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Week 11 Lecture Notes- BIO 106 Ocean Life

by: Caroline Hill

Week 11 Lecture Notes- BIO 106 Ocean Life BIO 106 - M001

Marketplace > Syracuse University > Biology > BIO 106 - M001 > Week 11 Lecture Notes BIO 106 Ocean Life
Caroline Hill
GPA 3.8

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About this Document

These are detailed notes of the lecture from the eleventh week of this class, which was about marine mammals and adaptations to ocean life.
Ocean Life
S. Parks
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caroline Hill on Thursday November 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 106 - M001 at Syracuse University taught by S. Parks in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Ocean Life in Biology at Syracuse University.

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Date Created: 11/12/15
11/9/15­ Marine Mammals and Adaptations to Ocean Life Challenges in diving ­Can not obtain oxygen underwater ­Low oxygen to vital organs (brain, heart) ­Increasing pressure on gases with depth  ­1 atmosphere per 10 meters ­Terrestrial appendages not efficient for swimming Decompression Sickness ­Why divers take lessons before they scuba dive ­ “the bends” ­Happens because an increased pressure with depth causes nitrogen gases to dissolve in the body ­This gas is released when pressure is reduced ­Rapid surfacing from depth causes bubbles to release rapidly (into skin, joints, and blood  stream) ­can be fatal if the bubbles go to your brain ­To avoid this, you have to make decompression stops­ going back up to the surface in small  increments to avoid the bends Decompression sickness can be fatal ­extremely painful ­treatment involves re­pressurization in a chamber ­Marine mammals have to avoid this problem too Diving World Champ? ­Cuvier’s beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris) ­Can dive for extremely long times (45 mins­ an hour) ­Confirmed to dive deeper than 1900 m (6,200 ft) How to maintain oxygen levels on dives? Lungs­ still a large reservoir for oxygen Muscles­ myoglobin stores oxygen, it is an oxygen transport molecule Blood­ hemoglobin is an oxygen transport molecule Why don’t marine mammals get the bends? ­Lung collapse reduces gas exchange ­Adaptations of diving behavior to minimize effects on long dives  ­Their surfacing dives are much slower ­They also take decompression dives ­marine mammals actually do get the bends ­They are not perfect at diving, but like humans they do everything they can to reduce the risk of getting it The bends in marine mammals ­deep divers show signs of chronic mild decompression sickness with age  ­joint deterioration, destruction of cartilage ­startled deep divers from human activity show evidence of bubble formation from racing to the  surface Thermoregulation ­All marine mammals are endothermic and must maintain their body temperature ­How do they maintain their body temp if they are swimming from the Arctic to the  Caribbean? ­Solutions to limit heat loss in water ­Be big (it is easier to maintain body temperature) ­Insulation ­Blood flow changes ­Countercurrent exchange ­How to not get too warm Why is heat loss a problem? ­heat loss is about 25 times faster in water than in air ­higher density of water leads to greater conduction of heat  ­hypothermia can happen How to stay warm: be big! ­being big allows animals to maintain their core temperatures more efficiently  Advantages of large body size ­the larger the animal, the smaller the surface area to volume ratio ­less area to insulate Keep warm with insulation ­Two main types of insulation in marine mammals ­Fat ­Air Blubber and fat insulation ­Fat is the most efficient form of energy storage and heat insulation ­Found in many warm­blooded marine animals ­Penguins ­Polar bears ­whales ­seals and sea lions Polar bear insulation ­Thick water repellent coat ­dark skin for heat absorption in sunlight ­their fur reflects heat so well that it actually traps it in their fur, keeping them warm ­Up to 11 cm (4.5 inches) of fat ­Need to shed heat on land or they will overheat Seal fat ­Most pinniped species have significant fat layers ­polar pinnipeds have greater fat storage ­hooded seal pups gain all needed fat from only 4 days of nursing! Champion of blubber ­Bowhead whales have the thickest blubber ­live in very cold (arctic) waters year round ­blubber up to 19 inches thick Sea otter insulation ­no thick fat layer to stay warm ­densest fur of any animal ­more than 100,000 hairs per square centimeter ­waterproof oily hair ­they really need to keep their coat clean so they can stay warm so they spend a lot of time  grooming Countercurrent heat exchange ­heat naturally flows from higher temperatures to lower temperatures, so the human body tends  to lose heat to the environment in cold weather, and gain heat in hot weather.  ­Luckily, the body has ways to regulate its temperature. The layout of blood vessels near the  body’s surface allows for countercurrent heat exchange, a natural way to hold in the body’s  warmth.  ­In addition, the body uses selective vasoconstriction and vasodilation to adjust blood flow so  that warm blood stays inside the body’s core in cold weather, and flows to the body’s surface in  warm weather. ­the blood comes from the heart, cools as it gets to the skin, but it warms up again before it gets  back to the heart. How to avoid overheating? ­odontocytes: dumping heat through the dorsal fin by changing the path of the blood in their  body ­Baleen whales: heat exchange through the palatal CMM organ (in mouth) Bowhead cooling system ­the palatal CMM organ dumping heat  Specialized foraging behaviors ­plankton feeders ­filter feeding ­fish feeders ­engulfment ­echolocation ­strand feeding ­mammal eaters Right whale feeding ­Long baleen and slow swimming speed ­They open their mouths and swim slowly through the water. ­Their prey is microscopic and can’t move out of the way ­feed exclusively on plankton ­Primary prey are copepods (zooplankton) ­Whales cooperative feed ­V­shaped arrangement like flying geese ­Thought to maximize prey consumption Copepod behavior drives whale behavior ­Right whales dive to depth with greatest prey density ­In summer this is about 125 meters ­In late winter this is only 5 meters Fish hunters­ bubble nets ­Humpback whales can cooperate to feed in groups ­they use tools to corral fish­ blowing bubbles to herd fish ­bubble net feeding to encircle large schools of fish Fish hunters­echolocation ­Odontocytes ­Generating clicks through blowhole, goes through melon, the clicks echo off of prey, and is  received under their jaw ­As they get closer to prey, their clicks get faster so they can be more accurate ­semicircular canals­ spinning rapidly to get a sense of the environment Highly specializes feeding strategies ­strand feeding (South Carolina)­ jumping out of the water! ­dangerous because they could get stranded on shore too ­crater feeding (Bahamas) ­sticking their heads in the sand to find prey buried in the sand Mammal hunters ­Pods (family groups) of some killer whales feed on marine mammals ­ex: eating a baby gray whale Peninsula Valdes, Argentina ­killer whales beach themselves to eat seal pups ­this place has a lot of marine life  Numerical density of top predators ­populations of whales decline during industrial whaling ­humans have been taking whales for 1000s of years Sequential predator collapse in the Bering Sea ­We are hunting the largest to the smallest thing (hunting down the food chain)


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