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Module 11 Notes

by: Krista Notetaker

Module 11 Notes SPED 7007

Krista Notetaker
GPA 4.0

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These notes cover all the materials for week 12 of class - the Screencast posted by the professor and chapter 11 of our textbook. The notes are organized based on the learning outcomes listed at th...
Positive Behavior
Dr. Todd Haydon
Class Notes
Creating Environments that Predict Individual Student Success
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Krista Notetaker on Wednesday March 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SPED 7007 at University of Cincinnati taught by Dr. Todd Haydon in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Positive Behavior in Special Education at University of Cincinnati.


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Date Created: 03/30/16
Module  11  Notes   Creating  Environments  that  Predict  Individual  Student  Success   Written  by:  Krista  Anstead   March  2016     Learning  Outcomes:   •   Antecedent  Interventions   •   How  to  Create  Consistent  Routines  and  Physical  Arrangement   •   How  to  use  Prompts  and  Cues         Readings/References:   Scott,  T.,  &  Anderson,  C.  (2012).  Creating  environments  that  predict  individual  student  success.     In  Managing  Classroom  Behavior  Using  Positive  Behavior  Supports.  Boston:  Pearson.     Chapter  11  Notes   Introduction   •   There  are  many  strategies  that  provide  an  additional  bit  of  assistance  to  the  typical  S   •   The  only  way  we  ever  know  which  S  will  and  will  not  respond  to  a  given  set  of  strategies   is  to  try   •   Our  task  is  to  find  the  strategy,  arrangement,  instruction,  or  delivery  that  creates  the   highest  probability  of  S  success   •   Specific  strategies  should  be  based  on:   o   Student   o   Nature  of  problem  behavior   o   Context  in  which  it  occurs   o   What  is  realistic  for  the  T  to  implement   •   Trapping  success:  effort  to  create  an  environment  that  heightens  the  probability  of   success     General  guidelines  for  group  antecedent  strategies   •   We  must  think  ahead  and  devise  methods  to  facilitate  S  success  BEFORE  the  failure  has   occurred   •   Antecedent  strategies:  those  that  manipulate  the  environment  surrounding  instruction   •   Instructional  strategies:  delivery  of  content     Guidelines  for  impactful  teacher-­‐student  relationships   •   T  responsibility  should  be  to  initiate  positive  interactions  with  S  in  order  to  encourage   positive  relationship  development   •   Greeting  at  the  door   o   Talk  with  S  about  nonacademic  topics,  reinforce  any  notable  desirable  behavior,   provide  an  advance  organizer,  and  make  environmental  arrangements   •   Eye  contact   o   Communicates  awareness  and  personalized  attention   o   T  must  be  sensitive  to  sociocultural  factors  and  individual  characteristics  when   using  it     Effective  use  of  routines  and  physical  arrangements   •   Scheduling  and  advance  organizers   o   Scheduling  is  a  way  to  manage  S  behavior   o   For  some  S,  this  may  be  the  only  consistent  thing  in  their  life   o   Schedules  should  include:   §   Arrival/start  times   §   Ending  times   §   Times  for  transitions  and  cleanup   o   Schedule  the  most  important  activities  earlier  in  the  day   o   Scheduling  should:   §   occur  at  approximately  the  same  time  and  in  the  same  order  each  day   §   be  publicly  posted   o   creates  a  checklist  for  the  day   o   with  changes  to  the  schedule,  T  should:   §   gain  S  attention  and  specifically  describe  the  schedule  change  in  a  clear,   concrete,  and  direct  manner   §   note  on  the  schedule   §   call  attention  to  the  change  throughout  the  day   •   T  proximity   o   T  should  continue  moving  around  the  room  throughout  the  day,  wandering   purposefully  to  maintain  proximity  to  as  many  S  as  often  as  possible   o   Maintaining  a  closer  proximity  to  a  disruptive  S  should  be  done  purposefully  and   assertively,  but  not  aggressively   o   Reasonable  distance  for  providing  direction  or  feedback:  18  inches  –  2  feet   o   While  maintaining  close  proximity  to  one  S,  T  must  continue  to  attend  to  others   by  scanning  visually  and  occasionally  even  moving  about  briefly   o   Might  not  be  appropriate  for:   §   S  with  autism   §   S  with  developmental  disorders   §   S  who  have  been  physically  abused   •   Seating  arrangements   o   Group  seating:  Goal  is  to  have  S  collaborate  and  share  work  on  a  project   o   Row  seating:  goal  is  to  have  S  quietly  complete  independent  work   o   T  can  anticipate  and  prevent  disruptive  behaviors  by  planning  the  instructional   environment  to  maximize  large  group  discussions,  cooperative  group  work,  or   independent  work   o   Things  to  consider:   §   Ease  of  movement  for  both  T  and  S   §   Should  allow  T  to  move  easily  within  a  critical  proximity  of  any  S  without   disrupting  other  S   §   Should  allow  S  to  choose  the  location  that  best  suits  their  learning  style   or  preference   §   Should  provide  a  range  of  alternatives,  perhaps  involving  a  mix  of  tables,   desks,  and  study  carrels   §   Should  take  individual  S  into  consideration   o   Should  not  be  punitive     Application  of  verbal  prompts  including  group  attention  getters  and  visual  prompts   •   Prompts  and  cues  take  the  form  of  gestures,  sounds,  signals,  notes,  signs,  modeling,  or   any  other  physical  display  that  increases  the  probability  of  success   •   Used  to  remind  S  to  use  appropriate  behaviors   •   Rule  of  thumb:  use  the  least  amount  of  them  or  the  least  intrusive  prompt  necessary  to   facilitate  successful  responses   •   Should  be  used  only  to  draw  S  attention  to  the  natural  discriminative  stimuli  that  should   control  behavior     •   Should  be  systematically  faded   •   Once  S  begin  the  behavior  or  routine,  you  can  provide  hints,  suggestions,  reminders,   and  questions  designated  to  facilitate  success   •   Verbal  prompts   o   Most  frequently  used  response  to  behavior   o   Hints,  rule  reminders,  instructions   o   Can  be  used  across  the  school  day  for  both  individuals  and  groups  of  S   o   Considerations:   §   Determine  whether  S  has  necessary  skills  to  engage  in  appropriate   behavior   §   S  must  be  taught  the  correct  response  to  the  various  signals  for  the   behavior   §   Should  be  delivered  consistently  so  that  S  learns  that  a  specific  prompt  is   always  a  signal  to  engage  in  a  particular  behavior   §   Should  be  large  and  obvious     o   Best  provided  immediately  after  an  initial  signal  for  a  specific  response   o   As  they  are  successful,  they  should  be  gradually  faded  out  and  less  obvious   o   Requires  T  to  identify  the  contexts  in  which  prompts  are  necessary  to  facilitate  S   success,  then  develop  a  prompt  and  teach  the  meaning  of  that  prompt  to  the  S   o   Not  useful  with  behaviors  that  the  S  has  not  yet  mastered   o   Make  eye  contact  and  voice  loud  enough  to  be  heard,  but  do  not  yell;  avoid   inappropriate  gestures,  faces,  and  an  exasperated  tone  of  voice   •   Group  attention  getters   o   Yelling  creates  a  poor  model  for  S   o   Should  be  very  obvious  prompts  that  are  easily  organized  within  a  crowd  and   across  a  room   o   Requires  instruction  on  how  to  recognize  the  prompt  and  what  the  expected   behavior  is   o   Examples:  rhythmic  set  of  hand  claps,  flash  of  the  lights,  T  raising  hand   o   Should  the  prompt  not  capture  the  attention  of  all  S,  it  may  be  repeated   •   Visual  cues   o   Can  be  employed  in  general  visual  stimuli,  such  as  posters  or  other  displays,   placed  in  areas  around  the  school  building  and  grounds   o   Examples:  stop  signs  in  hallway,  posters  in  cafeteria,  straight  line  drawn  near   doorway     Strategies  to  increase  the  probability  of  S  compliance   •   Pre-­‐correction   o   Using  a  verbal  prompt  delivered  prior  to  behavior  and  requiring  a  response  from   the  S   o   Most  appropriate  focus  for  pre-­‐correction  is  an  instructional  area  in  which  T   anticipates  that  the  S  will  make  errors   o   Involves  thinking  ahead,  providing  a  prompting  questions  to  S,  and  providing   feedback  to  S  based  on  their  response   o   If  S  answers  correctly,  T  should  provide  a  verbal  reinforcer  for  that  response   o   Most  effective  way  to  use:  as  an  antecedent  prompt   •   Antecedent  compliant  strategies   o   Those  that  focus  mainly  on  S  compliance   o   Focus  on  encouraging  behaviors  that  they  probably  are  aware  of  but  are  not   likely  to  perform   o   Providing  choice:   §   Breaking  larger  tasks  into  smaller  pieces  and  providing  a  choice  on  the   order  in  which  the  smaller  tasks  are  to  be  completed   §   Presenting  a  choice  between  two  or  more  specific  alternative  tasks   §   Success  with  each  smaller  tasks  will  create  a  greater  probability  of   compliance  with  the  next   §   Best  provided  immediately  before  the  contexts  in  which  the  problem  is   most  likely  to  occur   o   Behavioral  momentum   §   Antecedent-­‐based  non-­‐aversive  strategy  for  developing  behavioral   compliance   §   Involves  getting  S  to  comply  with  very  simple  and  benign  tasks  and  then   providing  contingent  reinforcement  to  build  momentum   §   Manner  of  raising  probability  of  successful  compliance   §   Most  effective  with  S  who  are  willing  and  able  to  respond  to  most   requests  but  have  difficulty  complying  with  specific  tasks   §   Effective  only  with  behaviors  that  S  is  capable  of  completing     Screencast  Notes   •   3-­‐5  pages,  typed,  double-­‐spaced   •   Create  title  page     o   Include  title  and  name,  NO  abstract   •   First  heading:  Introduction     o   include:  2-­‐3  paragraphs  describing  problem  seen  in  class,  thoughts  on  problem   behavior,  talk  about  environment  and  what  generally  happens  there,  paragraph   on  functional  analysis,  purpose  of  study,  research  questions   •   Second  heading:  Methods   o   participant:  describe  teacher,  student,  setting  of  school  and  class,  time  of  day,   materials   •   Third  Heading:  procedures  and  implementation  of  the  intervention   o   include:  A-­‐B  assessment,  hypothesis  formation,  baseline,  academic  intervention,   what  you  collected  data  on,  define  disruptive  behavior/on  task  behavior/student   corrective  responses   o   do  NOT  need  teacher  interview   •   Fourth  Heading:  results   o   talk  about  target  behaviors,  include  graph,  mean  of  data   •   Fifth  Heading:  discussion  topic   o   summarize  intervention,  what  results  of  study  supported,  tie  into  research   questions,  interesting  info/finds,  thoughts  about  how  intervention  worked   (practical  implications)   •   Sixth  Heading:  conclusion   o   only  needs  to  be  a  few  sentences   •   Seventh  Heading:  references   o   around  3-­‐4  references     Tasks  this  week   Continues  to  write  the  FBA  assignment  


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