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11-03 Notes

by: Keely Haggar

11-03 Notes GEOL 1200 - 003

Keely Haggar
GPA 2.0

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Physical Geology (no lab)
Jake Armour
Class Notes
Geology, Physical Geology, armour
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Keely Haggar on Thursday November 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOL 1200 - 003 at University of North Carolina - Charlotte taught by Jake Armour in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Physical Geology (no lab) in Geology at University of North Carolina - Charlotte.


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Date Created: 11/12/15
Geology  1200  11-­‐03     Ancient  River  Channels     Ø   Is  there  life  on  Mars?   o   Liquid  is  flowing  through  channels   o   Water  on  mars   §   Ripple  marks  on  mars  –  some  point  it  had  oceans  on  it     What  kind  of  rock  is  this?     a.   Metamorphic   b.   Sedimentary   c.   Igneous   d.   Sediment   e.   Soil         Ans:  b.  Sedimentary     Ø   At  the  beach  we  have  a  lot  of  sediment,  pieces  of  broken  up  rock.  It  has  not  yet  been   compacted  into  a  sedimentary  rock.     2  Types  of  Weathering   Ø   Mechanical  Weathering   o   No  change  in  composition   o   Once  you  weather  it,  you  increase  the  speed  in  weathering.  It  increases  the   amount  of  surface  area  enabling  it  to  weather  faster.   o     Ø   Chemical  Weathering   o   Dissolve  things   §   Dissolution  and  precipitation  of  a  solid   •   Monuments  made  of  calcium  carbonate,  reacts  to  rainwater  due   to  the  pH  of  it  being  6.5,  dissolves  these  monuments.     •   Oxidation;  ex.  aluminum-­‐oxide.   Ø   Physical  and  Chemical  work  together.   o   Ex.  Spheroidal  Weathering   §   There  is  a  lot  of  water  soaking  into  the  ground,  slightly  acidic  water,   which  is  dissolving  the  rock  at  our  feet.     o   Both  operate  in  all  environments.  In  a  more  wet  environment  you’ll  have  more   chemical.  In  a  drier  environment  you’ll  have  more  mechanical.         Differential  Weathering     Ø   Some  of  the  sandstones  are  stronger  and  more  resistant  to  erosion  as  some  of  the   mudstone.  **pic*   Ø   Crowder's  Mountain  NC  –  differential  weathering,  this  rock  is  stronger  than  the  softer   stuff  around  it.     Ø   Stone  Mountain  NC  –  intrusion  of  granite,  rock  around  it  was  softer  thus  was  removed.     What  type  of  wreathing  process  preserves  this  dome  shape  of  Stone  Mountain?     a.   Oxidation   b.   Wedging   c.   Dissolution   d.   Exfoliation     Ans:  D.  Exfoliation     Types  of  Mechanical  Weathering   Why  does  this  exfoliation  happen?   Ø   A  mechanical  weathering  type  called:  Pressure  Release   o   Because  of  that  expansion  rate  that  is  equal  in  all  directions,  it  becomes  a  nice   dome  shape  and  exfoliates  sheets.  A  release  of  pressure  creates  that  exfoliation.       Wedging:     Ø   Frost  Wedging:  Water  gets  in  between  rock  and  freezes.  When  it  freezes  it  expands,   causing  parts  of  rock  to  break  off.     Ø   Root  Wedging:  Plants  roots  pursue  water,  which  is  in  these  fractures.  So  as  these  roots   locate  those  areas  they  then  grow  and  expand  these  cracks.         Other  Mechanical  Weathering  Types:   Ø   Diurnal   o   Repetitive  expansion  and  contraction   Ø   Daytime  Temperature  Differential     If  the  sun  rises  in  the  East  and  sets  in  the  West,  in  what  orientation  should  a  crack  form  in  a   rock?   a.   N-­‐S b.   E-­‐W   c.   N45E   d.   N45W   e.   Randomly     Ans:  A.  N-­‐S     Why?     Ø   When  it’s  the  morning,  part  of  the  rock  is  expanding  on  one  side.  Then  the  other  side,  it   is  cooling.  There  are  tensional  forces  that  are  set  up.  Then  once  the  sun  is  setting,  the   other  side  of  the  rock  is  even  hotter,  say  140  degrees  and  the  other  side  that  was  once   heated  has  come  down  to  70.  It  creates  a  major  tension  that  creates  that  break.     Which  direction  would  there  be  a  crack  on  mars?   Ø   Similar  day  length  and  similar  sun  path,  get  the  same  data  as  Earth.     When  stuff  is  weathered  away,  this  is  creating  sediment.     Once  it  is  weathered  to  the  point  where  it  can  be  carried  away,  that  is  erosion.     Review:   1.   Physical  Weathering   a.   Sand,  boulders,  clay,  pebbles   2.   Chemical  Weathering   a.   Salts   3.   Organic  Weathering   a.   Shells,  humus     Ø   Coal  is  an  organic  sedimentary  rock  composed  exclusively  of  plant  material.     o   A  swampy  environment  will  eventually  have  enough  material  to  produce  new   coal.     o   How  old  is  the  coal  we  are  burning  right  now?   §   Most  of  it  is  coming  from  PA,  very  old  –  produced  during  Cretaceous  time   period  (a  couple  hundred  million  years  old)   §   Why  we  call  it  a  non-­‐renewable  resource?   •   It  can  be  re-­‐made,  it  just  takes  LOTS  of  time.   •     Sedimentologists:   Ø   Studies  sediment,  but  fluctuate  with  the  price  of  oil.   Ø   $60-­‐90,000  average  starting  salary  with  BS     How  would  you  describe  this  material?     a.   Sediment   b.   Sedimentary  Rock   c.   Igneous  Rock   d.   Metamorphic  Rock         Ans:  b.  Sedimentary  Rock       Talus  (Talus  Slope):  Large  broken  off  rocks,  caused  by  freeze-­‐thaw  or  root  wedging.  Glacial   environments  move  a  tremendous  amount  of  this.  As  they  reach  rivers  they  become  rounded,   and  you  get  down  to  the  beach  and  you  have  sand.       Ø   Sand  can  pile  up  into  huge  dunes  because  of  wind.  Concluding  that  wind  can  only  move   smaller  particles.     Ø   Sand  is  not  a  material,  sand  is  a  size,  the  maximum  size  wind  can  move.       Deposition:   •   Once  a  sand  particle  has  stopped  moving  it  has  been  deposited.       Where  is  deposition  occurring  in  this  satellite  image?   a.             b.         c.               d.           ans:  B      


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