve   authentic  problems  and  answer  deep  identity  questions  about  who  they  are,  where   they’ve  been,  and  where  they  are  going     Db  Post   •    Submit  your  critical  Q/A  by  Friday,11:59  pm,  EST.   •    Provide  your  feedback  on  peers'  Q/As  (at  least  2)  by  Sunday,  11:59  pm,  EST.    


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