Biological Foundations Objectives
Biological Foundations Objectives PSYC100
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brooke Sullivan on Wednesday March 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC100 at University of Maryland taught by Dr. Curtis in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Maryland.
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Date Created: 03/30/16
Biological Foundations 3/28/16 7:37 PM 05-A Neurons and Action Potentials o Axon: length of the neuron where the action potential travels to reach the terminal end of the cell o Axon Hillock: connection between the soma and the axon o Dendrites: Receives messages from other neurons through neurotransmitters o Schwann Cells: fatty insulation that allows for the faster transmission o Soma: body of the cell that houses the nucleus and acts as the control center of the neuron o Synapse: The space in between neurons o Terminal: end of the neuron that houses the terminal buttons o Terminal Buttons: Send neurotransmitters across the synapse and pick them back up through a process called reuptake 05-B Action Potentials o -70mV; This occurs because there are more positive ions outside of the cell than inside, so the inside is slightly less positive o When a neuron reaches its threshold, that means enough positive ions have flowed inside of the cell to raise the membrane potential, allowing an action potential to pass down the neuron o An action potential is an electrical impulse; Electrical signals travel down the neuron like a toilet. In order for the toilet to flush, you must push the handle enough to reach the toilet’s threshold. If you push it down less than that, the toilet will not flush. The same goes for action potentials. If an action potential does not reach the threshold, the impulse will not fire. Once the toilet has begun to flush, the bowl begins to fill with water in the same way that the inside of a neuron begins to fill with positive ions. After the toilet and the neuron have reached their maximum intake, they begin to flush water down the pipe and release positive ions respectively. o After a flush has been completed, there is a short period of time, after the toilet has lost more water than it initially had, where it is filling, and no other flush can be completed. The same goes for neurons: it overcompensates for its positive membrane potential by sending out too many ions, and becoming too negative. During this time, the absolute refractory period, another action potential cannot pass. o After the toilet has filled partially, but is still filling, you can flush again, but it takes more time holding down the handle than it does normally. When the neuron has partially refilled with positive ions, but not completely, the neuron can fire another action potential, but will take more energy to fire it. This is called the relative refractory period. 05-C Synapse o The synapse is the space between the presynaptic terminal and the post synaptic terminal o A signal is transmitted through neurotransmitters o Vesicles are small sacs located within the presynaptic terminal and they contain neurotransmitters o When a neurotransmitter is inhibitory, it makes the postsynaptic neuron less likely to generate an action potential. When a neurotransmitter is excitatory, it makes the postsynaptic terminal more likely to generate an action potential. o Reuptake is the absorption by a presynaptic nerve ending of a neurotransmitter that it has secreted 05-D Nervous Systems o Central Nervous System: comprised of brain and spinal cord o Brain: receives and processes sensory information, initiates responses, stores memories and generates thoughts and emotions o Spinal Cord: conducts signals to and from the brain, controls reflex activities o Peripheral Nervous System: composed of motor neurons and sensory neurons o Afferent Division: takes information from sensory organs and sends to the CNS o Efferent Division: takes information from the CNS and send it to the muscles and glands o Somatic Nervous System: controls voluntary movements o Autonomic Nervous System: controls involuntary responses o Sympathetic: fight or flight o Parasympathetic: rest or digest o A reflex arc send sensory info to the spinal cord where it is then processed, as opposed to processing in the brain. 05-E The Brain o Different parts of our brain have different functions for the rest of our bodies. o Phineas Gage was stabbed in his eye, through his brain, and out of the top of his head. While a doctor was examining him, he coughed up a teacup sized chunk of his brain. He healed seemingly well, but according to friend and family reports, Phineas had a mood change and was now angrier and ruder. This case was a tip to doctors and scientists that function is localized in the brain and that messing with the brain is messing with the mind. o Brain Stem: where spinal cord enters the skull o Medulla: old brain functions happen without conscious effort; heart beat, breathing o Pons: helps coordinate movement o Thalamus: take in sensory information related to seeing, hearing, touching, and tasting o Reticular Formation: essential in arousal; sleeping, walking, pain perception o Cerebellum: responsible for nonverbal learning and memory, perception of time, modulating emotions, control voluntary movement o Hypothalamus: controls body temperature, hunger, circadian rhythms, pleasure and reward o Pituitary Gland: stores and secretes hormones o Amygdala: responsible for memory consolidation, fear, and aggression o Hippocampus: essential to learning and memory o Corpus Collosum: connects the two lobes of the brain o Cerebral Cortex: responsible for the most complex cognitive functions o Motor Cortex: controls voluntary movements and sends messages from the brain to the body o Somatosensory Cortex: processes incoming sensations o Frontal Lobes: speaking, planning judging, abstract thinking, personality o Parietal Lobes: sense of touch, body position o Temporal Lobes: comprehension, sound, speech o Occipital Lobes: information related to sight o 05-F Homunculus o A homunculus is a sensory map of the body with each body part’s size being in proportion to its number of sensory neural connection. Places like the hands are larger because they sense the most information an places like the arms are smaller because they do not sense as much. 05-G Brain Imaging Techniques o Brain imaging allows neuroscientists to see the living brain in real time. o fMRI: produces clear and detailed pictures of brain structures and can take the form of slices o CAT: detects brain damage and highlights changes in cerebral blood flow using several 2-D x-rays o PET: allows for the observation of blood flow and metabolism in the brain by reading the consumption by brain cells of radioactive glucose o EEG: noninvasive and the first of its kind; records electrical signals that come from the brain o MEG: gives the most accurate picture of timing and nerve cell activity by measuring very faint magnetic fields that come from the head as a result of brain activity 3/28/16 7:37 PM o 3/28/16 7:37 PM
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