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Chapter 1

by: Kristen Walsh
Kristen Walsh
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kristen Walsh on Wednesday January 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to a course at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 75 views.


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Date Created: 01/28/15
BSC 108 Spring 2014 Exam 4 Final Exam Review Questions for Chapters 1314 and 1820 1 What is microevolution a Changes in allele frequencies within populations often associated with adaptation and can be measured from one generation to the next 2 What is macroevolution a Maj or changes in the history of life origin of new species and generates biological diversity 3 What is a species a Groups of organisms whose members have the potential to interbreed with one another in nature to produce fertile offspring reproductively isolated from other such groups 4 What is allopatric speciation a The formation of a new species in populations that are geographically isolated from one another 5 What is sympatric speciation a The formation of a new species in populations that live in the same geographic area 6 What is the Biological Species Concept a A population or group of populations whose members have the potential to interbreed with one another in nature to produce fertile offspring reproductively isolated from other such groups 7 What special circumstances are required to keep the gene pools separated in sympatric speciation a Segregation of habitat b Maj or alterations in mate recognition or behavior c Genetic incompatibility 8 Know the two models of the Pace of Speciation a Allopatric Speciation species evolve in geographic isolation usually associated with a geographic barrier preventing member of two populations from mating with one another b Sympatric Speciation species evolve without geographic isolation they remain together with potential to interbreed mostly associated with a genetic barrier die to a single mutational event Important in plants but not widespread among animals 9 What are prezygotic barriers Know the 5 types a Prezygotic Barriers prevent mating or fertilization between species reproductive barrier i Temporal isolation ii Habitat isolation iii Behavioral isolation iv Mechanical isolation v Gametic isolation 10 What are postzygotic barriers Know the 3 types a Postzygotic Barriers prevent survival or reproduction of hybrid offspring reproductive barrier i Hybrid invaibility ii Hybrid sterility iii Hybrid breakdown 11 Know the 8 classi cation levels for naming a species Domain Kingdom Phylum etc Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species 12 Know he 8 classi cation levels for human beings Google it Domain Eukaryota Kingdom Animilia Phylum Chordata Class Mammalia Order Primates Family Hominidae Genus Homo h Species Sapien 13 What is ecology a The scienti c study of the interactions between organisms and their environments 14 What are abiotic factors Know the 5 examples a Abiotic factors the nonliving chemical and physical factors in an environment i Energy Source ii Temperature iii Water iv Wind v Rocks and Soil 15 What are biotic factors Know some examples a Biotic Factors the living factors in an environment prepocg Whopocg i Plants ii Animals iii algea 16 What are the four levels of ecology Know what each is concerned with a Organismal ecology concerned with evolutionary adaptations that enable individual organisms to meet the challenges posed by their abiotic environments b Population ecology concerned with populations groups of individuals of the same species living in the same area concentrating mainly on factors that affect population density and growth c Community ecology concerned with communities assemblages of populations of different species focusing on how interactions between species affect community structure and organization 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 d Ecosystem ecology concerned with ecosystems which include all the abiotic factors in addition to the community of species in a certain area focusing on energy ow and the cycling of chemicals among the various abiotic and biotic factors What is a habitat a A place where an organism lives a speci c environment in which an organism lives What are 3 types of adaptations that enable organisms to adjust to changes in their environment a Physiological b Anatomical c Behavioral Name 2 types of Aquatic Biomes What is the salinity of each a Freshwater Biomes Lakes streams rivers and wetlands salt concentration less than 1 b Marine Biomes Oceans intertidal zones coral reefs and estuaries salt concentration of about 3 What are some uses for freshwater a Drinking water b Crop irrigation c Sanitation d Industry What are the 2 categories of freshwater Know examples of each a Standing water lakes and pond b Flowing water rivers and streams What are wetlands a An ecosystem intermediate between an aquatic ecosystem and a terrestrial ecosystem Wetland soil is saturated with water permanently or periodically What are estuaries a The area where a fresh water stream or river merges with sea water How are terrestrial biomes determined Know the names of the terrestrial biomes a Determined primarily by climate especially temperature and rainfall b Tropical forest Savanna Desert Chaparral Temperate grassland Temperate broadleaf forest Coniferous forest Arctic tundra High mountains Polar ice What is the tree line a The tree line is the point in elevation where trees can no longer grow Know the water cycle Solar heat Net movement of water vapor by Wind Water vapor over the land Water vapor over the sea Precipitation Precipitation over the land over the sea Evaporation Evaporation from the sea and transpiration Oceans i Surface water 7 Flow of water and groundwater from land to sea 27 What is population density a The number of individuals of a species per unit area or volume of the habitat 28 What is the markandrecapture technique and why is it utilized a Animals are trapped marked and then recaptured after a period of time as a sampling technique to calculate population density 29 What is the age structure of a population Why is it utilized a The Age Structure of a population is the proportion of individuals in different age groups b It helps us understand the history of a populations survival or reproductive success and how it relates to environmental factors Also helpful for predicting future changes in a population 30 What are the 2 growth models Know what each one looks like on a graph a Exponential Growth Model 500 450 400 350 300 250 200 Population size N 150 100 50 o I l 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Time months Breeding male fur seals L O I thousands CD 01 1 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 b Logistic Growth Model 7 7 m 7 I I I I I 1925 1935 Year What is carrying capacity a The number of individuals in a population that the environment can just maintain with no net increase or decrease How does the US Endangered Species Act de ne endangered species vs a threatened species a Endangered Species one that is in danger of extinction throughout all or a signi cant portion of its range b Threatened Species one likely to become endangered in the foreseeable future What is a community a All the organisms inhabiting and potentially interacting in a particular area an assemblage of populations of different species What is an ecological niche a The sum of a species use of the biotic and abiotic resources in its environment What did G F Gause study What model organism did he utilize a Studied the effects of interspecific competition in two closely related species of protists utilizing the paramecium Aurelia and paramecium caudatum What were his results a When the two organisms were separated they both had an increase in relative population density but when the two organisms where integrated the PAurelia had an increase in relative population density while the PCaudatum eventually died off Concluded that two species so similar that they compete for the same limiting resources cannot coexist in the same place What does the competitive exclusion principle state a Two species cannot coexist in a community if their niches are identical b Two possible outcomes i Extinction of one species ii Evolution of one species to use a different set of resources Know the difference between predator and prey a Predators kill and eat another b Prey is the animal that is eaten b 39 What are some of the plant defenses against herbivores a Spines and thorns b Chemical toxins such as morphine strychnine nicotine may be harmful to humans 40 What are some of the animal defenses against predators a Passive defenses such as hiding b Active defenses such as escaping c Mechanical defenses such as hard shells or quills 41 Why do organisms enter into symbiotic relationships a Mutualism both benef1t b Commensalism one benefits the other isn t harmed c Parasitism one benef1ts other is hurt 42 Know the names and examples for interspecific interactions a Interspeci c Interactions interactions between species i Interspeci c Competition may occur when two or more species in a community rely on similar limiting resources ii Ecological Niche the sum total of a species use of the biotic and abiotic resources in its environment 43 What is a trophic level a Each of several hierarchical levels in an ecosystem comprising organisms that share the same function in the food chain and the same nutritional relationship to the primary sources of energy 44 Know the different trophic levels and examples of organisms that belong in each a Producers plant b Primary Consumers Herbivore bugs c Secondary Consumer Carnivore mouse d Tertiary Consumer Carnivore snake e Quaternary Consumers Carnivore Eagle 45 What re the 3 main nutrients that cycle Know how they cycle through a The Carbon Cycle C02 in atmosphere I I I I I Higherlevel Plants algae quotn consumers cyanobacteria Wood quot quot Primary and fossil 39 consumers fuels 39 3 l 39v 39 l I my 6 f r K u I 7 a R K A 39 i 39 39 f 39 1 v1 amp QW 39vIsl 39s death 7 v Plant litter Decomposers soil microbes b The Phosphorus Cycle Phosphates in rock 4 l 5 Solid phosphates tr 39 17 u v V 39 Phosphates Phosphates in soil 1 I unorganm c The Nitrogen Cycle yr r Ammonium H l 1 In soul 2 x 7 l f 46 What is biological magni cation a A process in which toxins become more concentrated in successive trophic levels of a food web 47 Why are introduced species bad a They do not have natural predators and therefore form an abundance taking over natural resources other organisms use 48 How are humans impacting ecosystems a Human disturbance of biological communities is almost always destructive b Human activities often intrude in biogeochemical cycles by removing nutrients from one location and adding them to another c Increasing global warming by burning fossil fuels steadily raising the level of C02 in the atmosphere d Sewage treatment facilities and fertilizers add large amounts of nitrogen to aquatic systems causing heavy growth of algae e Destruction of tropical rain forests change the amount of water vapor in the air 49 Why is biodiversity important a Humans rely on biodiversity for food clothing shelter Oxygen soil fertility and medicinal substances 50 Why does energy ow but nutrients cycle a Energy ows through an ecosystem when consumers feed on producers it cannot be recycled within an ecosystem but must ow through continuously You lose 10 of energy as it ows through each trophic level b Ecosystems depend on a recycling of chemical elements 51 What is a food web Be able to read one a Food Web the feeding relationships in an ecosystem Quaternary tertiary and secondary consumers Tertiary and secondary consumers Secondary and primary consumers Primary consumers 52 What factors increase the loss of biodiversity a The effect of human activity on communities and ecosystems is an alarming biodiversity crisis a decline in Earth s great variety of life 53 What is sustainable development a The longterm prosperity of human societies and the ecosystems that support them 54 What is species richness What is relative abundance a Species richness the total number of different species in a community a component of species diversity b Relative Abundance The proportional representation of a species in a biological community a component of species diversity 55 What was the name of the publication that Darwin published In what year was it published a On The Origin s of Species by Means of Natural Selection published on November 24 1859 56 What are the two main points of Darwin s publication a Organisms inhabiting earth today descended from ancestral species 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 b Natural selection was the mechanism for descent with modi cation c Challenged the notion that the earth was relatively young and populated by unrelated species What is the basic idea of natural selection a Organisms can change over generations b Individuals with certain heritable traits leave more offspring than others What is the result of natural selection a Evolutionary adaptation Darwin based his theory of natural selection on two key observations What are the two observations a Observation 1 overproduction i All species tend to produce excessive numbers ii This leads to a struggle for existence b Observation 2 Individual variation i Variation exists among individuals in a population ii Much of this variation is heritable What is unequal reproductive success a Individuals are unequal in their likelihood of surviving and reproducing Those individuals with heritable traits best suited to the environment will leave the greatest number of healthy fertile offspring What is biogeography a The study of the geographic distribution of species What is comparative anatomy a The comparison of body structures in different species What is comparative embryology a The comparison of structures that appear during the development of different organisms What is a fossil How are fossils formed a Fossil preserved remnants or impressions left by organisms that lived in the past Where are fossils found a Often found in sedimentary rocks What type of scientist studies fossils a Paleontologist Name 3 examples of natural selection in action a Pesticide resistance in insects b The development of antibioticresistant bacteria c Drugresistant strains of HIV What is a mutation a A change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA a major source of genetic diversity What is sexual recombination a Shuf es alleles during meiosis What is directional selection What does the phenotypic graph look like compared to the original population curve a Directional Selection Shifts the phenotypic curve of a population by selecting in favor of some extreme phenotype 71 What is disruptive selection What does the phenotypic graph look like compared to the original population curve a Disruptive Selection can lead to a balance between two or more contrasting morphs in a population 72 What is stabilizing selection What does the phenotypic graph look like compared to the original population curve a Stabilizing Selection Maintains variation for a particular trait within a narrow range 1Q population Evolved W Original population Phenotypes fur color population l 1x 1 l 390 39 391 l l 39 I I 39l I s t o o o e g o V 1 a J 39 gl w a k 3 39 V ii E a Directional selection b Disruptive selection c Stabilizing selection of individuals Frequency 73 Sicklecell anemia confers resistance to what disease a malaria 74 De ne population community ecosystem and biosphere a Population a group of interactive individuals belonging to one species and living in the same geographic area at the same time b Community all the organisms inhabiting and potentially interacting in a particular area c Ecosystem all the organisms in a given area along with the nonliving factors with which they interact a biological community and its physical environment d Biosphere The global ecosystem the entire proportion of earth inhabited by life all of life and where it lives 75 What is a habitat a A speci c environment where an organism lives 76 What is a geographic range a The area inhibited by a population 77 De ne carrying capacity a The maX population size that a particular environment can sustain 78 What are some factors that limit biotic potential a Disease b Predation c Restricted food resources 79 Name 3 factors that have increased the biotic potential for humans a Agricultural development b Improved medical care c Advances in communication transportation and housing 80 De ne growth rate a The change in population size per time interval 8 1 De ne niche a De nes an organism s role in an ecosystem It includes the environment a given organism lives in the organisms j ob in that environment what it eats and how it interacts with living and nonliving parts of the environment 82 How much energy is available to the next trophic level a 10 of energy is passed on from one trophic level to the next 83 How much sunlight energy do producers capture a 10000 kcal 84 What is eutrophication a Excessive richness of nutrients in a lake or other body of water frequently due to runoff from the land which causes a dense growth of plant life and death of animal life from lack of oxygen 85 What are some things we can do to move toward a sustainable future Reduce Consumption Be More Energy Ef cient Promote Recycling Take Political Action Promote Research and Education 9909


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