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Farmers and Foragers

by: Xiong Notetaker

Farmers and Foragers anthropology 103

Xiong Notetaker
GPA 3.2
Introduction to archeology
Laura Villamil

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About this Document

these notes are on how and why humans went from foragers to farmers
Introduction to archeology
Laura Villamil
Class Notes
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Xiong Notetaker on Thursday November 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to anthropology 103 at University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee taught by Laura Villamil in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 14 views.

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Date Created: 11/12/15
11915 Cultural changes through time There are two goals on how culture changes through time 1 Components of culture 0 Substance and economic system 0 Social structure and organization or how people relate to each other 0 Political organization and forces of authority and leaders Ideology 2 Evolution of cultures 0 Understanding how societies change and how some societies were not affected by the change Components of cultures economics The interrelated systems of extraction production distribution and consumption of resources There are three broad categories of economic systems in a society 1 Foraging pastoralism and cultivation 2 Subsistence or adaptive economy 3 Craft specialization production distribution and consumption of resources Subsistence There are two broad subjects under subsistence economies 1 Food procures hunters and gathers 2 Food producers farmers and ranchers that need land to mover around Food procures 97 of modern human history was foraging and hunting for the next meal Now days they are practically gone and archeologist that want to study past foraging and hunting societies will either go to existing foraging and hunting societies or study the past seasonality of migration and mating patterns of past species to get a better understanding how the past hunters and gathers lived and settled Evidence that archeologist look for in hunter and gathers o By looking at regional levels they look for sites that indicate what they would be used for This can be like areas that male hunters butchered animals Artifacts like spearheads and arrowheads The taphonomy of ecofacts Food producers Domestication the intervention of human activity in animal and plant reproductive cycles This results in the evoulutnary distancing of the current species of plants and animals to the point in which the plant or animal is dependent on humans for most of their needs This in essence creates a symbiotic relationship between the human and the domesticated plants and animals How agriculture came to be Modern humans appeared at the end of the Pleistocene around 200 or 150 thousand years ago In this time most hunter and gather groups were egalitarian individuals This all changed around 10 thousand years ago with the mistake of having a seed being tossed into a garbage heap The evidence By looking at the stone tools that are present If the stone tool is large and hefty then it would indicate that the group associated with these tools was hunting and butchering large terrestrial animals If any nding of small tools and specialized tool like a burrir tool which made smaller tools then the group associated these types were hunting smaller game and maybe some cultivation Neolithic The Neolithic began 12 to 10 KYA This is the rst sign of domestication and agriculture Domestication origins varied around the world SW Asia 12KYA Americas 5KYA Everywhere else 7 8KYA How domestication and agriculture happened 1 Unintentional management of resources like the trapping animals and bringing back wild grasses back to camps 2 Intentional management of resources like trapping pups and taming them or the intentional burning of grass elds to enrich the ground for next season od harvesting Evidence for domestication in animals 0 High mortality rate of pups The ndings of skeleton changes Evidence for domestication in plants Morphological changes Genetics 0 Timing of seeding 0 Features for farming like silos One last thing to note is to look at the map where animals was domesticated


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