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Week 12 Notes - Cancer

by: Emma Trokel

Week 12 Notes - Cancer 2420-001

Emma Trokel


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About this Document

bundle of notes for week 12
Nutrition and Health Performance
S. Nelson
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Nutrition and Health Performance

Popular in Psychlogy

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emma Trokel on Wednesday March 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 2420-001 at University of Colorado at Boulder taught by S. Nelson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Nutrition and Health Performance in Psychlogy at University of Colorado at Boulder.


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Date Created: 03/30/16
Week 12 ­ Cancer    How Cancer Develops   ● Mutations in the genes that control cell division  ○ A cancer develops because of a carcinogen  ○ Antioxidants  work against carcinogens ­ in broccoli, kale, spinach, sweet  potatoes, “super foods” ­ when antioxidants are in the body, the antioxidant stops  the carcinogen from being powerful   ○ In all of us     Always have cancer cells ­  but our immune system holds it back and carcinogens hold back  the immune system     ● Cancer arises in the genes   ○ DNA is damaged by carcinogens ­ cancer causing material/ starts the cancer  process/ almost always environmental    ■ Cellular repair or self­destruction   ■ Cell loses ability to self­destruct ­ this is what makes cancer so different ­  in a cancer situation , the cells don’t destroy itself­ the cell doesn’t  recognize that it is bad for the body and will ongoingly replicate itself   ■ Replicates uncontrollably   ■ Mass of abnormal tissue        ­Anchorage dependence ­ will not divide unless touching something   ­Density­dependant inhibition ­ there is one layer of cells the body will fill in the hole then stops  (at one layer) ( inhibitions are lowered when alcohol intake )  ­keloid ­ overactive scar tissue     The opposite is happening with cancer cells  We do not have anchorage dependence or density dependent inhibition   Did not stop at that one layer   Loss of Cell Cycle Controls in Cancer Cells   ● Cancer cells exhibit neither density­dependant inhibition nor anchorage dependence   ● Cancer cells do not respond normally to the body’s control mechanisms ­ checks and  balances   ● Cancer cells may not need growth factors to grow and divide:  ○ They may make their own growth factor  ○ They may convey a growth factor’s signal without the presence of the growth  factor   ○ They may have an abnormal cell cycle control system    ● A normal cell is converted to a cancerous cell by a process call​transformation  ● Cancer cells form tumors, masses of abnormal cells within otherwise normal tissue  ● If abnormal cells remain at the original site, the lump is calbenign tumor  ​­ not  cancerous  ● Malignant tumors ​ invade surrounding tissues and can m​etastasize (when cancer  cells hit the blood supply­ can be exported to anywhere in the body),  exporting  cancer cells to other parts of the body where they may for secondary tumors     Cancer cells ­ take weight away from body ­ will divide without an energy source ­ make their  own food    Pseudotumors       Normal cells →   Initiation (a carcinogen enters a normal cell and alters the cell’s DNA) →   Promotion (promoters enhance the development of abnormal cells, resulting in formation of a  tumor) →   Further tumor development (enters the blood supply and is exported to the rest of the  body/precancerous)     Metastatic tumor ­ product of metastasis                Henrietta Lacks ­ HeLa cellsmost used cells for scientific experiments   ● 1951/Cervical cancer/ died at the age of 31  ● Immortal cell line ­ still dividing today since 1951  ● 60,000 scientific papers  ● Cancer/AIDS/polio  ● Legal ramifications/tissue  ● Commercialization    Lung Cancer  ● Two types  ○ Small cell and non­small cell  ● New cases: 226,160 Deaths: 160,340  ● 80%­90% of cancer due to tobacco smoke  ● Other factors: radon(colorado is famous for its levels of radon, odorless gas found in the  soils of colorado, second­hand smoke, asbestos ­ airborne, air pollution, genetics  Symptoms   ● Coughing up blood, shortness of breath, weight loss  ● Chest radiograph, biopsy   ● Type of cancer/stage/health     Skin Cancer / Melanoma   ● A form of cancer that begins in the melanocytes (cells that make the pigment melanin).  Begins in a mole or other pigmented tissues (freckles)  ● Melanoma ­ often spreads  ● Basal cell skin cancer ­ sun/face ­ rarely spreads  ● Squamous cell skin cancer    ● New cases: 76,250 Deaths: 9.180  ● Skin checks 


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