Week 11 (Imagery, Language)
Week 11 (Imagery, Language) PSYC 2014
Popular in Cognitive Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Lowe on Thursday November 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2014 at George Washington University taught by Dopkins, S in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in Psychlogy at George Washington University.
Reviews for Week 11 (Imagery, Language)
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 11/12/15
Monday November 9 2015 Cognitive Psychology Multiple Choice Question 104 Which of the following words would be most easily represented with dual codes A wolf B happiness C animal D imagination If the word applies to something that you could very easily picture that is the choice you wanna choose Review from Last Class VIDEO of paralyzed man What provides guidance for the arm moving Recording neurosignals that would be the signals that would generate the kind of movement How They put receptorselectrodes in his brain in a part of the motor cortex that track these neurosignals that control the movements What is he doing to make the movement happen Generating an image of what he wants to do and these signals are being picked up by the electrodes The idea of what you are going to do before you do it Language Gives us immense power as a species because we can relay information from one generation to the next Allows individuals to start with a legup because we can communicate Monday November 9 2015 Four Necessary Components of Language 1 Semantics The meaning conveyed by an utterance MOST important part of language The whole point of language is to convey some meaning to another person Utterance language is a bunch of different sounds and so we call these things utterances as compared to anything else Word meaningbearing receptacles Childrenat the beginning of life we start out by just saying single words John happily made love to his neighbor s friendly wife Even though these words are all relatively happy in a sentence they convey not the best thing Syntax Rules that arrange words into phrases and sentences In order to get across more complicated meanings you have to combine words to make up a phrasesentence which expresses a thought Originally not thought to be very important Noam Chomsky Preeminent linguist of the last 50 years and was very important in starting study of syntax and therefore cognitive psychology Colorless green ideas sleep furiously This sentence really doesn t mean anything even though it is correct in syntax structure The frog swallowed the spider V8 The spider swallowed the frog These are made of the exact same words but have totally different meanings Visiting relatives can be dangerous Ambiguous sentence because you do not know what the meaning is because it can be read in two different ways Monday November 9 2015 Either that the actual journey to visit the relatives is dangerous or The horse raced past the barn fell What is happening in this sentence what is the meaning Critical thing is what fell It is totally a correct syntax structure The horse fell is the thing that fell 3 Speech and Gesture Media of communication Many different types of this Preeminent mode of expression is speech The larynx in humans is much lower than in other creatures mg especially apes quot 39 You don t have the problem of food going down the windpipe in other creatures because the larynx in much higher in others Why is our larynx so low what is the advantage Thought that you get a wider range of sounds because the larynx in essentially playing upon the mouth if you put it down lower you can target it better and get this wider array of sound A problem is that is makes it easier to choke Who died from choking Drummer from Led Zeppelin 4 Pragmatics Social rules that govern language use Assertives the speaker asserts hisher belief in some proposition Most common Directives the speaker tells the listener to do something Group Ex Hey you close the window Monday November 9 2015 Commissives the speaker commits himherself to some later action Group Ex I am going to break your neck if you don t close the window Ex I am going to go to the gym today Expressives the speaker describes hisher psychological state Group Ex I am very sad that the window is open Declarations the speaker s utterance performs some action Ex you re fired Ex if the window is voice activated Close Window Language and Animals VIDEO 1 chimp using hands to express that he wants the people to open the window VIDEO 2 movie trailer of a family who taught a chimp to do sign language Results from studies like this is that the chimps don t have syntax or pragmatic tools in language Language Universals Phonology way speech sounds are combined and altered in a language Phoneme smallest unit of sound that makes a meaningful difference in a language In order to make the phoneme you have to somehow get it to emerge from your apparatus and there is a limited number of sounds you can make emerge Language is created by forcing air from lungs to larynxvocal cords forcing air over articulatory process and chopping this air into units known as phonemes and this is limited because you only have so many apparatuses used in the process of speaking Vowels Vocal cords undergo periodic vibration Differ in formant frequencies frequencies that are strongest Generating continuous bands of frequencies Monday November 9 2015 Similar to playing a french horn How do you distinguish I from U sounds What is difference You change the shape of your mouth to make the different sounds The sounds are different in that the frequency is higher in l s than in Us Different bands of frequencies Consonants created by articulating with tongue and lips Stop Consonants start with noise bursts B P DTGK Specific start to each letter Bob s Big Boy Paul s Super Whopper 2 new restaurants and serve the exact same food with the same ingredients and are own by the same guy A critic said that Paul s Super Whopper was much better and much classier than the other one Why did he come to the different conclusions for them What is different about the B sound and the P sound Different in the way they are generated Differ in whether vocal cords resonate immediately after noise burst Voiced B Unvoiced P Fricative Consonants involve turbulent airflow created through partial constriction of vocal tract Differ in whether vocal cords resonate immediately after noise burst Voiced V Z Unvoiced F S Nasal Consonants Produced by Blocking output of sound though mouth with lips or tongue Monday November 9 2015 Dropping soft palate so that sounds radiates through the nose MN LanguageLearning Universals Monday November 9 2015 Cognitive Psychology Multiple Choice Question from 119 Compared to human language animal communication appears to lack A syntactic rules B semantics Pretty good evidence they have this C meaning Clear that they have this Think the chimp who was taught to sign D capacity for conveying emotion Language Continued LanguageLearning Universals Newborns sensitive to prosody of mother s speech Prosody Rhythm stress and intonation pattern of speech Mother and child interact through process of turnabout Turnabout simulates a social interaction VIDEO mother singing to baby and the baby starts sobbing silently Child cries when mom is singing and then smiles when she stops He doesn t understand the words he may understand the feelings of the song the song was sad but Dopkins thinks that the mom is trying to initiate a reaction VIDEO on the Still Face Experiment Mother responds Monday November 9 2015 During first year children are relatively more sensitive to phonemes of native language VIDEO experiment where a young baby listens to a certain sound and then another sound begins and then little play bears light up next to him The young baby can anticipate with the initiation of the new sound that the little play bears will light up and so the baby looks over before they light up An infant who is 1 years old no longer anticipates the light up bears What children say Locate name Say what something is and where it is Demand Say cup and maybe reach for cup if they want the cup Negate Describe event Indicate possession My ball Qualify Question Where mommy Where bal Regularization Errors made by children through overapplication of language rule Go through process of when they get better then worse and then better again Ex child will instead of learning how to say something in the past as a rule adding ed at the end of the word they will learn them as individual cases I walked I talked As they learn the rule part they will overuse the rule and therefore make common mistakes when there are exceptions to the rule Stages in the acquisition of irregular forms of past tense Monday November 9 2015 1 Irregular form used correctly sang 2 Regular form overgeneralized singed 3 lrregular form used correctly sang Neuropsychology of Language Language is often lateralized in the left hemisphere Generally true with righthanded subjects Less often true with lefthanded subjects Females are a little less lateralized than males Cerebral Cortex is the highest part of the brain and its basic function is to integrate the function It is basically a big sheet Going to find that language is right in the middle of the cerebral cortex because it is probably the most central function we have Many areas of the brain that are involved in the control of language each area do different thingsgt Where the area is located makes perfect sense based on what the bigger area of the brain in that location does Broca s Aphasia same as Nonfluent Aphasia Symptoms patient speaks with difficulty Few function words ex auxiliary verbs prepositions etc This is the same as nonfluent aphasia Usually a stroke that causes this Damage Broca s area frontal lobe near auditory cortex and motor cortex for mouth and face gt This is the part of the brain that controls speech Also have your knowledge of syntax here it is harder to see why this is where syntax would be housed in Monday November 9 2015 the brain WHY Frontal lobe is typically in charge of abstract roles just one part of it Syntax is sort of like the apparatus that you use to communicate so it is similar to the mouth and the tongue because you use the apparatus to make words and sentences VIDEO of man with this who can respond to the question with the correct words but he can t put them together into a sentence Dysarthria Symptoms patient speaks with reluctance and difficulty VIDEO The whole sentence will be there but very slowly stated and hard to understand Damage connection between Broca s area and motor cortex Person has capacity to make sentence but actually executing it is very challenging for them Anomia Further back in the brain and is very different than the other two Symptoms patient has difficult remembering wordsretrieving the names of category instances 1O