Week 12 Notes - Cancer
Week 12 Notes - Cancer 2420-001
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emma Trokel on Wednesday March 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 2420-001 at University of Colorado at Boulder taught by S. Nelson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Nutrition and Health Performance in Psychlogy at University of Colorado at Boulder.
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Date Created: 03/30/16
Week 12 Cancer How Cancer Develops ● Mutations in the genes that control cell division ○ A cancer develops because of a carcinogen ○ Antioxidants work against carcinogens in broccoli, kale, spinach, sweet potatoes, “super foods” when antioxidants are in the body, the antioxidant stops the carcinogen from being powerful ○ In all of us Always have cancer cells but our immune system holds it back and carcinogens hold back the immune system ● Cancer arises in the genes ○ DNA is damaged by carcinogens cancer causing material/ starts the cancer process/ almost always environmental ■ Cellular repair or selfdestruction ■ Cell loses ability to selfdestruct this is what makes cancer so different in a cancer situation , the cells don’t destroy itself the cell doesn’t recognize that it is bad for the body and will ongoingly replicate itself ■ Replicates uncontrollably ■ Mass of abnormal tissue Anchorage dependence will not divide unless touching something Densitydependant inhibition there is one layer of cells the body will fill in the hole then stops (at one layer) ( inhibitions are lowered when alcohol intake ) keloid overactive scar tissue The opposite is happening with cancer cells We do not have anchorage dependence or density dependent inhibition Did not stop at that one layer Loss of Cell Cycle Controls in Cancer Cells ● Cancer cells exhibit neither densitydependant inhibition nor anchorage dependence ● Cancer cells do not respond normally to the body’s control mechanisms checks and balances ● Cancer cells may not need growth factors to grow and divide: ○ They may make their own growth factor ○ They may convey a growth factor’s signal without the presence of the growth factor ○ They may have an abnormal cell cycle control system ● A normal cell is converted to a cancerous cell by a process calltransformation ● Cancer cells form tumors, masses of abnormal cells within otherwise normal tissue ● If abnormal cells remain at the original site, the lump is calbenign tumor not cancerous ● Malignant tumors invade surrounding tissues and can metastasize (when cancer cells hit the blood supply can be exported to anywhere in the body), exporting cancer cells to other parts of the body where they may for secondary tumors Cancer cells take weight away from body will divide without an energy source make their own food Pseudotumors Normal cells → Initiation (a carcinogen enters a normal cell and alters the cell’s DNA) → Promotion (promoters enhance the development of abnormal cells, resulting in formation of a tumor) → Further tumor development (enters the blood supply and is exported to the rest of the body/precancerous) Metastatic tumor product of metastasis Henrietta Lacks HeLa cellsmost used cells for scientific experiments ● 1951/Cervical cancer/ died at the age of 31 ● Immortal cell line still dividing today since 1951 ● 60,000 scientific papers ● Cancer/AIDS/polio ● Legal ramifications/tissue ● Commercialization Lung Cancer ● Two types ○ Small cell and nonsmall cell ● New cases: 226,160 Deaths: 160,340 ● 80%90% of cancer due to tobacco smoke ● Other factors: radon(colorado is famous for its levels of radon, odorless gas found in the soils of colorado, secondhand smoke, asbestos airborne, air pollution, genetics Symptoms ● Coughing up blood, shortness of breath, weight loss ● Chest radiograph, biopsy ● Type of cancer/stage/health Skin Cancer / Melanoma ● A form of cancer that begins in the melanocytes (cells that make the pigment melanin). Begins in a mole or other pigmented tissues (freckles) ● Melanoma often spreads ● Basal cell skin cancer sun/face rarely spreads ● Squamous cell skin cancer ● New cases: 76,250 Deaths: 9.180 ● Skin checks
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