Introduction to Solutions and Aqueous Reactions
Introduction to Solutions and Aqueous Reactions CHEM 101
Popular in Structural Chemistry, with Application to Chemistry of the Elements
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Piper Daniels on Thursday November 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Mrs. Leung in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Structural Chemistry, with Application to Chemistry of the Elements in Science at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 11/12/15
Chapter 9 November 10 2015 Naming Acids and Bases 1 Bases metal hydroxide ionic compound a CaOH2 b calcium hydroxide 2 Acids a binary only two elements one has to be hydrogen one has to be nonmetal i naming hydro base name for nonmetal ic acid ii ex hydrochloric acid hydrosulfuric acidthis is the exception to the base iii see slide for exceptions b oxyacids acids with hydrogen and an oxyanion an anion with oxygen and a nonmetal i ex NO339 PO4339 ii oxyanions ending with ate 1 drop quotate add ic acid iii oxyanions ending with ite 1 drop ite add ous acid Polyprotic Acid 1 phosphate hydrogen phosphate dihydrogen phosphate a only form phosphoric acid AcidBase Reaction 1 AcidBase reactionneutralization reaction acid reacts with a base each reactant is neutralized because the H and OH39reacts to generate H20l a a salt is also produced gt ionic compound 2 HCI aq NaOH aq gt H20 l NaCl aq molecular 3 H aq Cl39 aq Na aq OH39aq gt H20 l Na aq Cl39 aq complete ionic W 4 H aq OH39aq gt H20 l net ionic equation Titration 1 Titration a solution of known concentration reacts with a solution of an unknown concentration a goal determine the concentration of the unknown solution b titrant solution that you know the concentration of i this goes in the burette ii put a pH indicator into a flask when the burette is putting the titrant in it so it will change color when you reach the correct amount OxidationReduction Reactionl Redox Reaction SEE SLIDE 1 a reaction in which electrons are transferred between reactants a one reactant loses electrons another must gain the lost electrons b oxidation states change for an element from reactant to product i very similar to charge but we assume that all shared electrons go to the electronegative atom ii with these the sign of the state is before the number this is how you know the difference between it and charge Determining Oxidation States 1 Free element O a ex Cu 02 2 Monoatomic ion charge oxidation state a ex 8239 3 Sum of oxidation states a neutral molecule0 i ex H20 b Polyatomic ions charge total oxidation states i ex N0239 4 Priorities in assigning oxidation states a Gp 1A 1 b Gp 2A 2 c F 1 d H 1 e O 2 f Gp 7A 1 g Gp 6A 2 h Gp 5A 3 5 The la t element39s oxidation state is determined based on rule 3 Oxidation 1 Oxidation loses electrons a the reactant that loses electrons is oxidized 2 Reduction gains electrons a the reactant that gains electrons is reduced Agent 1 Oxidizing agent a substance that causes the oxidation of another substance a to oxidize another substance it needs to gain those electrons 2 Reducing Agent a substance that causes the reduction of another substance a is oxidized in the reaction