SLHS 309 oct 8
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This 3 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by Shannon Bridges on Wednesday January 28, 2015. The One Day of Notes belongs to SLHS 309 at Purdue University taught by Dr. Seidl in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 181 views.
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Date Created: 01/28/15
SLHS 309 10814 Conclusions 0 75 month olds use strong syllables to segment uent speech Rely heavily on stress 0 This ability is langspeci c and improves between 6 and 9 months old It is lang speci c because different language has different prosodic structures Not a good strategy for French 0 10 month olds can pull out words must be using something other than the metrical stress cues to segment words coarticulation phonotactic or allophonic cues implicit segmentation Statistical Strategy 0 Use distributional information to identify candidate word forms 0 Short sequences heard in isolations o Syllables which frequency cooccur transitional probability 0 Pretty baby TP prettygtTPtty ba because of frequency Pretty occur together with a high amount of frequency 0 When the rst syllable does not predict the second syllable there is a low TP if they have low TP don t make it into babies lexicon Store these forms and use them to segment future input Transitional Probabilities to Segment 0 Sample trisyllabic words and TP 6 month olds Summary Low probdifferent words High probsylabes belong to the same word Babies can one way gather their protolexicon lnitial reliance on one cue 0 Research suggests that kids start by using TP 6 mos and use stress after that if available Edges of sentences can also be use to segment out words at 6 months 0 Da ropi da ROpitu RO is the stressed syllable Stress is language speci c strategy Some cues rely on language some cues do not TP 0 Effective and ef cient word segmentation strategies depend on multiple sources of information Any will be viable need to use all of these cues and combine them together because some rules have exceptions Segmentation of other types of words Nouns vs Verbs o Nounsstress on 1st syllable o Verbs stress on noninitial syllables Example discount Verb segmentation o Nazzi tested 105165 mos on segmentation of verbs with weakstrong patterns 0 Long time before verb segmentation is obtained Because position of verbs in sentences vs nouns nouns are always at beginning and end Verbs are almost always in the middle and have some in ection on them walk walking walked VS cake Nouns more likely to be pitch accented than verbs 0 Only 16 mos could segment vowelinitial verbs Edge Hypothesis Edges are hot spots for word segmentations for babies lnfants might use utterance or even phrase edges to segment speech 0 Words on edge of utterances are more acoustically prominent IDS helps because short sentences so more edges Parents put words they are trying to teach kids at end of utterances which are often nouns Familiarzation Stimuli Study on 8 month olds did basically same thing for 6 month olds Used target word in sentenceinitial medial nal position in 3 different groups of babies 0 Initial and nal edge were the same and hot spots middle was very low Had difficult time pulling out for middle Cross Dialect Word Segmentation Can babies recognizesegment words when spoken in an unfamiliar dialect Why is this important You encounter many different dialects and different accents You can accommodate all the different accents easily and frequently 0 Will look at 2 studies Spanish accented English Toronto English Hoosier Englsih o Familiarization phase accumulate 30 s listening time to either candle amp raptor or hamlet amp kingdom Test 4 phases Familiarize in one dialect and test in a different dialect Results Hoosier to Toronto Enlgish No signi cant difference for 9 month olds could recognize across mild accent and signi cant difference for 12 month olds Experiment 2amp3 9 month olds and 13 month olds English to Spanish accent Ecperiment 4 SpanA Summary 9 month olds can accommodate voice and accent variability independently but not voice variability coupled with accent va athy 13amp12 month olds can accommodate variability in both voice and accent Suggesting they have more robust word Conclusions Not a sudden thing Begins at 6 months continues to 13 months Certain words positions are easier than other