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by: Mercedes Taylor

1305GeneralBiologyWeek9.pdf General Biology 1305

Mercedes Taylor
General Biology
Jennifer Apodaca

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General biology 1305 Week 9 Notes
General Biology
Jennifer Apodaca
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mercedes Taylor on Thursday November 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to General Biology 1305 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Jennifer Apodaca in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biology at University of Texas at El Paso.


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Date Created: 11/12/15
1305 General Biology Jennifer Apodaca Week 9 Notes Short Week 101915 Chapter 6 Metabolism l Enerqv of Life A The living cell is a miniature chemical factory where 1000 s of reactions are occurring B The cell extracts energy stored in sugars and other fuels and applies energy to perform work ll Metabolism A The sum of chemical processes happening in the organism at one time B Concerned with management of material and energy resources within the cell C Reactions can break down molecules into smaller units to build large molecules from smaller macromolecules D Metabolism a anabolic Reactions Pathways that consume energy to build large complicated molecules from simpler ones Photosynthesis E Metabolism a Catabolic Reactions Pathways that release energy by breaking down molecules in simpler compounds Cellular Respiration Introducinq ATP A Adenosine Triphosphate is the cellular currency for energy a it provides the fuel for the most cellular activities b ATP has a high potential energy and allows cells to do work c ATP works by Phosphorylating transferring a phosphate group target molecules d It is the cell s energy shuttle B In cell the electrons are the most important sources of chemical potential energy C The electrons in ATP have high potential energy because the four negative charges in it s phosphate group repel each other D ATP is composed of a ribose sugar b Adenine nitrogenous base c 3 phosphate groups E Hydrolysis of the bond between the two outermost phosphate groups results in formation of ADP and Pi H2PO4 in a highly exergonic reaction with 73 kcal 318 kJmol of energy released per mole of ATP hydrolyzed F Energy is released when ATP is hydrolyzed G Hydrolysis of the bond between the two outermost phosphate groups H The released phosphate group may be transferred to a protein Such phosphorylation usually causes a change in the protein s shape a A protein kinase is a kinase enzyme that modifies other proteins by chemically adding phosphate groups to them phosphorylation Phosphorylation usually results in a functional change of the target protein substrate by changing enzyme activity cellular location or association with other proteins IV Hydrolysis A The 3 types of cellular work are preceded by the hydrolysis of ATP a Mechanical b Transport c Chemical B In the cell the energy from the exergonic reaction of ATP hydrolysis can be used to drive an endergonic reactions C This is known as Energetic Coupling a b c d between endergonic and exergonic Allows chemical released from one reaction to drive another reaction Overall the coupled reactions are exergonic D ATP drives endergonic reactions by phosphorylation a b Phosphorylation the transferring of a phosphate group to some other molecule such as a reactant the recipient is now called Phosphorylated Intermediate E Transport and mechanical work in the cell are also powered by ATP hydrolysis a ATP hydrolysis leads to a change in protein shape and binding ability F The Regeneration of ATP a ATP is a renewable resource that is regenerated by addition of a phosphate group to adenosine diphosphate ADP The energy to phosphorylate ADP comes from catabolic reactions in the cell The ATP cycle is a revolving door through which energy passes during its transfer from catabolic to anabolic pathways G Living organism depend on reactions that occur spontaneously but at a very slow rate a 90 Catalyst substances that speed up the reactions without being permanently altered no catalyst makes a reaction occur that cannot othenNise occur An enzyme is a catalytic protein Most biological catalysts are proteins enzymes A few are RNA molecules ribozymes f Hydrolysis of sucrose by the enzyme sucrase is an example of an enzymecatalyzed reaction H Enzymes are highly specific each are catalyzes only one chemical reaction a reactants are substrates they bind to specific sites on the enzyme active site b Specificity results from the exact 3D shape and chemical properties of the active site c The enzymes substrate complex E8 is held together by Hydrogen bonding electrical attractions or temporary covalent bonding l The Activation Energy Barrier every chemical reactions between molecules involve bond breaking and bond forming a The initial energy needed to start a chemical reaction is called the free energy of activation or Activation Energy EA b Activation Energy is often supplied in the form of thermal energy that the reactant molecules absorb from their surroundings J Enzymes are one or more mechanisms to catalyze a reaction a Inducing strain bonds in the substrate are stretched putting it in an unstable transition state b substrate Orientation substrates are brought together so that bonds can form c Adding chemical group R groups may be directly involved in the reaction K Enzyme 3D structure is very specific that they bind only one or few related substrates a Many enzymes change shape when the substrate binds b The binding is like a baseball in a catcher s mitt The enzyme changes shape to make the binding tight like induced fit L Some enzymes require ions or other molecules cofactors in order to function a Metal ions b Coenzymes add or remove chemical groups from the substrate They can participate in reactions with many different enzymes c Prosthetic groups non amino acid groups permanently bound to their enzymes V What is a Redox Reduction A ReductionOxidation reactions are a class of reactions that involve the loss or gain of an electron Drive the formation of ATP a An atom that loses one or more electrons gt Oxidized b An atoms that gains one or more electrons Reduced B During redox reduction electrons can be transferred completely from one atom to another or they can simply shift their positions in covalent bonds C Oxidation events are always coupled with reduction and electron donor always paired with reactant that acts as an electron acceptor


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