Week 12 Lecture Notes - EBIO
Week 12 Lecture Notes - EBIO EBIO 1210-001
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tatiana Tabares on Thursday November 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to EBIO 1210-001 at University of Colorado taught by Dr. Barbara Demmig-Adams in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see General Biology 1 in Biology at University of Colorado.
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Date Created: 11/12/15
Week 12 Lecture Notes Genes on Chromosomes DNA Intro Genes on Chromosomes Outline 1 Mendelian inheritance has its basis in the behavior of chromosomes 2 Genes on chromosomes 3 Gene linkage and mapping The Fruit Fly They breed at a high rate A generation can be bred every 2 weeks They have only four pairs of chromosomes Males are XY and females are XX By studying them carefully rare quotmutantquot phenotypes could be identified that were different from the normal quotwild type iClicker Question The best explanation for the pattern of inheritance seen in the F2 generation is Answer The eye color gene is sexlinked on the X chromosome Counterintuitive gt E mserrrzEImi om u autumnml ham vi lliill39 39 film do the urge pgryillg39tg urypi 139mf naumm af39ihrfEiiilllp and mm usurynu Usermull an rami rJf qunowm grmauced Pym HTML IHE trrmea in mi il fp ihrh l ntau IJII gratinpen of in rm ii illuminant ruinwin EraIMHFHME39HI and In Ear ll k gr iClicker Question Question Given the conclusion from Morgan39s work If Morgan39s parental generation had been whiteeyed FEMALES and redeyed MALES then of the males and of the females in the F1 generation would have had white eyes Week 12 Lecture Notes Genes on Chromosomes DNA Intro Answer ANone Generation ET Genes heredity and Mendelian genetics Predict patterns at heredity and trait espressinn fer cresses ir1ri39nquotll39lrir1F gemtvpes that have Uarieus cnmhinatinms ref dlnminant and recessive alleles llalsn do the reverse predict genotypes ti Fm nbserua ens Inf patterns nf hErEdllIil39 and trait es presstnn Lise results rm ratins nf phenntypes produced frnrn speci c rrnrrm n firm39139 llumnmlulmm nhnurr I39iquot rmnnhmnr n F H wrnn l r fii39l i39llnlrnin39llnfur39 rnrnrrfmJn V39Ii39l39w39 rumJ nllnlm Fin l I iii39l mnnn linkurn E s 5 T 1 quot T st 3 Gene Linkage and mapping Law of Independent Assortment Alleles of genes on nonhomologous chromosomes assort independently during gamete formation Combinations of alleles that are nonparental are called quotrecombinantquot in the junior example the recombinant combination are the gametes produced with genotypes Ab and a8 it is a combo he did not inherit Gene Linkage Each chromosome has hundreds of thousands of genes Genes located on the same chromosome that tend to be inherited together are called linkage genes Recombination of Linked Genes Morgan Discovered that Week 12 Lecture Notes Genes on Chromosomes DNA lntro Body color and wing phenotype were often inherited together offspring usually had the same combos of phenotypes as one of the parents 0 genes on the same chromosome BUT linkage was incomplete as evident from recombinant phenotypes combos different from parental types Some process must sometimes break the physical connection between genes on the same chromosome In 1913 Sturtevant mapped genes without modern sequencing tools and indeed without knowledge that DNA was the hereditary molecule Genetic Map Info on recombination frequencies can be used to create these HOW gt Assume that genes that are farther apart will show higher recombination frequencies Gene Mapping Some useful terms Linkage map genetic map of a chromosome based on recombination frequencies Notion of distance map units one map unit 1 recombination frequency Map units indicate relative distance and order not precise locations of genes Recombination frequency recombinants I total of offspring x 100 Recombinant is when the phenotypes the letters do not match those of either of the parents Outline 1 The molecule of heredity DNA that directs the program that takes raw materials and turns them into YOU Known much about cell chemistry Week 12 Lecture Notes Genes on Chromosomes DNA lntro the work of Mendel Morgan and many others gt many findings suggesting chromosomesDNA contain heredity molecule 1 DNA is a double stranded molecule 2 Two strands form a double helix DNA is A nucleic acid is a polymer of made of nucleotide monomers A nucleotide consists of 1 a nitrogenous base 2 a sugar 3 a phosphate group The sugar and phosphate group are the same for all nucleotides The base is what varies The sequence of nucleotides with different bases forms the code containing all hereditary information There are only 4 nitrogenous bases gt four possible nucleotides diff sequences of the 4 possible nucleotides are what make them different Erwin Chargadd looking at chemical composition of DNA in any particular species adenine A thymine T guanine G cytosine C Chargaff39s Rule above In an UNPUBLISHED REPORT Franklin postulated The strands of DNA run in an antiparallel manner one is upside down relative to the other one The phosphate group in a single nucleotide is attached to the 539 five prime carbon atom of the sugar Sugar deoxyribose 339 three prime end 0 Like lego bricks top has dots 539 bottom has holes 339 Week 12 Lecture Notes Genes on Chromosomes DNA lntro adjacent nucleotides are linked phosphate to 339 carbon atom 0 forms the backbone antiparallel arrangement allows proper base pairing 0 hydrogen bonding keeps the two strands together and Chargaff39s rule