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Psych 345: Week 1

by: Diana Blanco
Diana Blanco


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These are week 1 notes.
Jonathon Brown
Class Notes
Psychology, social psychology
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Diana Blanco on Wednesday March 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psycho 345 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Jonathon Brown in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see in Psychlogy at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.


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Date Created: 03/30/16
University name: University of Washington Course name: Psychology 345 Lecture: 1 Date: 03/28/2016 Social Psychology:  The scientific study of how people think about, affect, and relate to one  another.  A. Principal Principles:  a. Subjective behaviors guide behaviors   i .     Phenomenology: The world “as it appears” guides behavior. Behavior  isn’t driven by what is, but rather what you think it is.  ii.   Personality + Situation influence subjective perceptions which influence  behavior.  B.  Situational Strength: a.   Strong situations  i.   Unambiguous situations with clear guidelines for behavior  1.   Ex: Funerals  b.   Weak situations i.   Ambiguous situations without clear guidelines for behavior  1.   Ex: Sports – Some view sports as a form of exercise, others view  sports as a test of character.  C.  Power of situation (Darley & Batson, 1973)  a.   Research Study: Seminary students were going to deliver a lecture across campus. A homeless man was placed in front of the doorway to see who would stop and  help the homeless man.  i.   Some subjects were told they were late and needed to hurry.  ii.   Some subjects were told they were on time.  iii.   Some subjects were told they were ahead of schedule  Results:  o Subjects ahead of schedule: 63% stopped and helped  o Subjects on time: 45% stopped and helped o Subjects late: 10% stopped and helped  Results show how seemingly small situational variations can have large  behavioral consequences.  Nature of Science:  A. Ways of Knowing a. Dogmatism: An idea is true if an authority days it is true  Example of authority: Church, Wikipedia, professor,  mother, etc. b. Rationalism: An idea is true if a logical analysis indicates that it MUST be true.  i. Descartes (1596 – 1650): “I think, therefore I am” c. Empiricism: An idea is true if it can be verified/experiences by our senses (sight,  touch) “seeing is believing”  i. Positivism:  An idea is true if It can be verified by the sensory experience  of any neutral people.  d. Science = Logical Positivism  “I think if I do this, this will happen”  o Example: I think if I throw this rock it will break the  window  ball is thrown and breaks the window.  B. Functions of Science a. Description: Describing a behavior/ describing what is.  b. Prediction: Predicting what will happen based on the observation.  i. Example: Iceland won’t have ice in 200 years. c. Explanation: Why a phenomena occurs.  i. David Hume (1711 – 1776) – Explanations are always inferences. d. Control: To gain power over or to take charge of a phenomena.  i. Example: If earth is warming, making a light rail will reduce  transportation.  C. Scientific Terminology  a. Variable: If there is variability, it is a variable i. Example: Height  b. Hypothesis: An educated guess on how two variables go together   c .     Law:  i. Example: Law of gravity  allows us to build a whole science around it  and is applicable.  d. Theory:  An educated guess on a broader phenomenon (the why).  i. Theories CANNOT be right or wrong, it is an explanation of a  phenomenon.  D. Scientific Process Theory Inductive Deductive Deductive Logic: From Logic general to specific. Logic Inductive Logic: From Observati Hypothesi specific to general. on s Researc h a. Evaluating Theories  i. Parsimony: “Complex knowledge should not be used when simple logic will suffice”.  ii. Breadth:  Broad, can explain many phenomena.   iii. Generativity: people need to WANT to use the theory in order to discover new things.  Stephen Hawking (1988, pp. 9­10)   “A good theory…must accurately describe a large class of observations on the basis of a model that contains a few…elements, and it must make  definite predictions about the results of future observations” Lecture: 2 Date: 03/30/2016 Research Methods: A. Correlational Research a. Passively observe the naturally­occurring association between two or more  variables  i. Components: o Measure two variables  o Calculate their association   Strength – Strong or weak association between two  variables   Direction – Positive or negative correlation ii. Understanding Correlations o Predictions can flow in both directions  Example: If a student comes to class often, I can predict  that student gets good grades OR If a student gets good  grades, I can predict that student comes to class often.  b. Correlation ≠ Causation  i. Three possible explanations for any observed correlation between two  variables:  o Causal hypothesis: x variable does cause the y variable o Reverse causation hypothesis: y variable causes x variable  o Third variable problem: Third variable, called z, affects x and y.  B. Experimental Research  a. Key aspects: i. Experimental control: Two or more variables that vary only with respect  to the independent variable (variable the experimenter manipulates). ii. Random Assignment: Every person in an experiment has an equal chance  of being assigned to any of the experimental conditions.  b. Random assignment = causality  i. Third variable problem:  o Using random assignment will eliminate variable z AND reverse  causation hypothesis.  C. Where We Conduct Research  a. Laboratory: Experimenter has control of environment (what and when it happens) i. Advantages: Very precise because of complete control  ii. Disadvantages: It is artificial, not natural/applicable to real world  b. Field: Experimenter does not have complete control of what and when it happens.  i. Advantages: Natural/applicable to real world  ii. Disadvantages: Lack of control D. Validity a. Internal Validity: Clearly shows that x is a cause of y  i. Example: Correlational research has low internal validity b. External Validity: The degree to which research findings can be generalized to  other participants and settings.  i. Example: Field study has high external validity  E. Factorial Designs a. Two (or more) independent variables are varied in the same experiment. i. Example: An experiment with two independent variables, each variable  with two levels.  ii. Example: 4 x 3 design: o Two variables:   Variable one: Class standing – 4 levels  i. Freshman, Sophomore, Junior, Senior  Variable two: Housing – 3 levels i. Dorm, Apartment, Home Dependent variable: How much time you study/week.  b. 2 main effects: 1 interaction  i. Main effect: When one independent variable affects the dependent  variable. ii. Interaction: The relation between two variables. There is an interaction if  the effect of one variable changes at different levels of the other variable.  Freshman  Senior Average Dorm 1.0 5.0 3.0 Home 4.0 6.0 5.0 Average 2.5 5.5  First Main Effect: On average, students who live at home study more than  students who live in a dorm.   Second Main Effect: On average, Seniors study more than Freshman If there is no interaction, it means Seniors study more than Freshman  regardless if they live at home or in a dorm, and vice versa.  Freshman  Senior Difference Dorm 1.0 5.0 4.0 Home 4.0 6.0 2.0 Difference 3.0 1.0  Interaction: Living arrangements for freshman makes a bigger difference  than for Seniors.  c. Weapon effect i. Berkowits & Lepage (1967) o Subjects were cast as the teacher in a teacher­learner paradigm    Half were insulted, the others were not   Next to subjects was either a shock generator, a gun, or a  badminton racket   Level of shock administered is the dependent variable o Results:   Presence of gun activates aggression only when insulted   One main effect: People who are insulted are more  aggressive than people who are not.  Theory 1: Chapter 2 A. Overview of Theories a. General principles that attempt to explain why to or more variables are related  a. Never right or wrong  b. Three criteria of a good theory: i. Parsimony: Clean, simple, not complex ii. Breadth: Broad, can explain many things  iii. Generativity: A theory people want to use  c. Grand Theories  i. Broad theories that include assumptions about human nature  1. Guiding Assumption 1: To help us understand human nature 2. Guiding Assumption 2: It is hard to find out what is inherently  good in someone  B. Origins of Knowledge  a. Are people born knowing anything or is experience the source of all knowledge? i. Nativists: Humans from birth have inherited psychological abilities that  allow them to learn and acquire certain skills ii. Empiricists: Humans acquire all knowledge through experience  b. John Locke (1632 – 1704) i. Psychology grew to test its ideas  ii. “There is nothing in the mind that was not first in the senses” c. Of Thoughts Unseen i. Associationism/Elementarism  1. The whole is equal to the sum of the parts a. One can only see an image if they have seen the parts  before  


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