Diversity I Notes Week 11
Diversity I Notes Week 11 210
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jacob Erle on Thursday November 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 210 at Syracuse University taught by Dr. Justine Weber in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Diversity of Life I in Foreign Language at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 11/12/15
Diversity of Life Notes Week 11 111015 Early vascular plants all but extinct but not before giving rise to seedless vascular plants of Carboniferous Period cimate very warm humid and large amount of oxygen in atmosphere great time for radiation of plant diversity by the end of Carboniferous climate become cold and dry l evolutionary force for evolution of seed Origin of seed plantsconifers l Permian Period 286 MYA formation of Pangaea caused by consolidating of continents dryer climate means less water for reproduction reduction in seedless vascular plants rise of early seed plants 3rCI mass extinction event wipes out 95 of all life on Earth gt90 marine life pants were relatively unscathed plant families of Carboniferous still have representatives after Permian extinction Evidence seen in fossil record and geologic analysis Note Extinctions do NOT wipe out selected species but rather sweep the whole playing eld Triassic Period 248 MYA dry inland environment a time for more spectacular innovations l perfection of the E source of food and protection of embryo prior to seedling self sufficiency dispersed by various agents allows for distant colonization contributes to explore various niches dominated by seed plants seedess vascular plants downgraded to lesser ecological roles due to reduction in habitat space Seed plants Phyla with extant representatives 1Cycadophyt 2Ginkgophyta 3Coniferophyt Gymnosperms 1000sp naked seed plants ovules not e closed 4Gnetophyta 5Anthophyta I Angiosperms gt300000sp fruit and ower bearing plants 1 Cycadophyta cycads most dominant during Jurassic Period quotAge of the Cycadsquot 300 living species today 10 genera morphoogy hasn t changed much over the last 150million years Very thickstiff compound and leathery leaves relates to dry climate typicaly unbranched stout woody stems suggish wood formation don t produce a lot of cambium dry climate slow growth can live for 1000 years distribution is tropical to subtropics repro structures huge cones no owers around yet See Zamia pumia 2Ginkgophyta peaked during Jurassic Period 213 MYA worldwide distribution based on fossil record shrank by 2MYA not seen after the last Ice Age rediscovered 1000YA only living member Ginkgo biloba Fanike bilobed and leathery leaves highly branched morphoogy has been relatively unchanged since Jurassic excelent street tree and landscape tree resistant to pollution and pests ongived 2500years See Ginkgo Petri ed Forest State Park AZ 3Gnetophyta 70 living species 3 genera Gnetum Ephedra and WeWitschia found in tropical to arid regions Morphologically different but look like angiosperms and have owerlike reproductive features not owers but de nitely not cones either dispersed by animal pollinators ies wasps Sister of angiosperms Biomedical importance see Ephedra sinca ephedrine methamphetamine banned in April 2004 structure changed to Pseudoephedrine HCI Albuterol 4 Coniferophyta conifers 627 species most ecologically and economically important of Gymnosperms form extensive forests in many colder regions provide lumber for homes wood for many other uses habitats for wildlife forests improve air we breathe producing oxygen in take in C02 Research at ESF Male Gametophyte Development and Evolution in Extant Gymnosperms Fernando et al 2010 Conclusions majority of dominant families didn t go extinct but were reduced to lesser ecological role or replaced by related families mass extinction events had little effect at higher taxonomic scales pant clades demonstrate incredible taxonomic resilience across faunal mass extinctions owing to the wide array of morphological anatomical and physiological traits 111215 Gymnosperms Araucaria araucana monkeypuzzle tree found primarily in Central Chile Razor blade foliage seeds are extensively harvested for eating Toerate cold temperatures down to 4 F Metasequoia glyptostroboides dawnredwood quotMetasequoiaquot like a sequoia described as species from fossil record in 1941 and was discovered living in mountains of China during the same year decidu0us conifer one of the most coldhardy widey planted found behind old greenhouse now is 200 tall but could get up to 300 tall Picea abies Norway spruce common spruce of Europe wide geographic range and major timber species in central Europe best wood used for string instruments very commonly planted in US annua Xmas tree cut down in Syracuse to be put in Franklin Square very large cones size of corn cobs Pinus pinea stone pine found in Mediterranean realy big cones used and cultivated for edible nuts since prehistoric days beautifu ornamental Pinus sylvestris Scotch pine widest geographically distributed range of all pines found in Europe and Asia 2 d most widely used Xmas tree behind only Norway spruce has distinct orange upper bole Taxus cuspdata Japanese yew all plant parts except red fruit are deadly poisonous even the seed Wollemi nobilis Wollemi pine not a true pine previously known only from fossil evidence found in Australia in 1994 and range was set aside for National Park ab0ut 100 adults in the Wild found in temperate rainforest not tropical Conifers native to North America Abies fraseri Fraser fir highly valued Xmas tree in US Endemic to Southern Appalachia balsam wooly adelgid is decimating their range Calocedrus decurrens incensecedar used for pencils shingles found in very dry areas seen in El Capitan Yosemite National Park Chamaecyparis la wsoniana Po rtOrfo rdceda r very valuable wood said to be more underground in japan than above ground in US used heavily for caskets Cupresus macrocarpa Monterey cypress natural range is only around perimeter of Carmel Bay in CA Picea engemannii Engelmann spruce named after George Engelmann botanist seen all over the Rocky Mountains the blue pine tree of the West Picea pungens Coloradoblue spruce found out West but also planted frequently in the East most commonly planted spruce in East because it has high drought tolerance imited natural range found along streams in Rockies range from bright silver to dark green foiage is painfully sharp can actually draw blood if pricked very dense thickets Picea sitchensis Sitka spruce biggest spruce in the world used in musical instruments timber in Asia discovered in Sitka area with 1215 of precipitation a year Syracuse gets 39quot per year major component of Paci c Northwest rainforest Pinus eduis lodgepole pine main fuel source for wild res but regenerates quickly cones are somewhat serotinous very dense thickets pine beetle has killed off a decent amount of them Pinus eduis pinyon pine edibe in Native American cultures primary protein source occurs in dry habitats at lower elevations in the Southwest dominates landscape often seen as shrub see Leopold s pesto recipe Pinus lambertina sugar pine biggest pine in the world and really big cones very sweet resin laxative seen in California and Oregon Pinus longaeva Great Basin bristlecone pine odest tree in the world 5500 years old Pinus paustris longleaf pine vauabe for harvesting found in Deep South main associate is wire grass longleaf pine wiregrass savanna 99 removed from US for pine plantations but is most species rich natural community in US every 20ft2 has different plant species seen in North Carolina 12 different pitcher plants Venus y traps orchids fern snakes peatlands Pinus ponderosa ponderosa pine has the greatest distribution of any conifer in North America dominates montane zone in Rockies and Sierra mountains aso planted in Thornden park but gets MUCH larger out West very drought tolerant bark smells like vanilla when peeed Note jeffrey pine smells like pineapple Pinus radiata Monterey pine Most commonly planted in New Zealand invasive to North America Pinus taeda loblolly pine used a lot for paper found in the South also used for telephone poles Pseudotsuga menziesii Douglas r most important timber tree in North America wood is some of the nest quality used for telephone poles construction found naturally out West Mt St Helens also good Xmas tree found planted in huge plantations which comes at the cost of natural trees that would otherwise exist there very commonly associated with spotted owl Sequoia sempervirens coastal redwood talest tree in the world 658 ft people have actually climbed to the top to measure it oodplain tree bark is thick enough to stick your entire head in between the furrows can take several days to cut down location for lming Endor in Return of the jedi highy rot resistant Sequoidendron giganteum Giant sequoia most massive organism in the world branches are 7 feet in diameter that are 130 above the ground can get up to 3000 years old 2500 houses constructed out of 1 tree see General Sherman tree Taxodium distchum baldcypress found in standing water swamps 10 deep in the Deep South permanently ooded odest living in eastern US 2200 years deciduous conifer produce pneumatophores could help baldcypress with anchorage structural support that are over 6 tall not seen on highlands rather a characteristic of site in standing water Taxus brevifoia Paci c yew becoming endangered in Paci c Northwest Thuja picata western redcedar up to 20 in diameter very rot resistant wood used for telephone pones and canoes for Native Americans Torreya taxifoia Florida torreya very limited distribution endemic to FL Conifers that are native or naturalized in NYS Abies balsamea Balsam fir found in Nelson swamp boreal forest species Characteristic spirelike growth form quot r wavesquot crescent shaped gray bands dead fir trees found across mountain ranges Chamaecrparis thyoides Atlantic whitecedar native to Long Island New Jersey pine barrens juniperus communis common juniper used for making gin most widely distributed juniper in the world seen in Siberia juniperus hoizontais horizontal juniper commony planted as ground cover juniperus virginiana eastern redcedar very salt tolerant aggressive colonizer dominates old elds in Midwest Larix laricina ta ma ra c k deciduous conifer found in peatlands of boreal forests Picea glauca white spruce not found much further south past Watertown mostly seen in boreal regions Picea mariana black spruce sowest growing tree in North America see Cicero Swamp Picea rubens red spruce most common spruce planted in NYS used for lumber was most common species in Adirondacks before extensive harvesting Pinus banksana jack pine cones are serotinous don t open unless re is around found in the most infertile sites not the prettiest of trees Pinus resinosa red pine re adapted thick bark Pinus rigida pitch pine re adapted pine bush of Albany also seen in NJ Pine barrens boe can reproduce and sprout after re gets to about 400years old Pinus strobus eastern white pine single most important timber species in Northeast used in logging up to 465years old right now Nelson swamp Pinus virginiana Virginia pine not really seen in NYS much Taxus canadensis American yew deer love this tree really successful only on steepest slops where deer can t get to it Thuja occidental5 Northern whitecedar odest living tree in Eastern US 15001700 years old good indicator of calcium rich soils see Clarks reservation common for landscape aso liked by deer Tsuga canadensis eastern hemlock hammered by hemlock wooly adelgid good landscape plant