history 103 day 1
history 103 day 1 HY103
Popular in History 103
Popular in History
This 16 page Class Notes was uploaded by Haley Staples on Wednesday January 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HY103 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Brasher in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 289 views. For similar materials see History 103 in History at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 01/28/15
HY 10327 1715 European Exploration and Colonization The First quotAmericansquot who are they Problem with the term they wouldn t call themselves American European term These people that were here before Europeans arrived were incredibly diverse giving them one label creates the impression that they were all the same which isn t accurate No such thing as a native American these people came from some place else as well Everyone that lives on these continents north south America came from other places Well who are they These rst people are people from Asia that started coming over 35000 years ago during the ice age until 10000 years ago when the ice age ended Came here by the land bridge between Alaska and Siberia When the sea levels dropped when the ice started the dry land between Siberia and Alaska was exposed Huntergatherers discovered it and followed it When the ice age ended and more water became released the sea levels went up again and the land bridge was recovered by water The peoples were now trapped no going back That s when they started expanding into other regions in America They began to be diverse by the culture they were in Diverse cultures the peoples that settled in Central America in the rainforest region fertile regions trade wealth Very wealthy and sophisticated kingdoms Mayans Aztecs lncas Desert in western America not a lot for people to sustain themselves off of no wealth Finding food was a struggle some resorted to cannibalism their societies were strongly around irrigation Lived in caves in the side of the hills Peoples that lived in the great plains wideopen grasslandsherds of animals Migratory people following herds Huts tents teepees Peoples that is most important for us Eastern Woodlands Tribes Area of North America that is bounded on the west by the Mississippi river east by the Atlantic Ocean Forced region Carpeted with forests initially Forests gave these people huge bene ts for their survival Tons of animals to hunt in the forests with a lot of streams and rivers to sh out of Land is very fertile they can all farm maizecorn They don t have to be migratory they all establish towns and villages These people also became very wealthy Harmony The myth is that they all lived in harmony These people didn t believe in private ownership of land but they did believe in communaltribal ownership of land Constantly trying to expand their land constantly ghting over land In these wars a lot took POWs and sacri ced their POWs to their gods When they didn t sacri ce their POWs they often made them slaves Rough on environment eastern woodlands found a way to hunt more easily setting the woods on re to smoke them out to sustain themselves SEE paper notes for day 2 DAY 3 Martin frobisher English man exploring present day Canada French territory Tiny island called Baf n s Island frobisher found what appeared to be gold but it was fool s gold Frobisher s expedition bankrupted Spain and france are getting very powerful laughing at Englishmen Humphrey Gilbert really good idea quotwe don t need to start a massive colony in the new world that extracts raw materials in order to get the materials from the new worldquot He points out that there are boat loads of gold and silver going to spain from central America every day and furs going from Canada to france he says let s become a nation of pirates and steal all of their stuff on the high seas Need piracy base on east coast of united states Gilbert went to queen Elizabeth and asked for permission to start colony in new world and she granted it His expedition was hit by a storm that destroyed entire eet they all died including Gilbert Spain and france are still laughing at the Englishmen Gilbert s idea was taken up by his half brother Sir Walter Raleigh She gave him permission Made it across the atlantic made it to an island off the coast of north Carolina called quotRoanoke colonyquot Established good relationship with natives there established trade for metal goods Ships leave promising return in 56 months with new settlers and supplies Ships didn t come back for 2 years and came back to see that all settlers were gone Suspected Spain as reason for disappearance but they found no signs of destruction Everything looked normal besides that people were gone We still don t know exactly what happened to them so we call Roanoke the quotLost Colonyquot English s only colony has disappeared Spain and France are laughing even harder at them Spain decides the time is right to attack and invade England Elizabeth and the Spanish Armada early reign people unsure if she s really a monarch because of the rumors about her mother sleeping around lot of people upset that she refused to get married refused because she didn t want any man coming into the palace and taking over said she d only be married to England started referring to her as quotthe Virgin Queenquot insultingly they wanted her to marry someone in spain or france s royalty she said no because she wanted protestant faith Englishmen worried about this because of everything else going on and Elizabeth refusing to get married 1588 Spanish Armada set sail for England with the objective to capture and convert it to Catholocism Englishmen blame Lizzie England put out a call to anyone who has any sort of boat to help defend English one of the reasons the Roanoke ship didn t return so quickly and Englishmen responded very patriotically Huge storm came destroyed some Spanish ships and scattered their eet and became sitting ducks England defeats Spanish armada in huge upset Englishmen concluded that God must be protestant becayse he let the Englishmen win against the catholic Spainiards Virgin Queen save d them in the end Patriots were incredibly proud of themselves for helping defeat the Spanish Believe God is on their side More determined than ever to colonized in the new world Because of religious differences the Europeans felt they were right to take land from the native americans When they did so it caused spain to become europe s most powerful country france was growing in power and England had a long list of failures However at the start of the 16005 England was more determined than ever to colonize the new world despite their failures NEW LECTURE The Model Colonies Virginia 1 settlement when queen Elizabeth died she left England with no legitimate heir to the throne They nd James the l the king of Scotland His mother had been henry the lV s sister they invite James to be rst monarch of England lot of people pissed that they had a Scotland as their king james not favored by Englishmen at all decided he would be the king that would start a colony to getrespect gave a license to a private company to fund the colony he wanted to do something even queen Elizabeth hadn t been able to do the purpose for this colony to make money as well as glory for England and James Virginia colony was started for nancial not wealthy When Spring of 1607 the virginia company sent 3 ships carrying about 105 guys to the new world Jamestown Colony Chesapeake bay Sailed up James river Landed on quotjames islandquot Struggled to stay alive in their early days leadership 50 of settlers were known as Gentleman that s who they got their leaders from A gentleman was someone who came from an English family who owned land which is signi cant Owning land is required for being able to vote which puts you in an exclusive political club If you own land you don t need to work You can have people take care of your land in order to live on it 50 of their crew were gentleman who didn t know how to do hard work and were giving the food mostly to the gentleman The people who were working hard were getting fed less which caused dissention in the group nature of the environment if you had to nd the worst place to establish a colony at this time it would be this The james river is very sluggish because it involves two con icting currents When the water ows it gets trapped and becomes stagnant water breeding bacteria and mosquitos Dying in Jamestown began almost immediately because of environment Indian chief Powhatan domain leader of strongest nation of native americans 103 Englishmen vs much more powhatan Indians chief powhatan wanted the Englishmen there for their metal we know this because the Englishmen stayed instead of being chased off by the Indians he didn t however want them to become self sufficient so that they still need to trade metal for the indian s food Englishmen discovered that if they got outside their fort to do anything they would get an arrow in their back even if it was just going to the bathroom People started contaminating ground contaminating drinking well bodies are getting weakened accelerates dying Cant get outside fort to bury dead now further contaminating water with decomposing bodies Dying becomes epidemic EarlyJamestown hovered around 200 despite fact that they got new settlers every 3 months because of all the death Worst time for va settlers was winter of 1609 That winter was harsher than normal powhatans didn t come out to trade for food settlers had to resort to eating their horses and dogs and rats until all of the animals were gone Some dug up dead bodies and feasted on the esh by the end of the winter only 6070 men still alive Last attempt to colonize But at this point turn around Spring of 1610 colony got Thomas Dale new leader He heard about all the problems and decided 1 Start running the expedition like military expedition military discipline 2 Get everyone working decided that they d distribute food based on how hard you worked John Ralph helps solve biggest problems Pocahontas as 12 13 year old girl stripped her clothes off and ipped around in the settlement and boys became fond of her John ralph actually fell in love with her and asked Virginia company if he could marry her not expecting him to say yes VA company was very supportive because Pocahontas was Chief Powhatan s daughter marriage between royalty is an alliance This marriage brought peace between Jamestown settlers and Powhatans Guys could nally get outside the fort hunt sh clear the land For the rst time colony was selfsuf cient But still has problem colony hasn t made a pro t yet after 5 years Tried to nd anything to make money glassblowing etc Found tobacco nally Europe looked down at smokers at the time Initially didn t think they d make pro ts but john ralph says it s a shame we need to do something with this because it grows so well He started experimenting with it and came up with a milder and sweeter tobacco Sent it to England they decided they could sell it but needed ad campaign quottaste of the new worldquot For the rst time Virginia company and the English have turned a pro t from Jamestown Success from tobacco caused a problem 5 Attempts to attract labor 0 most of the tobacco preparing process was a lot of work 0 they need a lot of workers but no one in England wants to go to Virginia because of the death stories 0 VA Company had to do some things to attract laborers to their colony 0 Created Headright System VA company will give you 50 acres of land in new world if you paid for someone to go over there and work in the colony quotheadrightquot50 acres per head 0 If you go to new world you ll have full rights as an English citizen People knew that john ralph s militaristic style could quottake over your lifequot bu tthey re saying quotwe re not like that anymorequot quotwe can t know what kind of citizens should be made for the colony so we re gonna create a legislative body called the House of Burgesses and if you re a man that holds land you can vote for a legislatorquot VA company rst representative government in the new world before france or spain these changes did attract laborers to go to Jamestown now colony is spreading Caused clash with natives Chief Powhatan and Pocahontas are now dead When VA company was trying to attract people they brought Pocahontas over as a show princess to show people there was no bad blood with Europeans and natives Got European disease died in England There was no love affair between John Smith and Pocahontas They are now spreading to many different rivers and Powhatan says we re gonna attack because they re gonna keep coming But it s too late Good Friday the natives launched attack on all of the colonists and 33 of colonists were killed Jamestown the town was warned but the plantations weren t Started war between VA company and native americans It was a race war The English decide that all Indians are bad and they must be killed No attempt to distinguish men from women no distinguishing from attack and non attack indans Native Americans decide same all white people are bad kill them all Ugly and devastating war Because the support of the VA company and england they were able to win this war They pushed the powhatan up into the mountains super far English government begins to investigate VA company They nd that the VA company was manipulating it s stocks The most disturbing ever since VA company was founded 6 out of every 7 people who had gone over there were now dead 0 Poor and bad leadership England shuts down VA company now VA company is a Royal Colony run directly by the King of England 0 However when it became a royal colony the English government said we re not gonna go back on what the VA company granted you You ll still have your full rights and yall can keep your legislature These decisions the English government is going to live to regret big time allowing full rights and full representative government 0 Now that it s a royal colony Virginia really begins to boom 0 Tobacco culture pro ts were at its highest ever But culture began to change 0 O 0 Tobacco isn t good for many necessary things they have to have certain manufactured goods Decide to export tobacco and import manufactured goods Tobacco was not only labor intensive but land intensive as well When you grew tobacco back then after a few seasons soil is dead from tobacco growing Need more land spreading out farther Lack of religious mission pass a law that you have to go to the church of England once a month no religious motivation The colonists are there for the money They re too spread out so it s very hard for everyone to congregate out on the plantations Anxious elite political voice in their government puts you into an exclusive club Society is obsessed with class status VA company doesn t have this anymore because everyone has land anyways If you re not a member of English gentry we wanna be able to know by the way that you re dressed Think they re cool when they get to Virginia but everyone else owns landtoo Va gentry became obsessed with building big grand homes and ll them up with enormous quantities of manufactured goods lrony they go into massive debt trying to prove themselves These are the elements of this so colled tobacco culure 9 A model colony O O 0 not trying to accomplish any religious mission wealthy people obsessed with class status Virginia is birthplace of southern culture O 0 FIRST MODEL COLONY MASSACHUSSETTS Settled by Puritans religious group that shapes their colony Puritans are an English protestant denomination Believed church of England has too much Catholic practices and theology in it Want to purify church of that catholocism They don t believe there should be a church hierarchy leading to supreme head of the church nothing scriptural about it They believe that each congregation should be able to make decisions for themselves no hierarchy congregationalists Believe in predestination no motivation to live well if you are destined for hell They believe the number of people that are going to heaven is very small they call those people the elect Believe in covenant theology believed than mankind has a covenant with God if man lives his life to serve and please God you will have a good life on earth even if you re predestined for hell But there s a catch covenant has to be kept not only individually but also by the community with God Example of community covenant if Charlie is committing adultery on his wife and that s why the crops are failing and the community is in bad shape If he doesn t stop sinning he s kicked out of the colony Church membership voting voice in the church Want it to be restricted to only the elect Decide who is elect by looking for visible indications that they are the elite form the elect As a puritan your entire life you re being watched For signs of sainthood or signs of sin Separatists break free from church of England bc it s a corrupt mess some went to JAMES KING Wanted contract to go exploring This could be good for England another rich sailed to Plymouth rock Struggled until the Indians came and saved them and traded with them Started thanksgiving paved the road to the south Charles I when james I died Charles I was a big time sinner and he aunted it Hardly ever went to church bisexiaul rumor they came to a conclusion saying God is about to damn this society Some puritans decided that their big adventure was sailing to America Charles gives the people company contract Eventually got off track and ran into separatists quota CITY Upon a Hillquot speech that argued that when we get there our town is gonna be on a hill and God is going to bless us once England becomes puritan God will bless England as well Eventually the whole world will be a city upon a hill and blessed The Puritans are nothing short of trying to change the whole world This Nation has something that should be brought to the whole world Our job is to share Democracy with the whole world This same spirit of mission to change the whole world is still true to the US today Massachusetts colonycentered around a church don t have much space and want to keep an eye on eachother so they live in a really close knit tiny community As compared to va which is spread out plantations City upon a hill keep everyone interested and involved Church keeps everyone on the same page and on the track to keeping the community on the path to righteousness Puritans don t want kids having idle minds they re big supporters of public education so that their minds are constantly stimulated and their minds don t become corrupted First university established in 1636 by puritans in boston Harvard Biblical laws puritans believed if you re gonna have a law you have to have a biblical scripture that you can base it on and back it up with They want the law to make sin illegal They want it to be a law so that if someone resists stopping sinning the law would stop them This is legislating morality passing laws to establish what ls moral and what isn t moral The government tying to tell us what to do and not to sin They want to kick the sinners out with law this is the way they enforce their moral code Relative to Virginia puritan mass Was a smashing success of a colony They never went hungry or had a huge death rate never had devastating war with Indians John Withrop says it s because quotwe kept our Covenant with God and he blessed usquot Why were they a success 0 Environment Mass is blessed with frequest and intense storms They have fast owing rivers and streams that create a healthy environment Their long cold winters killed the bacteria The climate was similar to England so they had a head up on knowing how to farm and raise crops O Blessed with very good shing as well West Indians were very angry with themselves and ghting with themselves Work ethic economy was way more diverse than Virginia Their fast owing rivers were perfect for industries Manufacturing feeding ship builders West Indies England get another colony In the Americas Getting sugar dependent on lumber Lumber starts being supplied by purhans After 1640 they showed they were not the city upon a hill like they had intended O O O O O Intense guilt because failure failing God Guilt exploded into Salem Witch Trials Dissenters there were people in the puritan community who disagreed with the leadership Roger Williams elect Also believed his calling was to minister to the faithful he was a preacher Big leader in community Roger decided his calling was not just to spread the puritan faith to the white people but also to the native Americans He knew he couldn t go tell the natives they were wrong unless he understood what they believed so he decided to live with the natives for a long time and realized the faith was not that far off from puritans They all agreed theres an almighty force and you have to please that force for blessing Roger continues to be a puritan Christian but he s decided he has no business telling the natives or anyone else that they re wrong people should have quotfreedom of consciencequot to decide for themselves the best way that they can justify themselves to their God Puritans don t want him preaching that so they kicked him out Roger went on to found the colony of Rhode Island Anne Hutchinson most famous dissenter Deemed elect leader in the community Began to have meetings in her home to further discuss what had been talked about in church Over time leadership began to be worried by what she was saying at these meetings Deep theological discussion was happening but the church said she was being critical of the church leadership Can t have anyone critical of leadershipe specially nto a woman Put her on trial and she did a great job of defending herself Her fate was predetermined regardless because she was critical of the church They kicked her out she went to Rhode Island but couldn t get along with Roger because of his freedom of conscience idea Left and went to back country which is now new york where she was killed by the Indians Ultimately there were 1005 of puritan dissenters that got kicked out of the community The puritans didn t blame Roger and Anne they blamed themselves They had put these people in leadership positions but failed them in convincing them to follow them They realize with all of them being kicked out they have failed The guilt rises We re creating enough people to populate the other colonies with all of the people they kicked out 16505 the puritans began to notice there were a lot of people among them that were getting rich and they were troubled by itsource of guilt people are focused on nancial gain not God They blame themselves as a community again Try to pass laws make dress codes Outlawed ashy frilly lacey out ts had to wear quotSad colorsquot Pass laws against working on Sunday why aren t you in church instead of working Pass laws restricting how big your house could be Creating guilt for wealthy people but also for themselves 0 English Civil War 0 Charles people didn t like him because he tried to tax people without going through parliament People saw this as a violation of their rights Also he was very sinful Armies were raised to throw king out of office while Charles raised armies to defend himself That was the English civil war Cromwell army that had the most success in defeating the kings army the army that actually captured the king and cut his head off was Oliver Cromwell s army Oliver Cromwell was Puritan He took over leadership of England England is now ruled by a Puritan Sin became illegal commandments became law Cromwell began to outlaw all forms of entertainment like all of the theaters the taverns secular music games sports having fun was illegal Englishmen are outraged When Cromwell died the English were determined not to let his son become the king They offered monarchy to Charles l s son started Restoration Restored monarchy to Charles 2 s family line 0 Charles did away with all puritanical rules all fun is reopened Englishmen start to abuse this England gone wild New England s Reaction to this they were happy with Cromwell because England had become Puritan they had completed their mission excitement at all time high Then they hear about restoration and the sin coursing through England they dropped even farther They re thinking they ve blown it now on an international scale King Philip s War 1675 many native American communities around Puritan settlements realized they need to join together to band against the puritan colony or they will be wiped out Over 100 puritan towns Metcaom King Philip created indian confederation that plotted war against the Puritans Race war no good white person indiscriminate killing Thousands of puritans slaughtered by Native Americans 50 of towns attacked majority completely destroyed Puritans won but were incredibly discouraged Blamed themselves for all the death and destruction Glorious Revolution 0 O O O Takes us back to England One of the more in uential events in English history and in Western CW The DominionJames followed Charles II and decided that the English colonies around Mass Run as separate colonies was a headache He wanted all the New England colonies to just be one colony one Dominion of New England Puritans were upset because they are going to be lumped together with everyone they exiled and their sins are gonna be on them again and they blame themselves yet again for this Englishmen didn t like James II because he was Catholic and they were protestant Wanted to wait til his daughter came the heir and took over because she was protestant but then the boy was born and raised catholic Then the englsihmen decided it was time forJames to go James II left in fear of his life England broughtJames daughter Mary and her husband William to power Glorious Revolution because it wasn t a violent change but it was successful New charters Mary and William don t like the Dominion they break it up and issue new separate charter to each colony Puritans very excited until they read the ne print O O on their charter While the church of the Puritans can be the of cial state Church of Massachussetts they can no longer kick people out for dissenting against the church and can t restrict people on voting They can t keep covenant at all marks the ultimate failure of their mission Guilt is at an all time high witches begin to appear in their communities 0 Salem 0 O 0 Very superstitious people They say you can see both the hand of God and of the devil working in their community Preteen girls doing something rather innocent trying to gure out who their future husbands were gonna be 0 Labor Demands O Headright system you get 50 acres of land for every laborer you send over from England Worked for a decade and eventually failed Giving away land instead of selling the land and making money System was easily cheated lndentured servants you would agree to work for someone for a certain amount of years without pay where they would feed cloth and house you System worked for a long time They owed you freedom dues at the end of the sentence including land People started offering indentured servants position to homeless people Failed because late 16005 early 1700s the economy in England got a lot better because of the good nancial decisions made by prime ministers weren t as many desparate people Failed because landholders don t want servants to survive 7 year contract because if they last they re going to have to give them land and they can become tobacco farming competition and make me have to lower my prices For 57 years make them work hard but it s gonna be fair and I m gonna do a good job at taking care of them but then at the end I m going to up their workload dramatically feed them less give them less clothing in the winters and hope desperately that they get sick and die Word got out of this People start kidnapping people and children in London and ship them to work in America Get homeless drunk and sit them on a boat Failed because Bacon s rebellion in 1675 Former indentured servants who had survived their contracts and pissed at landowners begin rebelling with leadership of Nathaniel Bacon Virginia s leaders squashed their rebellion but decided they didn t want anymore indentured servants 0 Next idea convicts to put to work People in jail Overcrowded prisons tax burden to maintain prisons why don t we ship convicts to new world with 30 year indentures Send 30000 convicts to southern colonies as 30 year indentures They started doing bad things colonists say please stop sending these people over 0 Slavery Considered POWs discounted because of reasons that would become hypocritical like saying we can t enslave fellow Christians Consider native americans but they can run away to their tribes and know the land better Decide Africa is the best source of their slaves Decided initially not because of race but because at the time they were known as the world s most highest skilled agriculturalists Also they aren t susceptible to European diseases because Europe and Africa have been in contact since the ancient world They re already accustomed to southern humidity and heat climate Most importantly there are already slaves in Africa Their POWs from civil war were their slaves but there were no laws that said slaves were inferior and had no rights Some slaves were able to work their way up the social ladder through hard work and gaining of respect and slavery wasn t passed down hereditarily Got slaves from Africa by a long process First paid tribute presented themselves to local ruler of the land like gold and money and bow down and acknowledge their powerbegin to wage war against weaker people in interior in Africa to get more slaves Walked slaves in cof es to shore for sale Middle passage absolutely horri c 3 month passage from Africa to the Americas by boat Slave ship captains notoriously packed the ships as tightly as they could with slaves to increase pro ts Chained on a wooden bunk where they can t move for 3 months They chain you next to someone from a different tribe so that you can t communicate and ally and rebel Vomiting from ship rocking but can t get up and also can t go to the bathroom so they re right there When a slave gets sick they throw them overboard so they don t get other shipmates sick the guy chained to you goes into the water too Made it to the carribean for quotSeasoningquot Strip you completely of your identity and individuality and from desire to resist in any shape or form Beat the living hell out of you until you work Get you to this place that you accept that control of your life is gone If they can t break you they kill you What I am now is what they say I am Now that they re at that point they are seasoned Happened to 2025 million a conservative estimate west Africans were forcefully removed from Africa to serve in the Americas Not all came to colonies most came to south America and carribean Much smaller percentage 4 go to coloniest About 500000 to colonies