Week One of Notes (January 27th)
Week One of Notes (January 27th) 21648
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amalia Cristiano on Wednesday January 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 21648 at San Diego State University taught by Hay in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 169 views.
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Date Created: 01/28/15
Holocaust Notes January 27th Two schools of thought as to why the Holocaust occurred 1 Intentialism and German character The idea that the Germans always planned to eventually kill off undesirables particularly Jews Explains the Holocaust as a oneoff event 2 Functionalism The idea that a bunch of things just came together at once through historical circumstances Best supported by historical evidence For example no record of Hitler ever mentioning an intent to kill Jews before the warno top Nazi official in fact History of Judaism AntiSemitism antiJewish sentiment or hatred of all things Jewish In Europe Jews were the only significant minority group Christians majority 4000 years ago in the Middle East approx what is now Iraq lived Hebrew Tribes Multiculturaldifferent ethnic groups also resided there Then for mysterious reasons the Hebrew Tribes migrated from Iraq and returned to a nomadic lifestyle from a more urban lifestyle Their patriarch was considered to be Abraham He is also considered the founder of Judaism and thus Christianity and Islam as well After the migration Abraham entered into a covenant or agreement with the Hebrew god known as El Shaddai or God of the RockMountain The terms of this covenant were that the Hebrew people would worship only El Shaddai and reject all other gods In return El Shaddai promised the Hebrews protection and to guidance to a new homeland calling the Hebrews his chosen people gtgtgt1000 years later approx 1000 BCE the ancient Hebrews took possession of their holy land which was the Land of Canaan historically known as Palestine and currently the nation of Israel The Hebrews chose Jerusalem as their capital They built a large temple for worship considered one of the great wonders of the ancient world which was the center of their faith and community The Hebrews were also able to turn ancient Israel into a major power by military force because they were skilled fighters and warriors Eventually the Hebrew tribes split into two kingdoms a result of con ict among the Hebrews themselves Approx 900 BCE However the ancient Hebrews beliefs continued to develop For example El Shaddai was converted to simply Yahweh because it was not a proper name which re ects the Hebrews belief that God is too big to be reduced to a name However the Hebrews were not yet completely monotheistic Although they believed in one god for their people they acknowledged that other groups such as the Pharisees had their own gods they worshipped gtgtgtgtIn 586 BCE Israel and Judah disappeared by conquest from outside empires Jerusalem was destroyed including the temple The Hebrew people became homeless having lost the land given to them by Yahweh They did not regain possession of this land until 1948 The empire that sacked Jerusalem was the Babylonian empire They enslaved captured Hebrews and began a period known as Babylonian Captivity Babylonian Captivity Babylonians brought enslaved Hebrews to Babylon to work as slaves During this time however the Hebrews solidified their beliefs and became completely monotheistic They also began to put together religious texts eventually compiling five books that would become the sacred Torah The Torah told the basic history of the Jews and their laws The first five books of the Torah are also the Old Testament in the Bible Later on the Torah was joined by the rest of the Hebrew Bible which is mostly made up of prophecies letters and stories Hebrew leaders continued to remind believers of their faith and laws through creation of a Jewish calendar which included holy days and rituals Most importantly it included the Sabbath a weekly holy day that begins at sundown Friday night and continues until Saturday at sundown During this time Jews were expected not to work or do any kind of labor The Babylonian Captivity ended in approximately 500 BCE when they were conquered The Hebrews were set free which marked the age of their Restoration Restoration During this time the Hebrews restored the temple although it was not as magnificent as the original and returned to Jerusalem The Jewish religion also continued to evolve becoming known as Temple Judaism This involved rituals centered around the temple and the temple also became the center of economic and political life and power However Jewish power was limited because they still did not have possession of the land gtgtIn approx 200 BCE the Roman Empire was established around Jerusalem The Roman Empire was tolerant of religions but still required laws and taxes to be followed by subjects of the empire Judea was a province of the Roman Empire and most of the inhabitants were not Jewish once again making the Jews a minority There were also frequent Jewish rebellions against authority They still felt that the land belonged to them In 71 CE the Romans crushed a rebellion and destroyed most of the second temple in Jerusalem This marked the Diaspora Diaspora Means dispersal After the crushing of the rebellion many Jewish families left and migrated all over the world Once again the Jews were homeless and without a temple of worship leading many to consider the Torah a portable temple because it was all they had The Jews also shifted from Temple Judaism to Rabbinic Judaism a large reason why the Jewish religion surVived the Diaspora and consequent actions against them Rabbis were teachers who met with small groups of male students to teach and keep the traditions of Judaism alive Through this the Jewish tradition of a high value on education was developed including the ability to read think write and debate no matter socioeconomic status or occupation
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