History 3211 3211
Popular in Classical Greece
Popular in History
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Casey Eschenbach on Wednesday March 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 3211 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Greg Anderson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Classical Greece in History at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.
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Date Created: 03/30/16
3-24-16 Phase 2 Peloponnesian war: o 416destruction of Melos Athenians trying to get involved here—Melos has remained neutral throughout the war—wanted Melians to submit to them, they refused to do so—naturally aligned with Sparta, although remained neutral in the actual war Destroy Melos purely because they wouldn’t submit to Athens o 415Sicilian expedition Athenians get involved in Sicily to help their ally (s)egestadifferent because their people were native Sicilians (sicel) Coming over to help sicel from local dispute with selinusnot enough of a reason for them to come in—wanted to extend their alliance with their kinsmen (Ionian Greek states in Sicily) Want to extend Athenian empire into Sicily 134 triremes (ships), 5100 troops—this was a very large portion of their navy Nicias—appointed himself commander of this expedition but didn’t want to go himself—would leave themselves unprotected at home—says if they are going to do it, they should have much more support, more troops and ships, trying to dissuade them— end up going for it and the loss if much greater with far more casualties Nicias, Alcibiades, Lamachusthree leaders at the time—Nicias didn’t actually want to go to battle in Sicily—in over their heads Incidents: o Statues of Hermes (Herms) placed all over—not very lifelike except for face and crotch—very erect—all of these statues were mutilated Athenians blamed Alcibiades—very unlikely he was involved because he was getting himself ready for battle o Profanation of the mysteriesultimately this ceremony showed a secret of eternal life Parodying this event was a very serious thing Foreboding in the air Actively working against Athenian cause by telling the Spartans their plansAlcibiades o Spartans don’t like him either—he is flashy, pretty much anti-Spartan— don’t like his Athenian extravagance Alienated Spartans in aftermath of the peace of Nicias— undermined that peace—alliance with Argos that led to battle— pushed Argos to end alliance with Sparta Now has to persuade Spartans of his value to them—said he didn’t really believe in Athenian idea of democracy Tells of Athenian plans—hoping the war would be brought to an easy conclusion—not going to go to Sicily and hope that’s the end, they had many more plans to go against SpartaAlcibiades is talking very big to help himself—a lot of what he said was 1 3-24-16 greatly exaggerated—not actually going to attack Carthage or go to Italy Prone to lie to make the Spartans worried—more likely they will feel like they need him, he is valuable—much exaggeration, if not outright lying—that’s what the situation demands in order to help/save himself Spartans believe him and keep him for his advice—he tells them how to respond to Athenian war effort—Spartans authorize Peloponnesian war effort to Sicily in Gylippus Go for fortification in Attica itself—Decelea—he suggests this would be a great place for Spartans to establish a permanent base in Attica Sends Athenians back inside the walls—Athenians now all cooped up in the city for an extended period of time Alcibiades discusses why he should still be believed as a traitor to his home placebasically Athens is not what it used to be, no longer his country as he was unjustly driven from it—I represent the real Athens, not what is there now, Athens that drove me out is not the real Athens Tensions continue to grow, ends up being a showdown between Athens and Syracuse (Spartan aligned) o Athenians essentially try to defeat Syracuse by building a series of walls around Syracuse to protect themselves—Syracuse counters with their own walls—each trying to outdo the other—trying to position defenses against each other o This attempt to besiege Syracuse fails o Lamachus is now killed—only Nicias is in charge now, the guy who never wanted to be involved in the first place o Besiege does not succeed, Nicias delays 27 days before going home— Nicias cares a lot about signs declaring god’s support—delayed 27 days to wait for sufficient signs 2 major stresses—failure of expedition in Sicily and the people at home stuck inside the walls of Athens Nicias wants to try and blast his way out with as many men as possible, 27- day delay allows Syracuse to counter that, build up a defense—traps them in the harbor so Athenian navy cannot get out—Athenians end up losing most of their ships. Now they can’t even get home—all the can do is hope that they can somehow get away from Syracuse on foot and find a friendlier place to get help to get home o Only hope is to get across Sicily on foot and find somewhere safe o Demosthenes—gets half of the army when attempting to go on foot through Sicily—gets captured with 6000 men— surrender o Nicias soldiers on—get to a river and Syracuse pushes on them and they get to a river—Nicias and his soldiers thought once they reach the river everything will get better, exhausted and incredibly thirsty— everyone wanted to be the first one to cross, started trampling each other—many killed by their own spears in this 2 3-24-16 o Fighting each other to get to the water first, end up killing each other over it Syracusians sent spears flying from above, mutilating the Athenians Nicias ends up having to surrender Nicias and Demosthenes were both immediately executed— Nicias thought the Spartans would allow him to live, obviously didn’t work out Spartans hated Demosthenes-set up offense in Pylos o Athenians who survived everything were imprisoned in stone quarries Reasons Athenian could lose so catastrophically: o Not the best leaders—Nicias didn’t want to be there himself, wanted to be relieved, wouldn’t allow it, instead sent Demosthenes o Lose Alcibiades and Sparta gains him—advise them about Athenian strategy o Thucydides would blame this on Athenian democracy in general— almost inevitability of this happening because of Athenian democracy —systemic problem rather than the fault of specific individuals The people weren’t informed enough to make any type of good decision—people are ignorant and yet deciding for the good of the polis Leave the decisions in the hands of ignorant, uninformed Athenians, bad things will inevitably happen 3