Module 11 Notes
Module 11 Notes SPED 7007
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Krista Notetaker on Wednesday March 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SPED 7007 at University of Cincinnati taught by Dr. Todd Haydon in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Positive Behavior in Special Education at University of Cincinnati.
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Date Created: 03/30/16
Module 11 Notes Creating Environments that Predict Individual Student Success Written by: Krista Anstead March 2016 Learning Outcomes: • Antecedent Interventions • How to Create Consistent Routines and Physical Arrangement • How to use Prompts and Cues Readings/References: Scott, T., & Anderson, C. (2012). Creating environments that predict individual student success. In Managing Classroom Behavior Using Positive Behavior Supports. Boston: Pearson. Chapter 11 Notes Introduction • There are many strategies that provide an additional bit of assistance to the typical S • The only way we ever know which S will and will not respond to a given set of strategies is to try • Our task is to find the strategy, arrangement, instruction, or delivery that creates the highest probability of S success • Specific strategies should be based on: o Student o Nature of problem behavior o Context in which it occurs o What is realistic for the T to implement • Trapping success: effort to create an environment that heightens the probability of success General guidelines for group antecedent strategies • We must think ahead and devise methods to facilitate S success BEFORE the failure has occurred • Antecedent strategies: those that manipulate the environment surrounding instruction • Instructional strategies: delivery of content Guidelines for impactful teacher-‐student relationships • T responsibility should be to initiate positive interactions with S in order to encourage positive relationship development • Greeting at the door o Talk with S about nonacademic topics, reinforce any notable desirable behavior, provide an advance organizer, and make environmental arrangements • Eye contact o Communicates awareness and personalized attention o T must be sensitive to sociocultural factors and individual characteristics when using it Effective use of routines and physical arrangements • Scheduling and advance organizers o Scheduling is a way to manage S behavior o For some S, this may be the only consistent thing in their life o Schedules should include: § Arrival/start times § Ending times § Times for transitions and cleanup o Schedule the most important activities earlier in the day o Scheduling should: § occur at approximately the same time and in the same order each day § be publicly posted o creates a checklist for the day o with changes to the schedule, T should: § gain S attention and specifically describe the schedule change in a clear, concrete, and direct manner § note on the schedule § call attention to the change throughout the day • T proximity o T should continue moving around the room throughout the day, wandering purposefully to maintain proximity to as many S as often as possible o Maintaining a closer proximity to a disruptive S should be done purposefully and assertively, but not aggressively o Reasonable distance for providing direction or feedback: 18 inches – 2 feet o While maintaining close proximity to one S, T must continue to attend to others by scanning visually and occasionally even moving about briefly o Might not be appropriate for: § S with autism § S with developmental disorders § S who have been physically abused • Seating arrangements o Group seating: Goal is to have S collaborate and share work on a project o Row seating: goal is to have S quietly complete independent work o T can anticipate and prevent disruptive behaviors by planning the instructional environment to maximize large group discussions, cooperative group work, or independent work o Things to consider: § Ease of movement for both T and S § Should allow T to move easily within a critical proximity of any S without disrupting other S § Should allow S to choose the location that best suits their learning style or preference § Should provide a range of alternatives, perhaps involving a mix of tables, desks, and study carrels § Should take individual S into consideration o Should not be punitive Application of verbal prompts including group attention getters and visual prompts • Prompts and cues take the form of gestures, sounds, signals, notes, signs, modeling, or any other physical display that increases the probability of success • Used to remind S to use appropriate behaviors • Rule of thumb: use the least amount of them or the least intrusive prompt necessary to facilitate successful responses • Should be used only to draw S attention to the natural discriminative stimuli that should control behavior • Should be systematically faded • Once S begin the behavior or routine, you can provide hints, suggestions, reminders, and questions designated to facilitate success • Verbal prompts o Most frequently used response to behavior o Hints, rule reminders, instructions o Can be used across the school day for both individuals and groups of S o Considerations: § Determine whether S has necessary skills to engage in appropriate behavior § S must be taught the correct response to the various signals for the behavior § Should be delivered consistently so that S learns that a specific prompt is always a signal to engage in a particular behavior § Should be large and obvious o Best provided immediately after an initial signal for a specific response o As they are successful, they should be gradually faded out and less obvious o Requires T to identify the contexts in which prompts are necessary to facilitate S success, then develop a prompt and teach the meaning of that prompt to the S o Not useful with behaviors that the S has not yet mastered o Make eye contact and voice loud enough to be heard, but do not yell; avoid inappropriate gestures, faces, and an exasperated tone of voice • Group attention getters o Yelling creates a poor model for S o Should be very obvious prompts that are easily organized within a crowd and across a room o Requires instruction on how to recognize the prompt and what the expected behavior is o Examples: rhythmic set of hand claps, flash of the lights, T raising hand o Should the prompt not capture the attention of all S, it may be repeated • Visual cues o Can be employed in general visual stimuli, such as posters or other displays, placed in areas around the school building and grounds o Examples: stop signs in hallway, posters in cafeteria, straight line drawn near doorway Strategies to increase the probability of S compliance • Pre-‐correction o Using a verbal prompt delivered prior to behavior and requiring a response from the S o Most appropriate focus for pre-‐correction is an instructional area in which T anticipates that the S will make errors o Involves thinking ahead, providing a prompting questions to S, and providing feedback to S based on their response o If S answers correctly, T should provide a verbal reinforcer for that response o Most effective way to use: as an antecedent prompt • Antecedent compliant strategies o Those that focus mainly on S compliance o Focus on encouraging behaviors that they probably are aware of but are not likely to perform o Providing choice: § Breaking larger tasks into smaller pieces and providing a choice on the order in which the smaller tasks are to be completed § Presenting a choice between two or more specific alternative tasks § Success with each smaller tasks will create a greater probability of compliance with the next § Best provided immediately before the contexts in which the problem is most likely to occur o Behavioral momentum § Antecedent-‐based non-‐aversive strategy for developing behavioral compliance § Involves getting S to comply with very simple and benign tasks and then providing contingent reinforcement to build momentum § Manner of raising probability of successful compliance § Most effective with S who are willing and able to respond to most requests but have difficulty complying with specific tasks § Effective only with behaviors that S is capable of completing Screencast Notes • 3-‐5 pages, typed, double-‐spaced • Create title page o Include title and name, NO abstract • First heading: Introduction o include: 2-‐3 paragraphs describing problem seen in class, thoughts on problem behavior, talk about environment and what generally happens there, paragraph on functional analysis, purpose of study, research questions • Second heading: Methods o participant: describe teacher, student, setting of school and class, time of day, materials • Third Heading: procedures and implementation of the intervention o include: A-‐B assessment, hypothesis formation, baseline, academic intervention, what you collected data on, define disruptive behavior/on task behavior/student corrective responses o do NOT need teacher interview • Fourth Heading: results o talk about target behaviors, include graph, mean of data • Fifth Heading: discussion topic o summarize intervention, what results of study supported, tie into research questions, interesting info/finds, thoughts about how intervention worked (practical implications) • Sixth Heading: conclusion o only needs to be a few sentences • Seventh Heading: references o around 3-‐4 references Tasks this week Continues to write the FBA assignment
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