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Chapter 10- Visual Imagery

by: Aimee Castillon

Chapter 10- Visual Imagery PSYC317

Marketplace > George Mason University > Psychlogy > PSYC317 > Chapter 10 Visual Imagery
Aimee Castillon
GPA 3.61

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Chapter 10 lecture notes
Cognitive Psychology
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aimee Castillon on Thursday November 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC317 at George Mason University taught by Wiese in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in Psychlogy at George Mason University.


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Date Created: 11/12/15
Organization name Student name Cognitive Psychology PSYC 317 • Fall 2015 Heading: 11/10/15 Notes: Visual Imagery   Introduction    ­ mental imagery­ ​ experience a sensory impression in the absence of    sensory input    ­ functions    ­ Helps create insight     ­ Supports scientific discovery    ­ Assists in solving problems     ­ Adds another dimension to purely verbal thinking    ­ visual imagery­  ​seeing in the absence of a visual input    History of imagery    ­ mental imagery as big controversy    ­ basic elements of consciousness    ­ imageless thought debate    ­ behaviorists not interested in imagery    ­ cognitive methods to measure imagery    ­ pair­associated learning    ­ conceptual­peg hypothesis (Paivio, 1963)  Conceptual­peg hypothesis  ­ Memory for pairs of concrete nouns better than  for abstract noun  ­ Concrete nouns create mental images the  words can hang onto    ­ mental chronometry (Shepard & Meltzer, 1971)    ­ Measuring time needed to execute mental rotations   Mental chronometry  ­ Time on task was directly correlated with angle  experiment  between two views    Imagery and Perception  ­ Mental scanning (Kosslyn, 1980)  ­ memorize object and create mental image in your mind  ­ do imagery and perception share the same mechanisms?  ­ Mental images are not as long­lasting and less vivid       ­ Spatial correspondence between imagery and perception     ­ Finding distant parts of the object should take longer  ­ is imagery spatial or propositional  Mental scanning  experiment                            ­   ­ propositional= ​  relationships are represented by symbols  ­ tacit­knowledge explanation  ­ When scanning images, people use pre­existing knowledge  ­ Knowledge is unconsciously used  ­ Propositional approach can also explain Kosslyn’s findings  ­ Propositional approach stimulated more research  ­   Evidence for spatial resolution  ­ size of the visual field (Kosslyn, 1978)  ­   ­ does relationship between viewing distance and the ability to  perceive details occur for mental images?  ­   ­ Imagine two animals – a large one and a small one Does the  rabbit have whiskers?  ­ Mental­walk task​ ­ Move towards the animal and indicate  when experiencing overflow   ­ spatial representation  ­ interaction of imagery and perception (Perky, 1910)  ­   ­ actual image is mistaken for mental image  ­ if imagery and perception share mechanisms they should  interact  ­ Farah, 1985    Imagery and the brain  ­ neuroanatomy of visual imagery  ­   ­ imagery neurons­ ​ fire both when a stimulus is perceived and  imagined  ­ brain imaging of the striate cortex (LeBihan et al. 1993)  ­   ­ perception and imagery both activate the visual cortex  ­ overlapping brain areas for perception and imagery  ­   ­ results of brain scans of frontal and parietal lobes  ­ Almost complete overlap between imagery and perception network   ­ No difference in activation for frontal and parietal areas  ­ Stronger activation in occipital lobe for perception than for imagery  ­ transcranial magnetic stimulation  ­   ­ what is causing imagery?  ­ lesion studies  ­ mental­walk task before and after operation  ­   ­ removing parts of visual cortex reduces image size  ­ perception problems associated with imagery issues  ­ overlap of functionality  ­ People who have lost the ability to see c ​olor​ are also unable  to create colors through imagery   ­ Neglecting  one side of the visual field is seen in perception  and visual imagery  ­ double dissociation between imagery and perception  ­   ­ RM  ­ Imagery impaired   ­ Damage to occipital and parietal lobe   ­ Problem drawing imagined objects   ­ Problems verifying sentences  ­ CK  ­ Perception impaired   ­ Problems recognizing objects  ­ No problem drawing imagined objects  ­ perception and imagery overlap only partially  ­   ­ Perception is located at both lower and higher visual centers Imagery  is located mainly in higher visual centers   ­ difference between imagery and perception  ­ debate is still ongoing  ­ most evidence suggests that imagery and perception are closely  related  ­ Manipulation of mental images is harder than manipulation of visual  images  Using imagery to improve memory  ­ visualizing interacting images  ­   ­ memory for word pairs is better if the objects interact  ­ placing images at locations  ­   ­ method of loci​ ­ things are placed at different locations in mental  image of spatial layout 


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